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Industrial Safety / 15 ME 662

INDUSTRAIL SAFETY
VTU Question Bank with Solutions

Sixth semester B E June/July 2018

MODULE- 01
1. Define the following terms as related to Industrial safety: Accident, Slip, Trip
and Fall. VTU (08Marks)
2. Mention any six unsafe acts and unsafe conditions that lead to Industrial
accidents. VTU (08Marks)
3. Briefly discuss the safety climbing guidelines while using ladders. VTU
(08Marks)
4. List and briefly discuss the eight steps for safer Lockout/ Tagout programs.
VTU (08Marks)
5. Write short notes on the following i) Hazard (ii) safety device (iii) MSDS (iv) OSHA
MQP (08Marks)
6. What are the various unsafe acts near our house keeping surroundings? Explain.
MQP (08Marks)
7. Write down the short case study about the road safety? MQP (08Marks)
8. Write a short note on safety sampling techniques? MQP (08Marks)
9. What are the types of standard used in occupation safety and hygiene? MQP
(08Marks)
10. Discuss different safety organizations and their role and objectives. MQP (08Marks)
11. With a suitable case study discuss about the safety measure for lab and campus
layout. MQP (08Marks)

12. Explain the various risks involved in working at height using (i) Scaffolds (ii)
Ladders. MQP (08Marks)

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MODULE- 02
1. List the various types/classes of fire, their extinguishers and their working
principles. VTU (08Marks)
2. List the main objectives of fire safety. VTU (08Marks)
3. Briefly discuss the fire triangle. VTU (03Marks)
4. Explain the steps to be taken after the occurrence of fire. VTU (05Marks)
5. Discuss the various types of fire detectors generally used in a power plant. VTU
(08Marks)
6. Discuss the common causes of industrial fires. MQP (08Marks)
7. Describe the classification of fire loads? MQP (08Marks)
8. With the help of suitable case study explain the cause of fire. MQP (08Marks)
9. Explain some fire detection alarm system. MQP (08Marks)
10. What are the significant of fire fighting system? How the fire accident can be
prevented? MQP (08Marks)

MODULE- 03
1. What are the safety precautions to be taken while storing a compressed gas
cylinder? (08Marks)
2. Discuss briefly the storage, handling and decontamination plan for a waste drum
of a hazardous substance. (08Marks)
3. Explain the safety precautions to be taken during welding. (08Marks)
4. What procedure is to be followed while disposing an empty hydrocarbon
container? (08Marks)
5. Write short notes on the following.
(i) PPE (ii) Machines Safety tools (iii) Safety for compressed Gas cylinders (iv)
Safety for welding MQP (16Marks)

6. What are the various Mechanical hazards in industry. Explain MQP (08Marks)
7. What are the various safety tools required for lathe operation. MQP (08Marks)
8. What are the various safety tools required for grinding operation. MQP (08Marks)

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MODULE- 04
9. What are primary and secondary electric shocks? Discuss the effect of electric
current on human body. (08Marks)
10. Discuss various safety precautions to be taken in small and residential building
installations against electrical hazard. (08Marks)
11. Discuss the process of achieving electrically safe work conditions. (08Marks)
12. Discuss various safety procedures and paper work to be enforced while
commissioning operation and maintenance of electrical installation in an
electrical plant. (08Marks)

MODULE- 05
13. List the inspection criteria check list for piping in an LPG installation.
(08Marks)
14. Discuss the safety precautions for vehicular use of CNG. (08Marks)
15. List the various questions to be asked during an accident investigation.
(08Marks)
16. Discuss the objectives for safety, health and environment protection of the
company. (08Marks)

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SOLUTIONS

MODULE- 01

1. Define the following terms as related to Industrial safety: Accident,


Slip, Trip and Fall. (08Marks)

Accident

Definition: Dictionary meaning of “Accident‟ is an unexpected event or


mishap. It is defined as an event that is not expected, intended or imagined. It
refers the event not the result or effect.

An accident is unintended, unplanned event or its sequence caused by unsafe


condition(s) or/and unsafe act(s) and may result in immediate or delayed
undesirable effects.

Five 'E's of Accident Prevention

1. Education & Training (To prevent unsafe acts)


2. Engineering controls (to prevent unsafe conditions)
3. Enforcement (of safety rules)
4. Enthusiasm (to maintain interest)
5. Example setting (to lead for safety)

Slip

Definition: Too little friction or traction between feet (footwear) &


walking/working surface, resulting in loss of balance.

Some common causes of slips are: ƒ

 Spills ƒ
 Hazards created from weather (e.g., puddles, ice) ƒ
 Surfaces that are wet or oily ƒ
 Loose rugs or mats

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Trip

Definition: Foot or lower leg hits object & upper body continues moving,
resulting in loss of balance. Stepping down to lower surface & losing balance

Common causes of tripping are: ƒ

 Clutter on the floor (e.g., power cords, boxes) ƒ


 Poor lighting ƒ
 Uneven walking surfaces (e.g., carpeting, steps, thresholds) ƒ
 Sudden change in slip resistance properties of walking surfaces (e.g., wet
floor or stepping from tiled to thick pile carpeted floors)
Fall

Definition: Occurs when too far off centre of balance. A fall can be the result of
a slip or a trip where your centre of gravity is shifted causing you to lose your
balance. Preventive measures should be taken to avoid slips and trips.

Two types of Fall

– Fall at same level

• Fall to same walking or working surface, or fall into or against


objects above same surface

– Fall to lower level

• Fall to level below walking or working surface

Preventing slips, trips, and falls

 Training and Education


 Walking Surfaces
 Lighting
 Housekeeping
 Footwear
 Working on the Same Level
 Pictograms (hazard warning pictogram)

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2. Mention any six unsafe acts and unsafe conditions that lead to
Industrial accidents. (08Marks)

Social environment includes family and surrounding atmosphere in


which a person is born and brought up. This is the origin or root cause of
behavioural development as per H. W. Heinrich.

Undesirable traits include unsafe behaviour, negligence, lack of knowledge,


violent temper, nervousness, recklessness etc.

Unsafe act or conditions are the results of undesirable traits.

Accident is caused because of unsafe act or condition or both

Unsafe Acts of Persons Unsafe Mechanical,


Chemical, Physical
(88%)
Conditions (10%)
Operating without authority or clearance, Unguarded, absence of required guards.
failure to secure or warn.
Operating or working at unsafe speed. Inadequate support or guards, guards of
improper height, strength, mesh etc.
Making Safety devices inoperative. Defective, rough, sharp, slippery, decayed,
cracked surfaces etc.
Using unsafe or defective equipment, or Unsafe design of machines, tools, plant,
equipment unsafely or improperly. equipment or supplies.
Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, Unsafely arranged, poor housekeeping,
combining, etc. congestion, blocked exists, etc.
Taking unsafe position or posture. Inadequately lighted, sources of glare etc.
Working on moving or dangerous Inadequately ventilated, impure air source
equipment. etc.
Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling Unsafely clothed, no goggles, gloves or
horseplay etc. masks, wearing high heels etc.
Failure to use safe affair or personal Unsafe processes, mechanical, chemical,
protective equipment or devices. electrical, nuclear hazards etc.
Failure to warn co-workers or to secure Inadequate warning systems.
equipment.
Improper lifting. Fire & Explosion hazards.
Servicing equipment in motion. High noise or vibration.
Use of drugs or alcohol. Hazardous dusts, gases, fumes vapours etc.

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3. Briefly discuss the safety climbing guidelines while using ladders.


