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0 Introduction

Zulita (2016) claimed that findings from the Microsoft Asia EduTech Survey 2016,
which polled close to 200 educators in the Asia Pacific, revealed that while almost all
educators (96 per cent) are already influencing technology decisions in their work,
nearly all of them (97 per cent) wish to do more. In others words, nowadays the
educators agree that technology plays an important role in improving their teaching
and learning lesson. It is undeniable that the youngsters today are digital expertise.
By applying technology in classroom, the pupils will arise their interest in the learning
process and take account of their own learning. Implicitly, the application of
technology in education not only benefits the pupils, but also eases the burden of the

2.0 Concept of Innovation

Ioan, Gheorghe & Monica (2010) advocated that innovation is the capacity to
innovate which therefore represents the ability of continuously making knowledge
and ideas into new products, processes and systems, both in the benefit of the
organization and of the shareholders. In the context of education, it is the ability to
create the ideas of teaching into new products to benefit the students and also
teachers themselves. John Schumpeter (1930) as cited in ( Ioan, Gheorghe &
Monica, 2010) suggested that innovation is introducing a new product or
modifications brought to an existing product. If this concept of innovation is brought
into education field, it means introducing a modification of teaching brought to an
existing way of teaching. In terms of my project “ Spyro The Snake”, it has adopted
the concept of innovation as it is a digital software creation that modify the current
method of teaching of subject verb agreement rules. By adopting this software in the
classroom, the pupils are able to use the subject verb agreement rules accurately.

3.0 Trialogical Learning

Trialogical Learning is clearly influenced by knowledge, both starting from

technology-enhanced collaborative learning and both aiming to sustain students in
creating knowledge artifacts together (Nadia & Kai, 2016). In terms of this project,
trialogical learning approach is adopted by starting from the application of interactive
e-learning software in teacher’s teaching and aiming to sustain the pupils
understanding of subject verb agreement rules. By adopting trialogical learning
approach, there are some important principles that need to be applied as follow:

 The teaching activity is organised around subject-verb agreement grammar
rules. Throughout the learning process, keep the learners aware of the
correct usage of rules.

 After using the interactive digital interactive software “Spyro The Snake”, one
has to be able to construct their own understanding of subject verb
agreement rules, discuss it individually or collectively and reflect on the
learning process of oneself or one’s group.

 During the activity, the knowledge of subject verb agreement rules need to be
applied further in subsequent enrichment activities and vice versa.

 The subsequent enrichment activity is organised so that the subject verb

agreement rule is enhanced and improved through discussion and practices
of grammar rules in their writing.

(Sami, n.d.)

4.0 Background Of Innovation Project

The innovation project “ Spyro The Snake” is developed when I discovered the
subject verb agreement rules problems among Year 5 pupils during my practicum.
Any mistakes regarding the subject-verb agreement will definitely change the
meaning of the sentence (Gramatical Error, 2018). This shows that good usage of
subject verb agreement is a requirement of a good writing. Thus, pupils need to
aware of subject verb agreement rules so that they can convey their messages
clearly and ease the communication of ideas. With regard to this, “Spyro The Snake”
interactive e-learning software is developed to help the pupils in usage of subject
verb agreement rules and implicitly improve their writing.

4.1 Objectives of Innovation Project

This innovation project is developed to help improving the pupils’ usage of subject
verb agreement rules.

5.0 Development Process Of Innovation (ADDIE Model)

5.1 Analysis

During analysis, the learning problem (subject verb agreement) is identified as well
as the goals and objectives of the project is decided which is to help the pupils to
improve their subject verb agreement rules. Additionally, the pupils’ needs and

interests, existing knowledge, english proficiency level, learning environment, time
constraints are also considered when developing this innovation.

