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Notes on sets

1 Sets
1.1 Introduction to Sets
1.2 Properties
1.3 The axioms
The axiom of Existence There exists a set which has no elements

The Axiom of Extensionality If for every element, the element is


in X iff its in Y , the X = Y .
The Axiom Schema of Comprehension Let P (x) be a property of
x. For any set A, there is a set B such that x ∈ B iff x ∈ A ∧ P (x).

The Axiom of Pair If A, B are sets so is {A, B}.


S
The Axiom of Union For any set S, S is a set.
The Axiom of Power Set If S is a set then PS is also a set.
The axiom of infinity An inductive set exists.

Note that we could replace the axiom of existence by Weak axiom of


existence and define the emptyset using schema of Comprehension.

2 Relations, Functions, and Orderings


Definition 1. Field of R
If R is a relation we define

field(R) := dom R ∪ range(R)

Definition 2. Linear/total ordering


An ordering ≤ or < is called linear if any two elements of an underlying
set are comparable.

Definition 3. Chain
Let B ⊆ A where A is ordered by ≤. B is a chain in A if any two
elements of B are comparable.

3 Natural numbers
Definition 4. The successor of a set
For any set x we define:

S(x) := x ∪ {x}

1
Definition 5. Inductive set
We call a set I inductive if
1. ∅ ∈ I
2. If n ∈ I then S(n) ∈ I.
Definition 6. Natural numbers
We define natural numbers as intersection of all inductive sets.
Definition 7. Relation < on N
We define:
n < m ⇐⇒ n ∈ m
Theorem 1. Induction principle
Let P (x) be a property. Assume that
1. P (0) holds, and:
2. For all n ∈ N, P (n) =⇒ P (n + 1)
Then P holds for all natural numbers.
Proof. We have:
A := {n ∈ N : P (n)}
which is inductive, thus:
N⊆A

Theorem 2. Induction principle II


If P (k) holds for all k < n, then ∀ n ∈ N : P (n).
Proof. Consider a property Q(x) := ∀ k : k < x =⇒ P (x).

1. Clearly Q(0) holds.

2. If Q(n) holds then P (n) holds, but then Q(n + 1) holds.

Definition 8. Well-ordering
We call a linear ordering a well-ordering if every non-empty subset has
a least element.

4 Finite, Countable, and Uncountable Sets


Important observation, for any finite ordered set (A, <), if card(A) =
card(B) then (A, <) ∼
= (B, <).

2
5 Cardinal Numbers
Bla, bla 2ℵ0 , bla

6 Ordinal Numbers
Definition 9. Transitive set
A set T is transitive if every element of T is a subset of T .
Definition 10. Ordinal number
A set α is an ordinal number if:

1. α is transitive
2. α is well-ordered by α
Theorem 3. If α is an ordinal then S(α) is also an ordinal.
Proof. First transitivity:
x ∈ S(α)
gives two possible cases:

1. x ∈ α then x ⊆ α and thus x ⊆ S(α)


2. x = α then clearly x ⊆ S(α)
If we have non-empty subset B, then either {α} = B, and we have
obvious smallest element or B \ {α} ⊆ α, thus by the fact that α is
well-ordered, there exists the smallest element.

Theorem 4. Every natural number is an ordinal


Proof. Previous theorem.
Definition 11. Order on ordinals
If α, β are ordinal, we define:

α < β ⇐⇒ α ∈ β

Definition 12. Addition on ordinals


Let α be ordinal, then:

α+0=α
β + S(α) = S(β + α) For all α
β + α = sup{β + γ : γ < α} for all limit α 6= 0