(08Marks)

 All ladders must be securely placed, held, tied, or otherwise made secure to
prevent slipping or falling.
 Avoid placing the ladder at an angle which is too extreme. The distance between
the bottom of the ladder and the supporting point must be approximately one
fourth of the ladder length.
 A ladder shall be used when performing overhead work that cannot be safely
performed from floor level. Do not stand on boxes, chairs, desks, bookcases,
radiators, or makeshift supports.
 Ladders should not be placed in front of doors or directly around any corner
without proper warning signs in each approaching walkway.
 Only one person can be on the ladder at one time. If two employees are
required, a second ladder must be used. Never splice two ladders together to
form a longer one. Never use ladders as scaffold platforms.
 The maximum height a person should climb on the ladder is the third step from
the top. Make sure stepladder legs are fully spread while in use. When working
on a step ladder over ten feet high (With the exception of a platform ladder), the
ladder must be held by another person.
 When ascending or descending ladders, use both hands (free of other objects)
and face the ladder. When dismounting from a ladder at an elevated position (as
at a roof), make sure that the ladder side rails extend at least three feet above the
dismount position, or that grab bars are present.
 Do not place hand tools on a ladder at any time. Carry all hand tools in an
appropriate holster.

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4. List and briefly discuss the eight steps for safer Lockout/ Tagout
programs. (08Marks)

Step 1: Detailed procedures for equipment

 Identify the equipment correctly and accurately, including its specific


location.
 Determine the correct procedure for shutting down and restarting the
equipment.
 Consider all of the energy sources that may be connected to the
equipment.

Step 2: Notify affected employees

 Notify all the employees that may be affected during maintenance, the
timing of the work, and how long the equipment may be unavailable.

Step 3: Shut down equipment properly

 Explain the shutdown process in detail.


 Spell out the exact actions to be taken and the correct sequence for
performing those actions.

Step 4: Disconnect all primary energy sources

 The primary energy sources include electricity, steam, water, gas,


compressed air, or others should be disconnected.
 Do not assume that the person performing maintenance will know the
correct procedure to follow.

Step 5: Address all secondary sources

 It is possible that there may be sources of residual energy, such as


trapped heat in a thermal system, fumes that may need to be vented, or
even tension in a spring assembly.

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 Identify the process that will relieve any remaining pressure or other
energy.

Step 6: Verify the lockout

 Once you’ve disconnected all primary and secondary sources of energy,


attempt to start the equipment to verify that the lockout has been
successful.
 Verify that nobody is in a position before starting
 Assuming that the procedures have been successful, return all switches
and other equipment back to their “off” positions.
 Once you’ve verified the lockout, attach a lockout or tagout device to the
equipment to ensure that it cannot be started without removing the
device.

Step 7: Keep it in force during shift changes

 The equipment must remain in lockout/tagout condition across shift


changes, so that workers arriving at the site are aware that the equipment
is out of service.
 During switching over of shifts, both shift operators must be present
during handing over of shift incharge

Step 8: Bring the equipment back on line

 When the work is done and all tools and other materials have been
removed, the machine can be brought back into operation.
 The procedure should spell out the exact steps that are involved, along
with the correct sequence.

5. Write short notes on the following i) Hazard (ii) safety device (iii)
MSDS (iv) OSHA MQP
(08Marks)

Hazard

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Definition

A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on


something or someone under certain conditions at work.

"Condition, event, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an


unplanned or undesirable event."

Types of Hazard

 Physical
 Chemical
 Biological
 Ergonomics

Physical Hazards

 Noise
 Vibration
 Radiation
 Temperature
 Pressure, Velocity, Height
 Electricity
 Physical characteristics

Chemical Hazards

 Explosives
 Flammable liquids
 Corrosives
 Oxidizing materials
 Toxic, carcinogenic, substances
 Gases and air particulate

Biological Hazards

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 Biological wastes (blood, fluids, etc.)


 Drugs (antibiotics & others)
 Viruses, bacteria
 Parasites, insects
 Poisonous or diseased plants, animals

Ergonomic Hazards

 Physical
o Repetitive motion
o Prolonged sitting
o Poor layout
o Poor posture
o Improper lifting and handling
 Environmental
o Poor lighting, glare
o Poor ventilation
o Poor temperature control
o Poor humidity control
 Psycho-Social
o Work rest cycles
o Violence, discrimination
o Extraneous stress
o Un even work load
o Lack of personnel space
o Poor inter staff relationships

Examples of Hazard and their effects

Workplace Hazard Example of Hazard Example of Harm Caused


Thing Knife cut
Substance Benzene Leukaemia

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Source of Energy Electricity Shock, electrocution


Condition Wet floor Slips, falls
Process Welding Metal fume fever
Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis

MSDS

A material safety data sheet is a technical document which provides detailed and
comprehensive information on a controlled product related to:

 Health effects of exposure to the product


 Hazard evaluation related to the product’s handling, storage or use
 Measure to protect workers at risk of exposure
 Emergency procedures.

The Purpose of the Data Sheet

The data sheet is the second element of the WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous
Materials Information System) information delivery system and is intended to
supplement the alert information provided on labels. The third element of the
system is the education of employees in hazard information on controlled
products, including instruction in the content and significance of information on
the MSDS.

Material Safety Data Sheet Contents

I. Hazardous Ingredients This section will include:


 The chemical names and concentrations concerning the
hazardous ingredients
 The LD 50 and LC50 indicate the short term toxic potential
 CAS number which is useful in locating

II. Preparation Information This section will include:

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 The name address and telephone number of who prepared the


MSDS
 The date the MSDS was prepared
 If more than three years old, it must be updated

III. Product Information This section will include:

 Identifies the product by the name on the supplier label


 Provides the chemical name, family and formula (including
molecular weight)
 Lists the product identifiers, manufacturer and supplier names,
addresses and emergency telephone numbers

IV. Physical Data This section will include:


 The state it is in e.g. liquid
 The odour and appearance of the product
 The specific gravity, vapour density, evaporation rate, boiling
point and the freezing point
 The vapour pressure, the higher the concentration the higher the
possible air concentration
 The odour threshold, which is the lowest airborne concentration
of a chemical that can be perceived by smell
 The pH reflecting the corrosive or irritant nature of the product

V. Fire and Explosion Hazard This section will include:


 The temperature and conditions that can cause the chemical to
catch fire or explode
 Means of extinction including the type of fire extinguisher
required
 Personal Protective Equipment required for fire fighting
 Some of the storage requirements however more of this
information is found in the reactivity data section
VI. Reactivity Data:

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 The chemical stability of the product and its reactions to light,


heat, moisture, shock and incompatible materials
 Storage requirements based on the reactivity or instability of the
product
 Incompatible products that must not be mixed or stored near each
other
 The need for disposal before they become extremely reactive

VII. Toxicology Properties:


 The harmful effects of exposure
 How the product is likely to enter the body and what effects it
has on the organs in the body
 The short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects
from exposure to the product
 The exposure limits

VIII. Preventative Measures:


 Instruction for the safe use, handling and storage of the product
 The personal protective equipment or safety devices required
 The steps for cleaning up spills
 Information on the waste disposal requirements
IX. First Aid Measures:
 Specific first aid measures related to acute effects of exposure to
the product
 First aid steps in the correct sequence
 Information to assist in planning for emergencies
X. Trade Secret Exemptions
Information may be withheld to protect industries’ right to protect confidential
business information. This information is referred to as trade secrets.

The producer of the product can withhold:

 The name and concentration of any ingredient


 Name of relevant toxicological studies

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Once a claim if filed to withhold information the product label must


state:

 Date the exemption filed


 Claim registration number
The MSDS must state:

 That an exemption has been granted


 Date it is granted
 Registry number
 Product hazards

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

OSHA was created to assure safe and healthy conditions for working men and
women by setting and enforcing standards and providing training, outreach
education and compliance assistance.

Under the OSHA law, employers are responsible for providing a safe and
healthy workplace for their workers.

Rights and Responsibilities under OSHA Law

Employers MUST:

 Employers have the responsibility to provide a safe workplace.


 Employers MUST provide their workers with a workplace that does not
have serious hazards and must follow all OSHA safety and health
standards.
 Employers must find and correct safety and health problems.
 Prominently display the official OSHA Job Safety and Health – It’s the
Law poster that describes rights and responsibilities under the OSH Act.
This poster is free and can be downloaded from www.osha.gov.
 Inform workers about chemical hazards through training, labels, alarms,
color-coded systems, chemical information sheets and other methods.

