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University of Santo Tomas

Senior High School

A.Y. 2018-2019

Performance Task #1: Argumentative Essay


Submitted by:
16 Dulce, Alyssa O.

Submitted to:
Ms. Laelani Arocha

February 14 2019
The educational system of the Philippines was started by the early Filipinos, followed by
the Spanish colonization, the American period and lastly influenced by the Japanese occupation.
At this moment today, Philippine Education has always experienced change in its system due to
the influence of these eras. Back in the early Filipinos era, a feudalistic society was present. With
their practical ways, they’ve thought of a way to educate themselves which is the Alibata, the
native alphabet. Educators of that time were called the Babaylans and Katalonans, the wisdom-
gifted people who were respected by the people. Since this was the first type of education the
Filipinos had, their discussions were heavily based on beliefs and traditions due to lack of
scientific knowledge. Even though they lack scientific intel, education was valued by the
Filipinos; in terms of livelihood and survival. A formalistic and structured way of teaching was
not present during the pre-colonization period. Compared to the early educational system, a
formal type of education was granted to us by the Spaniards. Their plan to spread Christianity
was also by means of education. Christian schools were built and the first one was by the
Augustinians in Cebu. Unlike the early settlers, this type of system is more structured. Therefore,
there are different levels of education. Ranging from primary to secondary up to tertiary. Even
though the Ilustrados was the privileged ones in terms of education, the Spanish educators were
still mandated to teach the Filipino natives to be literate; reading and writing. Different dialects
were used by different tribes, most likely experiencing a language barrier. A solution was
endorsed, it is to learn the Spanish language and use it as the primary lingo in the Philippines.
The education given to us by the Spaniards was centered on Christian doctrines and beliefs, and
spearheaded by the priests from religious orders. Not only a social class oppression was present,
but also a patriarchal type of education. While the men was enrolled in formal education, women
were only taught vocational knowledge. Mathematics and Science was not thouroughly taught
during this Spanish colonization period. The system during this period was mostly controlled by
the Church and State, without separation. Soon after, the Americans came to the Philippines.
Major changes happened. While the Spaniards’ educational influence was heavily based on
religion, here in the American period, religion wasn’t part of the curriculum. There was also a
separation of the Church and State. At first, there were no formal educators, just the American
soldiers who volunteered to teach the Filipinos. Then, the Thomasites took the soldiers’ place.
Thomasites were the first known American educators. Free education was granted to public
schools as per the 1935 Constitution. Whilst having free and structured form of education, a
barrier was still present. Filipinos were having a hard time communication with the Americans
due to language barriers. The Filipinos thought that this type of system was only beneficial for
the American students, not them. Not long after, the Japanese occupation arrived in the
Philippines. Philosophies, life principles and an oriental type of education was introduced to us
by the Japanese educators. Major changes was implemented in the educational sector, leaving us
the legacy of a remarkable learning experience. Non-scientific intel was taught to the Filipinos,
greatly discussing about own’s culture, crafts and principles. But again, a hindrance was present
and it was also a language barrier. In my opinion, language barrier will always be a hindrance for
every colonization that happened in the country. First, because they came from different parts of
the globe and most of them not being part of our language family, which is Asian. Second, not
only one but several colonizers came to the country. Thus, Filipinos only learn the language they
teach, but not having a universal language to communicate other people with. Up until now, it is
visible that our present education system is still heavily based on our past colonizers’ influence.
Since we had several colonizers imbued by different beliefs, our education today is a mix of the
different legacies left behind by the different periods of colonization. Due to foreign influences,
it may seem that our education is of great quality, but no. There is still a great gap between our
system than of our colonizers today. Not only we have failed to build our pride and identity but
we have also failed to achieve the quality education that we are yearning to earn since the pre-
colonization period. Filipinos who graduate tertiary education in the Philippines are not
considered professionals in foreign countries, having a mismatch in one’s career and their current
job. There are still a lot more that our country’s system needs to improve.