5.2 Design

Moving on to the design phase, detailed storyboards and prototypes are made in
relation to the story “ Spyro The Snake”, and the graphic design, user-interface and
content of innovation is also determined here. The design of content of the
application will be divided into two parts in which the first part is on designing the
cartoon story entitled “Spyro The Snake” and the second part is on designing
interactive game. The content of the story is as below:

Once, there lived a snake named ‘Spyro’ who lived with his 4 friends, ‘I’, ‘You’,
‘We’ and ‘They’. One day, Spyro ate an 3 apples labelled ‘He’, ‘She’, ‘It’ from
‘HeSheIt’ tree and became the strongest animal in the jungle. He became
very proud and 4 of his friends hated and left him. Spyro was very greedy and
searched for ‘HeSheIt’ tree until he died.

From the story, it can be explained with the rule: ‘I’, ‘You’, ‘We’ and ‘They’ hated
Spyro, thus these four subjects cannot be followed by ‘s’. However, because of Spyro
keep searching for ‘HeSheIt’ tree, ‘He’, ‘She’ and ‘It’ should be followed by verb with

For first part, it is aimed to provide understanding on the correct using of subject verb
agreement rule through the story. For the second part, practices in the form of game
are planned to provide opportunities to the user to practice using the grammar rules.

5.3 Development

Next, in the development phase, the actual creation of the content and learning
materials are created using the software “Scratch” based on the storyboards and
prototypes in the design phase.

5.4 Implementation

The application is distributed to 12 respondents range from 22-24 years old. During
implementation, the interactive e-learning software “ Spyro The Snake” is converted
to exe file format so that everyone is able to access and try the software without
needing the scratch software. From this, the programme is also user-friendly where
the user do not need to download the scratch programme and can directly access to

the file. After trying the programme, the effectiveness of the training materials is
evaluated through online google form through the shared link in whatsapp.

5.5 Evaluation

Summative evaluation is used to gain the feedback from the user after trying the
programme. Google form is required to be filled by the user. The questions in google
form are based on the aspect of technical, design, multimedia element and
curriculum (Refer appendices)

From the technical aspect, 91.7 % of the users agree that the application is
well-functioned and all users (100 %) claimed that the background music is clear.

From the design aspect, 11 respondents agree that the multimedia elements
such as font sizes, graphics, images and animation are clearly presented. All
respondents also agreed that the game is interactive.

Besides, from the aspect of curriculum, all respondents agreed that the
content of the application is in line with English syllabus and curriculum and suits the
objectives of learning. 3 respondents agree that the application provides practices
towards understanding subject verb agreement rules while 9 respondents strongly
agree with that.

From the marketability aspect, 83.3% of respondents strongly recommend

this application by claiming that the application is marketable.

To conclude, this application applies the trialogical learning approach where it

involves the interactive element and provides understanding towards subject verb
agreement rules.

6.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, ‘Spyro The Snake’ application is designed based on trialogical learning

approach as it involves the interaction between pupils, teacher and application.
These interactive elements not only will helps the pupils to engage with their own
learning but also build their interest in learning the grammar rules. However, based
on the suggestion from feedback form, sound effect for the character animation
should be included, for instance the dialogue between the characters which will
increase the engagement of the pupils while learning subject verb agreement rules.
Overall, the application can be strongly recommended to the English teacher who
intends to facilitate the grammar learning on subject verb agreement rule.


Ioan, L. P., Gheorghe, P. & Monica, B. (2010). A Theoretical Approach Of The

Concept Of Innovation. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from

Nadia, S. & Kai, H. (2016). Cultivating Knowledge-Creating Competencies

Through Socio-Digital Participation. Retrieved March 27, 2019, from

Sami Paavola. (n.d.). Trialogical Learning Design. Retrieved March 27, 2019, from

The Significant Grammatical Error Subject Verb Agreement English Language

Essay. (2018). Retrieved March, 2019, from

Zulita Mustafa. (2016, March 25). The Role Of Technology In Transforming The
Classroom. New Straits Times. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from


Figures below show the first part of the application which is the introduction of the
story “Spyro The Snake” to relate the story to the subject verb agreement rule.

Figure below depicts the second part of application which is the interactive game
section to provide practices on using subject verb agreement rule learnt from the
story in first part.