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 Provide safety training to workers in a language and vocabulary they can


understand.
 Keep accurate records of work-related injuries and illnesses.
 Perform tests in the workplace, such as air sampling, required by some
OSHA standards.
 Provide required personal protective equipment at no cost to workers.
 Provide hearing exams or other medical tests required by OSHA
standards.
 Post OSHA citations and injury and illness data where workers can see
them.

Workers have the right to:

 File a confidential complaint with OSHA to have their workplace


inspected.
 Receive information and training about hazards, methods to prevent
harm, and the OSHA standards that apply to their workplace. The
training must be done in a language and vocabulary workers can
understand.
 Receive copies of records of work-related injuries and illnesses that
occur in their workplace.
 Receive copies of the results from tests and monitoring done to find and
measure hazards in their workplace.
 Receive copies of their workplace medical records.
 Participate in an OSHA inspection and speak in private with the
inspector.
 File a complaint with OSHA if they have been retaliated against by their
employer as the result of requesting an inspection or using any of their
other rights under the OSH Act.
 File a complaint if punished or retaliated against for acting as a “whistle-
blower” under the 21 additional federal laws for which OSHA has
jurisdiction.

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6. Write down the short case study about the road safety? MQP
(08Marks)

Case Study

Source - “Road Safety in India: Status Report 2016” Transportation Research &
Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) Indian Institute of
Technology Delhi, 2017

 India has a road network of an estimated 3.3 million km, which carries
nearly 65 per cent of freight and 85 per cent of passenger traffic.
 The road traffic is estimated to be growing at an annual rate of 7-10 per
cent, while the vehicle population is growing at a rate of 12 per cent per
year.
 According to official statistics 150,785 persons were killed and 494,624
injured in road traffic crashes in India in 2016. However, this is probably
an underestimate for injuries, as not all injuries are reported to the police
 National Highways comprise only 15% of the total length of roads in
India but account for 33% of the fatalities.
 Trucks and buses are involved in about 70 % of fatal crashes in both
rural and urban areas.
 Use of seatbelts and airbag-equipped cars can reduce car-occupant
fatalities by over 50%.

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Road traffic deaths in India 1970 through 2016 (Source: NCRB 2015 & Transport Research
Wing 2017).

Some of the options which can be practiced

Pedestrian and bicyclist safety

 Reserving adequate space for non-motorized modes on all roads where


they are present.
 Free left turns must be banned at all signalized junctions. This will give a
safe time for pedestrians and bicyclists to cross the road.
 Speed control in urban areas: maximum speed limits of 40-50 km/h on
arterial roads need to be enforced by road design and police monitoring.
 Maximum speeds of 30 km/h in residential areas need to be enforced by
judicious use of speed-breakers and mini roundabouts.
 Increasing the conspicuousness of bicycles by fixing reflectors on all
sides and wheels and painting them yellow, white or orange.

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Motorcyclist and motor vehicle safety

 Notification of mandatory use of helmet and daytime headlights by two-


wheeler riders.
 All cars to conform to latest international crashworthiness regulations.
 Pedestrian safety regulations for cars to be notified 4. Enforcement of
seatbelt use laws countrywide.
 Restricting front-seat travel in cars by children and the use of child seats
has potential for reducing injuries to child occupants.
 Introduction of active safety technologies like automatic braking,
pedestrian detection, electronic stability control, and alcohol locks.

Enforcement

 The most important enforcement issue in India is speed control. Without


this it will be difficult to lower crash rates as a majority of the victims
are vulnerable road users.
 The second most important measure to be taken seriously is driving
under the influence of alcohol. 30%–40% of fatal crashes in India may
have alcohol involvement.
 Enforcement of seatbelt and helmet use.

7. Write a short note on safety sampling techniques? MQP (08Marks)

Safety sampling is a technique performed in a workplace or hazardous area that


is used to measure potential for accidents. This is done using a list of standards
or regulations from a federal agency including The Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA), or The American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), and any unacceptable deviations from those standards or regulations.

Safety sampling is performed by routine checks or inspections.

 It is a repeatable process designed to ensure compliance to federal


standards over a long term basis and to keep safety levels high
consistently.
 Employers should work with a qualified safety coordinator who has
experience in creating, reviewing and maintaining standard operating

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procedures and their documentation, as well as perform safety


inspections and help staff to comply with federal standards through staff
training procedures.

The protocol serves as a guide in performing the survey. The amount of detail
necessary will depend on the purpose of the survey and to whom the results will
be submitted. At a minimum, the protocol should include the following:

 Purpose of the survey. Why the survey being conducted and what is the
desired outcome? Background information such as previous surveys,
operational or equipment changes should be referenced.
 Where to sample. This identifies expected exposure sites. It is based on
where chemicals are stored, transported, and used at the site, and what
ventilation and airflow patterns exist.
 What to sample. This is based on available information. What are the
potential chemical hazards?
 Who to sample. This is based on knowledge of the potential exposure
sites and the various job requirements at the site. What job classifications
or specific individuals should be considered for monitoring? Workers
with the greatest potential for exposure must be included.
 How many samples should be collected. Consider the number of
exposure sites, job classifications, and potential chemical hazards. How
many samples are necessary to assess the various exposure hazards?
 How will the samples be collected and analyzed. After determining the
potential hazards, what published methods are available, and which ones
will provide the most meaningful data. Is there a potential for other
chemical hazards in the area and should methods be considered which
may provide screening information?

Sampling Methods

 Direct Reading. Direct reading instruments provide an excellent


mechanism to monitor potential exposures. They allow significant
amounts of data to be collected and the workers exposure profile during
operations to be determined. They, also, provide qualitative data relative
to worker exposures. However, they may not provide the necessary

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specificity, detection limit, or precision for compliance monitoring or


exposure assessment.
 Bulk samples. Bulk samples may be collected and shipped to the
laboratory as an aid in assessing sources of contamination. In order to
prevent contamination of personal samples, they should be kept separate
from the personal samples when transporting and packaged in separate
containers when shipping.
 Surface Contamination Provides safety and health information related
to surface contamination in the workplace.

8. Discuss different safety organizations and their role and objectives.


MQP (08Marks)

Refer Question 5 for OSHA.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health


(NIOSH)

About NIOSH

 The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established NIOSH.


 NIOSH is part of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
 It has the mandate to assure “every man and woman in the Nation safe
and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources.”
NIOSH has more than 1,300 employees from a diverse set of fields
including epidemiology, medicine, nursing, industrial hygiene, safety,
psychology, chemistry, statistics, economics, and many branches of
engineering.
 NIOSH works closely with the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration
(MSHA) in the U.S. Department of Labor to protect American workers
and miners.

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Objectives of NIOHS

NIOSH works closely with diverse partners to identify the most critical issues in
workplace safety and health.

 Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing: NIOSH role and impact has its
accomplishments such as reducing child death rates from agricultural
worksite risks, reducing fatalities from tractor rollovers, and adopting
life-saving personal flotation devices in commercial fishing.
 Construction: NIOSH Projects have addressed the causes of falls and
electrical hazards, musculoskeletal disorders associated with
construction work, and health hazards such as noise, asphalt fumes,
silica, and welding fumes.
 Healthcare and Social Assistance: NIOSH provides detailed
recommendations for workers who serve the sick and those in need of
assistance.
 Manufacturing: NIOSH has developed and distributed education
materials on major hazards in this sector and promoted reduction of
injuries and fatalities due to contact with equipment, falls, hearing loss,
and other exposures.
 Mining: NIOSH has created engineering controls for reducing noise
levels in the mines, proximity detection systems for mining equipment,
and LED cap lamps. NIOSH has developed practical solutions to critical
problem areas in mining, which include providing emergency oxygen
through self-contained self-rescuers and improving underground
communications and personnel tracking.
 Public Safety: NIOSH networks with fire service and law enforcement
professionals and promotes best practices among public safety workers
responding to emergency calls.
 Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities: NIOSH established a
Centre for Motor Vehicle Safety to find solutions for fatalities and
severe injuries in transportation.

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9. With a suitable case study discuss about the safety measure for lab and
campus layout. MQP (08Marks)

SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY

Purpose: Is to increase the awareness of the possible risks or hazards involved


with laboratory work and to make laboratory a safe place to work if safety
guidelines are properly followed.

Standard Operating Procedures to be followed in Laboratory

a) personal safety
b) eye safety
c) handling of biologically hazardous material
d) handling of needles and sharps

General Personal Safety

 Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics, handling contact lenses


are prohibited in areas where specimens are handled.
 Long hair, ties, scarves and earrings should be secured.
 Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be used where
indicated:
o Lab coats or disposable aprons should be worn in the lab to
protect you and your clothing from contamination. Lab coats
should not be worn outside the laboratory.
o Lab footwear should consist of normal closed shoes to protect
all areas of the foot from possible puncture from sharp objects
and/or broken glass and from contamination from corrosive
reagents and/or infectious materials.
o Gloves should be worn for handling blood and body fluid
specimens, touching the mucous membranes or non-intact skin of
patients,
o Protective eyewear and/or masks may need to be worn when
contact with hazardous aerosols; caustic chemicals and/or
reagents are anticipated.

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 NEVER MOUTH PIPETTE!! Mechanical pipetting devices must be


used for pipetting all liquids.
 Frequent hand washing is an important safety precaution after and before
leaving the laboratory.

Eye Safety

 KNOW WHERE THE NEAREST EYE WASH STATION IS


LOCATED AND HOW TO OPERATE IT.
 Eye goggles should be worn:
o When working with certain caustic reagents and/or solvents, or
concentrated acids and bases.
o When performing procedures that are likely to generate
droplets/aerosols of blood or other body fluid.
o When working with reagents under pressure. d. When working in
close proximity to ultra-violet radiation (light).
 Wearing contact lenses in the laboratory is discouraged and requires
extra precaution if worn.

Safe Handling of Biologically Hazardous Material

 YOU SHOULD HANDLE ALL PATIENT SAMPLES AS


POTENTIALLY BIOHAZARDOUS MATERIAL. This means
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS should be followed at all times!!
 All biohazardous material should be discarded in a biohazard bag to be
autoclaved.
 All counter and table tops should be disinfected with a proper
disinfecting solution:
o At the beginning of the day.
o If you should spill a patient sample.
o At the end of the day.

Proper handling of SHARPS:

 Contaminated needles and other sharps are never broken, bent, recapped
or re-sheathed by hand.
 Used needles are not removed from disposable syringes.
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Industrial Safety / 15 ME 662

 Needles and sharps are disposed of in impervious containers located near


the point of use.

10. Explain the various risks involved in working at height using (i)
Ladders (ii). Scaffolds MQP (08Marks)

Ladders

Definition: A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps.

 Work at height accounts for more fatalities than any other construction
activities
 Construction work often exposes people to risks from working at height
 Examples include:
o Steel workers erecting the steel framework of a building
o Scaffolders erecting or striking a scaffold.
o Demolition workers dismantling machinery on the roof of a
building
o Pipe fitters fixing pipework to the ceiling in a factory workshop
o Painters painting a lamp post or a steel span footbridge

The main risks associated with work at height

 The worker falling from height: this accounts for largest percentage of
annual fatalities in the workplace. This can result in,
o Fatalities
o Neck or spinal injury leading to permanent disability or paralysis
o Multiple fractures
 An object falling from height onto someone below : can cause severe
injuries that may result in,
o Death
o Brain damage
o Paralysis
o Multiple fractures

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 The distance (vertical distance) of a fall is not always the deciding factor
in the cause of injuries.

Basic hazard and risk factors during heights

 Design: a good design is important in working at height, not only of the


existing structures but design and strength / stability of access equipment
used.
 Distance of falls: The distance a person or object can fall will have
direct bearing on the severity of injury or damage it can cause
 Roofs: Many accidents occur during small jobs and maintenance work
of roofs. Particular dangers arise with three types of roof
o Fragile roofs: not strong enough to withstand adverse weather
conditions
o Sloping (pitched) roofs: These are roofs with a pitch greater
than 10° Falling from the edges of sloping roof generally cause
serious injury
o Flat roof: work on flat roofs can lead to falls (usually from
unprotected edges)
 Falling materials: objects falling from height are capable of causing
considerable damage to both people and other materials that they hit.

LADDER SAFETY RULES

 Select the correct ladder for the task.


 Use proper lifting and carrying techniques while transporting ladders.
 Watch for overhead obstructions and power lines (keep a minimum of
10’ from power lines).
 Inspect for physical defects before use. Make sure labels are present and
legible.
 Ladders are not to be painted except for numbering purposes.
 Do not move or shift a ladder while a person or equipment is on the
ladder.
 Do not use ladders for skids, braces, workbenches, or any purpose other
than climbing.
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 When you are ascending or descending a ladder, do not carry objects that
will prevent you from grasping the ladder with both hands.
 Always face the ladder when ascending and descending.
 If you must place a ladder in front of a doorway, barricade the door to
prevent its use and post a warning sign.
 Only one person is allowed on a ladder at a time.
 Do not jump from a ladder when descending.
 All joints between steps, rungs, and side rails must be tight.
 Rungs must be free of grease and/or oil.
 Do not place the top of a ladder against a window or an uneven surface.
 Have someone steady the ladder if it cannot be secured otherwise
 Use fiberglass (nonconductive) ladder if you must work near electrical
sources.
 Never over reach when working from a ladder. Keep your body between
the rails at all times

Scaffolds

Definition: It is a temporary structure on the outside of a building, made of


wooden planks and metal poles, used by workmen while building, repairing, or
cleaning the building.

Main Hazards of Scaffolds

 Falls from elevation: This is the most common scaffolding hazard.


Preventing falls from heights, the Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA) requires that proper fall protection be placed on all scaffolds
suspended over 10 feet above ground.
 Bad planking: When planks are uncleated or not secured enough, they
might slip off and cause the worker to fall.
 Getting struck by falling tools or debris: Scaffolding-related injuries
involve being struck with falling debris. Guardrails are an important
component of scaffold construction, not only to protect the worker from
falling but also to prevent any material from falling off a scaffold and
hitting people below.

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 Electrocution: Safety standards require scaffolds and workers to


maintain a secure clearance from power lines. Ideal clearance is 10 feet
if the voltage is less than 50 kV (kilovolts) and more than 10 feet and 4
inches for every 1 kV over 50 kV.

OSHA has established a set of guidelines to which companies should strictly


adhere while using scaffolds

1. Scaffold must be sound, rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus
four times the maximum intended load without settling or displacement.
It must be erected on solid footing.
2. Unstable objects, such as barrels, boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks
must not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
3. Scaffold must not be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under
the supervision of a competent person.
4. Scaffold must be equipped with guardrails, midrails and toeboards.
5. Scaffold accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs or
ladders that are damaged or weakened from any cause must be
immediately repaired or replaced.
6. Scaffold platforms must be tightly planked with scaffold plank grade
material or equivalent.
7. A "competent person" must inspect the scaffolding and, at designated
intervals, re-inspect.
8. Rigging on suspension scaffolds must be inspected by a competent
person before each shift and after any occurrence that could affect
structural integrity to ensure that all connections are tight and that no
damage to the rigging has occurred since its last use.
9. Synthetic and natural rope used in suspension scaffolding must be
protected from heat-producing sources.
10. Employees must be instructed about the hazards of using diagonal braces
as fall protection.
11. Scaffold can be accessed by using ladders and stairwells.
12. Scaffolds must be at least 10 feet from electric power lines at all times.

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MODULE- 02

1. List the various types/classes of fire, their extinguishers and their


working principles. (08Marks)

Fire: Fire is the rapid oxidation of any combustible material. It is a chemical


reaction involving fuel, heat, and oxygen.

Classes of Fire: The classification of fire depends mainly upon the fuel involved.
There are five classes of fire.

1. CLASS "A" - These fires are fuelled by ordinary combustible materials,


such as wood, cloth, paper, and many plastics. This type of fire burns
with an ember, leaves an ash, and is best extinguished by removing the
heat side of the triangle. Extinguishers suitable for Class "A" fires should
be identified by a triangle containing the letter "A"; if color-coded, the
triangle will be green.

2. CLASS "B" - These fires are fueled by flammable liquids, combustible


liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints, solvents, lacquers,
alcohols and flammable gases. This type of fire burns on the surface of
the fuels, and is best extinguished by a blanketing or smothering action.
A fire of this type is fast-spreading and capable of engulfing a large area
in a very short time. Extinguishers suitable for Class "B" fires should be
identified by a square containing the letter "B". If color-coded, the
square is red.

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3. CLASS "C" - These fires occur in energized electrical equipment,


where the electrical non-conductivity of the extinguishing media is of
importance. Blanketing or smothering this type of fire with a non-
conducting extinguishing agent is of prime importance. Water, or
solutions containing water, is never to be used on a Class "C" fire.
Extinguishers suitable for Class "C" fires should be identified by a circle
containing the letter "C"; if color-coded, the circle is blue.

4. CLASS “D” – These fires involve combustible metals, such as


magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium and potassium.
Generally the extinguishing agent is referred to as DRY POWDER.
These extinguishers should be identified by a star containing the letter
“D”, if color-coded, the star is yellow.

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5. CLASS “K” –These are fires in cooking appliances that involve


combustible cooking media such as vegetable or animal oils and fats.
The extinguishing agent is referred to as WET CHEMICAL. These
extinguishers should be identified by the letter “K.”

TYPES AND OPERATIONS OF EXTINGUISHERS

1. Pressurized Water Extinguishers, 2 ½ Gallon:


 FOR USE ON: Class "A" fires
 EFFECTIVE RANGE - APPROX. 30 to 40 FT.
 DURATION - APPROX. ONE (1) MINUTE
 TO OPERATE:
o Pull out the pin or push the lever on top of the extinguisher
handle to the rear.
o Grasp the hose, squeeze the handles together and direct the
stream at the base of the fire.
o Turn on or off at will by squeezing or releasing the handles.
2. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers:
 FOR USE ON: Class "B" and "C" fires
 EFFECTIVE RANGE - APPROX. 8 FT.
 DURATION - APPROX. 15 SECONDS
 TO OPERATE:
o Carry the extinguisher to the fire.
o Remove the safety pin or locking device, point the horn at the
base of the fire, and discharge by squeezing the handles together.
Be sure not to place your hand on the horn when discharging the
contents of the extinguisher or you could get a freezer burn.
o Discharge at the base of the fire and move the horn from side to
side at a moderate speed. Too rapid a movement will dissipate

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the vapour, and too slow a movement may discharge more than is
needed at one time.
o Continue to apply contents for a short time after the fire has been
extinguished to prevent possible re-ignition.
3. Dry Chemical Extinguishers:
 FOR USE ON: Class “A”,”B”," and "C" fires
 EFFECTIVE RANGE: 10 TO 14 FT.
 DURATION: APPROX. 30 SECONDS
 TO OPERATE:
o Carry the extinguisher to the fire by its handle and operate
according to the instructions on it (instructions usually read:
remove safety pin or locking device, grasp nozzle and squeeze
handles).
o To reduce the intensity of the flames, direct the stream at the base
of the flames and move rapidly from side to side to gain full
coverage.
o In small spill fires, where the entire width can be covered by the
sweep of the dry chemical stream, attack the fire from the front.
The stream will discharge over the entire spill area.
o Work with any wind or breeze at your back.
4. Halon 1211/1301 Extinguishers:
 FOR USE ON: Class "B" and "C" fires
 EFFECTIVE RANGE - APPROX. 10 TO 13 FT.
 DURATION - APPROX. 14 SECONDS
 TO OPERATE:
o Carry the extinguisher to the scene of the fire in an upright
position.
o Pull the ring lock pin and aim the nozzle at the base of the fire.
Squeeze the carrying handle and the trigger together.
o Sweep the extinguisher from side to side.

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5. Wet Chemical Extinguishers:


 FOR USE ON: Class “K” fires
 EFFECTIVE RANGE: 2 ½ GALLON CAPACITY - APPROX. 8 TO 12
FT.
 DURATION: APPROX. 35 – 45 SECONDS
 TO OPERATE:
o Carry the extinguisher to the fire by its handle and operate
according to the instructions on it (instructions usually read:
remove safety pin or locking device, grasp nozzle and squeeze
handles).
o The agent is discharged as a fine spray, which reduces the
possibility of splashing hot grease.
o In addition to offering rapid-fire extinguishments, a thick foam
blanket is formed to prevent re-ignition, while cooling both the
appliance and the hot cooking oil.

6. List the main objectives of fire safety. (08Marks)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulate fire drills
and evacuation in the workplace. The minimum elements of an emergency action
plan include the following information:

 Emergency escape procedures


 Escape routes
 Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical
plant operations before they evacuate
 Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation has been
completed
 Duties for employees designated to perform rescue and medical
functions
 The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies
 The names or regular job titles of people or departments that can be
contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.

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7. Briefly discuss the fire triangle. (03Marks)

Fire triangle

 Four things must be present at the same time in order to produce fire:
1. Enough oxygen to sustain combustion,

2. Enough heat to raise the material to its ignition temperature,

3. Some sort of fuel or combustible material, and

4. The chemical, exothermic reaction that is fire.

 Oxygen, heat, and fuel are frequently referred to as the "fire triangle."
Add in the fourth element, the chemical reaction, and you actually have a
fire "tetrahedron." The important thing to remember is: take any of these
four things away, and you will not have a fire or the fire will be
extinguished.
 Essentially, fire extinguishers put out fire by taking away one or more
elements of the fire triangle/tetrahedron.
 Fire safety, at its most basic, is based upon the principle of keeping fuel
sources and ignition sources separate.

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8. Explain the steps to be taken after the occurrence of fire. (05Marks)

The following steps should be followed when responding to incipient stage fire:

 Sound the fire alarm and call the fire department, if appropriate.
 Identify a safe evacuation path before approaching the fire.
 Do not allow the fire, heat, or smoke to come between you and your
evacuation path.
 Select the appropriate type of fire extinguisher.
 Discharge the extinguisher within its effective range using
the P.A.S.S. technique (pull, aim, squeeze, and sweep).
 Back away from an extinguished fire in case it flames up again.
 Evacuate immediately if the extinguisher is empty and the fire is not out.
 Evacuate immediately if the fire progresses beyond the incipient stage.

Most fire extinguishers operate using the following P.A.S.S. technique:

1. PULL... Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper seal.
2. AIM... Aim low, pointing the extinguisher nozzle (or its horn or hose) at the
base of the fire.

NOTE: Do not touch the plastic discharge horn on CO2 extinguishers, it gets very cold and
may damage skin.

3. SQUEEZE... Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.


4. SWEEP... Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it appears to be
out. Watch the area. If the fire re-ignites, repeat steps 2 - 4.

If you have the slightest doubt about your ability to fight a fire....EVACUATE
IMMEDIATELY!

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9. Discuss the common causes of Industrial fires.

The most common causes of industrial fires and explosions

 Combustible dust: combustible dust is a major cause of fire in food


manufacturing, woodworking, chemical manufacturing, metalworking,
pharmaceuticals etc.
o A small fire will result from combustible material coming into
contact with an ignition source.
 Hot work: Hot work is commonly equated with welding and torch
cutting, there are many other activities — including brazing, burning,
heating, and soldering — that pose a fire hazard. This is because the
sparks and molten material, which reach temperatures greater than
1000°F, can easily travel more than 35 feet.
o Precautions to be taken to prevent hot work incidents
 Avoid hot work if possible.
 Train personnel on the hazards associated with hot work,
any site-specific hazards, the proper policies and
procedures, and the use of safety equipment.
 Ensure that the area is clear of flammable or combustible
materials including dusts, liquids, and gasses.
 Use a written permit system for all hot work projects,
even where permits aren’t required.
 Supervise the work. Especially if you use outside
contractors, make sure a safety professional is on hand to
provide supervision.
 Flammable liquids and gasses: These fires, often occur at chemical
plants.
o Precautions to be taken to prevent flammable work incidents
 Know the hazards. This information is available on the
material safety data sheet (MSDS) that comes with such
products.
 Store flammable liquids properly. Make sure all
hazardous materials are stored according to OSHA-
compliant procedures.
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 Control all ignition sources. Except for when you’re


intentionally heating the flammable materials, keep
ignition sources as far away from them as possible.
 Provide personal protective equipment. This is a must
across all categories of fire hazards but especially when
liquids and gasses are involved.
 Equipment and machinery: Faulty equipment and machinery are also
major causes of industrial fires.
o Precautions to be taken to prevent equipment work incidents
 Awareness
 Cleaning and housekeeping
 Maintenance
 Electrical hazards Electrical fires are one of the top five causes of fires
in manufacturing plants. Here a non-exhaustive list of specific electrical
hazards:
 Wiring that is exposed or not up to code
 Overloaded outlets
 Extension cords
 Overloaded circuits
 Static discharge
o Precautions to be taken to prevent equipment work incidents
 Don’t overload electrical equipment or circuits.
 Don’t leave temporary equipment plugged in when it’s
not in use.
 Avoid using extension cords, and never consider them
permanent solutions.
 Use antistatic equipment where required by NFPA or
OSHA.
 Follow a regular housekeeping plan to remove
combustible dust and other hazardous materials from
areas that contain equipment and machinery.
 Implement a reporting system so that anyone who
observes an electrical fire risk can report it without
consequences.
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10. Discuss the various types of fire detectors generally used in a power
plant. (08Marks)

MODULE- 03

1. What are the safety precautions to be taken while storing a


compressed gas cylinder? (08Marks)

Compressed gas cylinders should be handled only by those familiar with the hazards
and who are trained in the proper handling techniques. Hazards such as fire, explosion,
chemical burns, poisoning, and cold burns could occur if gases accidentally escape from
the cylinder due to mishandling.
The following precautions need to be taken while storing a compressed

gas cylinder

NEVER (Don’t)

 Allow storage temperature to exceed 125°F (52°C).


 Permit smoking or open flames in oxidizer or flammable gas storage
areas.
 Expose cylinders to corrosive materials such as ice melting compounds.

ALWAYS (Do)

 Store cylinders in accordance with ISO Standards


 Store cylinders upright with valve outlet seals and valve protection caps
in place. “Don’t Turn a Cylinder Into a Rocket.”
 Secure cylinders when in storage, transit, or use.
 Store cylinders in areas designated for that purpose.
 Segregate full and empty cylinders.
 Store cylinders in a dry, cool, well ventilated, secure area protected from
the weather and away from combustible materials.
 Ensure that there is adequate separation from combustibles as specified
by national regulations.
 Monitor the atmosphere in areas where gases may vent and collect.

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 Use a first-in, first-out (FIFO) inventory system to prevent full


containers from being stored for long periods of time.
 Store only the amount of compressed gas required for the specific
application.
 Store cylinders away from heavily travelled areas and emergency exits.
 Provide adequate access for cylinder handling.
 Visually inspect stored cylinders on a routine basis, or at least weekly,
for any indication of leakage or problems.
 Restrict access to cylinder storage areas.
 Protect cylinders from wet or damp ground.

Typical Cylinder Hand Trucks

2. Discuss briefly the storage, handling and decontamination plan for a


waste drum of a hazardous substance. (08Marks)

Accidents may occur during handling of drums and other hazardous waste containers.
Hazards include detonations, fires, explosions, vapour generation, and physical injury
resulting from moving heavy containers by hand and working around stacked drums,
heavy equipment, and deteriorated drums.
OSHA regulations (29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926) include general requirements and
standards for storing, containing, and handling chemicals and containers, and for
maintaining equipment used for handling materials.

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Special Drum Types and Their Associated Hazards

Polyethylene or PVC Lined Often contain strong acids or bases. If the lining is
Drums punctured, the substance usually quickly corrodes the
steel, resulting in a significant leak or spill.
Exotic Metal Drums Very expensive drums that usually contain an
(e.g., aluminum, nickel,
extremely dangerous material.
stainless steel, or other
unusual metal)
Single-Walled Drums These drums have fittings for both product filling and
Used as a Pressure placement of an inert gas, such as nitrogen. May
Vessel contain reactive, flammable, or explosive substances.
Laboratory Packs Used for disposal of expired chemicals and process
samples from university laboratories, hospitals, and
similar institutions. Individual containers within the lab
pack are often not packed in absorbent material. They
may contain incompatible materials, radioisotopes,
shock-sensitive, highly volatile, highly corrosive, or
very toxic exotic chemicals. Laboratory packs can be an
ignition source for fires at hazardous waste sites.

The following procedures can be used to maximize worker safety during drum
handling and movement:
 Train personnel in proper lifting and moving techniques to prevent back injuries.
 Make sure the vehicle selected has sufficient rated load capacity to handle the
anticipated loads, and make sure the vehicle can operate smoothly on the
available road surface.
 Air condition the cabs of vehicles to increase operator efficiency; protect the
operator with heavy splash shields.
 Supply operators with appropriate respiratory protective equipment when
needed. Normally either a combination SCBA/SAR with the air tank fastened to
the vehicle, or an airline respirator and an escape SCBA are used because of the
high potential hazards of drum handling. This improves operator efficiency and
provides protection in case the operator must abandon the equipment.
 Have overpacks ready before any attempt is made to move drums.
 Before moving anything, determine the most appropriate sequence in which the
various drums and other containers should be moved. For example, small
containers may have to be removed first to permit heavy equipment to enter and
move the drums.
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 Exercise extreme caution in handling drums that are not intact and tightly
sealed.
 Ensure that operators have a clear view of the roadway when carrying drums.
Where necessary, have ground workers available to guide the operator's motion.

Fig: Flow Chart for Drum Handling

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3. Explain the safety precautions to be taken during welding. (08Marks)

The following Hazards can occur during Arc Welding.


 Radiation from the arc, in the form of Ultraviolet and Infrared rays
 Flying sparks and globules of molten metal
 Electric shock
 Metal fumes
 Burns

Safety precaution to be taken during welding

Radiation:
 Cover the face, hands, arms and other skin surfaces to prevent exposure to
the radiation
 Arc welding helmet or face shield with approved lens should be used to
protect eyes
 Long exposure of arc is known to cause permanent damage to the retina of
the eye
Electric shock
 Use of insulated electrode holders and wearing leathers and gloves
 Welding should not be performed in wet or damp areas
 Proper grounding of equipment’s should be ensured to avoid electric shocks
Flying sparks and molten metal
 Wear suitable clothing and cuff less trousers
 Wear proper foot protection like high top boots with steel toes
 Remove any flammable materials near the vicinity of the welding
Metal fumes
 Welding fumes produce harmful vapours which causes irritation to eyes,
nose, throat and lungs
 Wear proper masks which will cover entire face and filter the welding fumes
 Proper ventilation should be provided such that the fumes escape though
proper channel

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Burns
 Never handle welded metals with bare hands, use tongs instead to avoid
burning of hands
 Wear flame resistant or flame retardant clothing and hair protected all the
time

4. What procedure is to be followed while disposing an empty


hydrocarbon container? (08Marks)

5. Write short notes on the following.

(i) PPE (ii) Machines Safety tools (iii) Safety for compressed Gas
cylinders (iv) Safety for welding MQP (16Marks)

(i) PPE:
Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is designed to protect you from hazards
found on or off the job.
Examples include goggles, safety glasses, foot protection, coveralls,
gloves, vests, earplugs, and respirators.

Hand Protection (Gloves)


Hand injuries include cuts, burns, fractures, amputations, nerve damage
and skin rashes. Skin irritation, rashes, and even poisoning can occur from
handling chemicals with bare hands.
Gloves can protect hands from:
• Knives, sharp edges, splinters
• Chemicals
• Blood and bodily fluids
• Excessive vibration
• Hot objects
• Electricity
• Extreme cold

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Types of protective gloves:


• Leather gloves protect hands from rough surfaces
• Special insulated gloves can protect hands from hot objects
• Cut-resistant gloves prevent or reduce cuts from knives or sharp edges
• Anti-vibration gloves reduce the effects of vibration from hand tools and
machinery
• Disposable gloves protect against blood and germs
• Electrically insulated gloves are used to handle live wires or energized
electrical equipment
Gloves limitations:
• Gloves can get caught on rotating machinery
• Latex gloves can cause severe allergic reactions in people allergic to latex.
• Gloves can cause problems if chemicals get inside the gloves
• Gloves can fail in conditions of extreme temperatures, high mechanical
force, high vibration or extremely harsh chemicals
• If wrong kind of glove is used, it may not protect you. For example,
certain kinds of chemical solvents can go right through standard rubber or
latex gloves.

Hearing Protection
There are two types of hearing protection: earplugs and ear muffs. All
hearing protectors are designed to reduce the intensity (loudness) of noise for
the inner ear.
Earplugs
Earplugs are made of foam, rubber, or plastic. They can be one size fits
all or small, medium, or large. Many earplugs are disposable, but some are
reusable. They are lightweight and require no maintenance. They are inserted
into the ear canal. At first, some people may find earplugs uncomfortable to
wear for long periods of time, but most people can find a comfortable fit by
trying different sizes or brands. There are even custom-molded earplugs.

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Ear Muffs
Ear muffs cover the whole ear. They have replaceable pads and some
types can filter out specific noise pitches. Ear muffs last longer than most
earplugs, but they can be uncomfortable in hot weather and may not fit well
over glasses or people with heavy sideburns.
Proper Use of Hearing Protection:
• Hearing protection only works when used properly.
• It takes just a few minutes of unprotected exposure at noise above 115
decibels to risk hearing damage.
• Earplugs not inserted properly into the ear canal will not provide complete
protection.
• Ear muffs not snug against the head will leak noise into the ear.
• Portable music devices do not provide protection against noise—they only
add to it.

Eye and Face Protection


OSHA requires employers to ensure that employees have appropriate
eye or face protection if they are exposed to eye or face hazards from flying
particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical
gases or vapors, potentially infected material or potentially harmful light
radiation.
Examples of potential eye or face injuries include:
• Dust, dirt, metal or wood chips entering the eye from activities such as
chipping, grinding, sawing, hammering, the use of power tools or even
strong wind forces.
• Chemical splashes from corrosive substances, hot liquids, solvents or other
hazardous solutions.
• Objects swinging into the eye or face, such as tree limbs, chains, tools or
ropes.
• Radiant energy from welding, harmful rays from the use of lasers or other
radiant light (as well as heat, glare, sparks, splash and flying particles).

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Types of Eye Protection


Selecting the most suitable eye and face protection for employees should
take into consideration the following elements:
• Ability to protect against specific workplace hazards.
• Should fit properly and be reasonably comfortable to wear.
• Should provide unrestricted vision and movement.
• Should be durable and cleanable.
• Should allow unrestricted functioning of any other required PPE.

Some of the most common types of eye and face protection include the
following:
• Safety spectacles. These protective eyeglasses have safety frames
constructed of metal or plastic and impact-resistant lenses.
• Goggles. These are tight-fitting eye protection that completely cover the
eyes, eye sockets and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes and
provide protection from impact, dust and splashes.
• Welding shields. Constructed of vulcanized fiber or fiberglass and fitted
with a filtered lens, welding shields protect eyes from burns caused by infrared
or intense radiant light; they also protect both the eyes and face from flying
sparks, metal spatter and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering
and cutting operations.
• Laser safety goggles. These specialty goggles protect against intense
concentrations of light produced by lasers.
• Face shields. These transparent sheets of plastic extend from the eyebrows
to below the chin and across the entire width of the employee’s head.

Head Protection
Employers must ensure that their employees wear head protection if any of
the following apply:
• Objects might fall from above and strike them on the head;
• They might bump their heads against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes
or beams; or
• There is a possibility of accidental head contact with electrical hazards.
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Protective helmets or hard hats should do the following:


• Resist penetration by objects.
• Absorb the shock of a blow.
• Be water-resistant and slow burning.
• Have clear instructions explaining proper adjustment and replacement of
the suspension and headband.
Types of Hard Hats
Hard hats are divided into three industrial classes:
• Class A hard hats provide impact and penetration resistance along with
limited voltage protection (up to 2,200 volts).
• Class B hard hats provide the highest level of protection against electrical
hazards, with high-voltage shock and burn protection (up to 20,000 volts).
They also provide protection from impact and penetration hazards by
flying/falling objects.
• Class C hard hats provide lightweight comfort and impact protection but
offer no protection from electrical hazards.

Foot and Leg Protection

Examples of situations in which an employee should wear foot and/or leg


protection include:
• When heavy objects such as barrels or tools might roll onto or fall on the
employee’s feet;
• Working with sharp objects such as nails or spikes that could pierce the
soles or uppers of ordinary shoes;
• Exposure to molten metal that might splash on feet or legs;
• Working on or around hot, wet or slippery surfaces; and
• Working when electrical hazards are present.

Foot and leg protection choices include the following:


• Leggings protect the lower legs and feet from heat hazards such as molten
metal or welding sparks. Safety snaps allow leggings to be removed
quickly.

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• Metatarsal guards protect the instep area from impact and compression.
Made of aluminum, steel, fiber or plastic, these guards may be strapped to
the outside of shoes.
• Toe guards fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from
impact and compression hazards. They may be made of steel, aluminum or
plastic.
• Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet, and
may be used in combination with toe guards when greater protection is
needed.
• Safety shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that
protect the feet against hot work surfaces common in roofing, paving and
hot metal industries.

Body Protection
Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each effective against
particular hazards, such as:
• Paper-like fiber used for disposable suits provide protection against dust
and splashes.
• Treated wool and cotton adapts well to changing temperatures, is
comfortable and fire-resistant and protects against dust, abrasions and
rough and irritating surfaces.
• Duck is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and
bruises when handling heavy, sharp or rough materials.
• Leather is often used to protect against dry heat and flames.
• Rubber, rubberized fabrics, neoprene and plastics protect against
certain chemicals and physical hazards.

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6. What are the various Mechanical hazards in industry? Explain MQP


(08Marks)

Mechanical hazards
Mechanical hazards are a type of physical hazard. Mechanical hazards are those
associated with power-driven machines, whether automated or manually
operated.

COMMON MECHANICAL INJURIES

• A strain results when muscles are overstretched or torn, a sprain results


from torn ligaments in a joint. – Strains and sprains can cause swelling and
intense pain.
• A cut occurs when a body part comes in contact with a sharp edge. –
Seriousness of cutting or tearing depends on damage done to skin, veins,
arteries, muscles, and even bones.
• Power-driven shears for severing paper, metal, plastic, elastomers &
composites are widely used. – Such machines often amputate fingers &
hands when operators reached under the shearing blade, and activated the
blade before fully removing their hand.

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• Crushing injuries occur when a part of the body is caught between hard
surfaces that progressively move together—crushing anything between
them.
NSC requirements for safeguards:
• Prevent contact - Safeguards should prevent human contact with any
potentially harmful machine part.
• Be secure and durable - Workers cannot render them ineffective by
tampering with or disabling them. Durable enough to withstand the rigors
of the workplace.
• Protect against falling objects - Shield moving parts from falling objects,
which can hurled out, creating a projectile.
• Create no new hazard - Safeguards should overcome the hazards in
question without creating new ones. • Sharp edges, unfinished surfaces, or
protruding bolts.
• Create no interference - Safeguards that interfere with progress of work
are likely to be disregarded or disabled by workers feeling the pressure of
production deadlines.
• Allow safe maintenance - More frequently performed maintenance tasks
(lubrication, etc.) accomplished without the removal of guards.

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7. What are the various Safety tools required for lathe operation? MQP
(08Marks)

Safety tools required during Lathe operation are,

 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


a. Safety glasses must be worn at all times in work areas.
b. Sturdy footwear must be worn at all times in work areas.
c. Close fitting/protective clothing must be worn.
d. Gloves must not be worn when using this machine.
e. Rings and jewellery must not be worn.
f. Long and loose hair must be contained.

 POTENTIAL HAZARDS AND INJURIES


a. Flying objects such as the chuck key left in chuck.
b. Cutting tool injury when cleaning, filing or polishing.
c. Hair/clothing getting caught in moving machine parts.
d. Metal splinters and swarf.
e. Eye injuries.

 Safe Use of Lathe Categories


a. Eye Protection
b. Hearing Protection
c. General Body Protection

i. Eye Protection

 Wear One of The Following


 Face Shield
 Safety Goggles (To OSHA Standards)
 Safety Glasses (To OSHA Standards)

ii. Hearing Protection

 Wear One of The Following


 Ear Plugs (To OSHA Standards)
 Headset (To OSHA Standards)
 Effectiveness Defined by Decibel Rating
 Move Noisy Equipment to Another Area (Best Solution)

iii. Body Protection Categories

 Before Turning on Lathe

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 Starting The Lathe


 While Running The Lathe
 Safe Use of Tools Accessories
 General Safety

o Before starting Lathe

 Read understand all tool instructions before using


 No loose clothing, gloves, hair or jewellery
 Wear eye, lung and hearing protection
 Remove any loose bark from work
 Make sure all tightening handles are tight
 Keep toolrest as close to work piece as possible
 Rotate work by hand 360 degrees before turning on lathe
 Before running lathe in reverse, securely tighten chuck or
faceplate, using a setscrew if necessary

o Starting the Lathe

 Keep the tailstock engaged whenever possible for added safety


 Always stand to the side when turning on the lathe
 If electronic variable speed, start lathe at lowest speed. Increase
as needed
 Back off speed if vibration starts

o While Running the Lathe

 Never start cutting before tool is firmly on toolrest


 Don’t move tool rest while lathe is running
 Remove or move tool rest before sanding
 Only use paper towels while lathe is running
 Listen for tell-tale sounds when turning
 Reset lathe to lowest speed when finished
 Use tools properly

8. What are the various safety tools required for grinding operation?
MQP (08Marks)

Before starting the grinder, make sure that:

 The work area has good lighting that doesn’t create glare or shadows
 The grinder itself is steady or securely mounted, with the wheel mounted
securely on the machine
 The wheel is evenly worn, without substantial nicks and scrapes or
indications of cracks
 The floor and the work area are clean. Sparks could ignite debris, and water
or other spills could cause electrical shock
 The wheel is designed for the machine’s size and speed
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 The power transmission cover is secure


 The electrical power source is properly grounded and its cord and
connections are in good condition
 The work rests are slightly below the wheel’s center and within an eighth of
an inch of the wheel
 You have firm control of the tool and don’t have to overreach
 You’ve tested the wheel with no load, while standing off to the side, to make
sure it’s operating safely
 The grinder comes up to full speed before contact with the piece you’re
working on

9. Explain the effect of current on human body for different levels of


current

Three primary factors affect the severity of the shock a person receives when he or she is a
part of an electrical circuit:

 Amount of current flowing through the body (measured in amperes).


 Path of the current through the body.
 Length of time the body is in the circuit.

Other factors that may affect the severity of the shock are:

 The voltage of the current.


 The presence of moisture in the environment.
 The phase of the heart cycle when the shock occurs.
 The general health of the person prior to the shock.

The following table demonstrates this general relationship for a 60-cycle, hand-to-foot shock
of one second's duration:

Current level Probable Effect on Human Body


(Milliamperes)
1 mA Perception level. Slight tingling sensation. Still dangerous under
certain conditions.
5mA Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing. Average individual can
let go. However, strong involuntary reactions to shocks in this
range may lead to injuries.
6mA - 16mA Painful shock, begin to lose muscular control. Commonly referred
to as the freezing current or "let-go" range.
17mA - 99mA Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contractions.
Individual cannot let go. Death is possible.
100mA - 2000mA Ventricular fibrillation (uneven, uncoordinated pumping of the
heart.) Muscular contraction and nerve damage begins to occur.
Death is likely
> 2,000mA Cardiac arrest, internal organ damage, and severe burns. Death is
probable.

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10. Explain types of electric shocks

An AC current is alternating in nature and follows a sine curve. It is continuously


changing direction and passing through zero to a maximum positive value and then to a
maximum negative value. The voltage of an AC current is a RMS or root mean square
value, and the peak or maximum value is 1.4 times the RMS value. It means that a 220
V AC supply is going to 308 Volts before coming down to zero and changing direction.

DC current is direct current and does not change in magnitude, though it can be
negative or positive depending on the direction of the circuit. DC current is ideal for
electronic circuits whereas AC is ideal for electrical installation and motors, etc.

11. Explain causes of electrical accidents and prevention of electrical


accidents
12. Define electric shock and give the comparison between an AC current
shock and DC current shock
13. Explain safety precautions taken against electric shock in residential
buildings and shops

14. Explain safety precautions taken against electric shock in electrical


plants

 Hazard #1: Overhead Power Lines


Overhead powered and energized electrical lines have high voltages which can cause
major burns and electrocution to workers. Remember to maintain a minimum distance
of 10 feet from overhead power lines and nearby equipment. Conduct site surveys to
ensure that nothing is stored under overhead power lines. Also, safety barriers and
signs must be installed to warn nearby non-electrical workers of the hazards present in
the area.
 Hazard #2: Damaged Tools and Equipment
Exposure to damaged electrical tools and equipment can be very dangerous. Do not
fix anything unless you are qualified to do so. Thoroughly check for cracks, cuts or
abrasions on cables, wires and cords. In case of any defects, have them repaired or
replaced. Lock Out Tag Out (LOTO) procedures should be performed at all times
before commencing electrical maintenance and repairs. LOTO procedures are there to
protect all workers on a worksite.

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 Hazard #3: Inadequate Wiring and Overloaded Circuits


Using wires with inappropriate size for the current can cause overheating and fires to
occur. Use the correct wire suitable for the operation and the electrical load to work
on. Use the correct extension cord designed for heavy duty use. Also, do not overload
an outlet and use proper circuit breakers. Perform regular fire risk assessments to
identify areas at risk of bad wiring and circuits.
 Hazard #4: Exposed Electrical Parts
Examples of exposed electrical parts include temporary lighting, open power
distribution units, and detached insulation parts on electrical cords. These hazards can
cause potential shocks and burns. Secure these items with proper guarding
mechanisms and always check for any exposed parts to be repaired immediately.
 Hazard #5: Improper Grounding
The most common OSHA electrical violation is improper grounding of equipment.
Proper grounding can eliminate unwanted voltage and reduce the risk of electrocution.
Never remove the metallic ground pin as it is responsible for returning unwanted
voltage to the ground.
 Hazard #6: Damaged Insulation
Defective or inadequate insulation is a hazard. Be aware of damaged insulation and
report it immediately. Turn off all power sources before replacing damaged insulation
and never attempt to cover them with electrical tape.
 Hazard #7: Wet Conditions
Never operate electrical equipment in wet locations. Water greatly increases the risk
of electrocution especially if the equipment has damaged insulation. Have a qualified
electrician inspect electrical equipment that has gotten wet before energizing it.

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