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ENGLISH LANGUAGE PAPER

(MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM)

Submitted to fulfil one of the task of the english course taught by:

Hana dwi ismanisa, s.pd

Arranged by :

Group 4

Dede supriadi (091700000)

Nurul fajriah (091700000)

Syifa wulandari (09170000086)

SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN INDONESIA MAJU

TAHUN AJARAN 2018


PREPACE

Thank God I pray to Allah SWT, because on His mercy I can finish the paper entitled
“The Paper English Language (the male and female reproductive system).” Writing this
paper is one of the task of English language courses.

We have prepared this paper in earnest and get help from various parties so that it can
facilitate the creation of this paper. For this reason, we express our gratitude to all those who
have contributed to the making of this paper.

Apart from all that, we are also fully aware that there are still many shortcomings
arrangement and grammar. Therefore, with open arms we accept all suggestion and criticisms
from readers so that we can improve this scientific paper.

Finally, we hope that the paper on the male and female reproductive system for this reader
can provide benefits and inspiration for readers.

Cianjur, December 2018


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREPACE .................................................................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER I ............................................................................................................................... 4
INTTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 4
A. Issue background ............................................................................................................ 4
B. Formulation of the problem ............................................................................................ 5
C. The purpose of the problem ............................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER II.............................................................................................................................. 6
DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................ 6
MEN'S REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 6
1. Male reproductive organs ............................................................................................... 6
a) Internal Reproductive Organs ..................................................................................... 6
b) External reproductive organs ...................................................................................... 7
2. Spermatogenesis ............................................................................................................. 8
3. Hormone in men ............................................................................................................. 9
4. Disorders of the Male Reproductive System .................................................................. 9
B. WOMEN’S REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ....................................................................... 10
1. Female reproductive organs .......................................................................................... 10
a. internal reproductive organs ...................................................................................... 10
b. external reproductive organs ..................................................................................... 12
2. Oogenesis ...................................................................................................................... 12
3. hormone in women ....................................................................................................... 13
4. Fertilization ................................................................................................................... 15
5. Gestation (Pregnancy) ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
6. Labor ............................................................................................................................. 16
7. Lactation ....................................................................................................................... 17
8. Disorders of the Women's Reproductive System ......................................................... 17
CHAPTER III .......................................................................................................................... 19
CLOSING ................................................................................................................................ 19
A. Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 19
B. Suggestion ..................................................................................................................... 19
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER I

INTTRODUCTION
A. Issue background
Reproduction is the ability of living things to produce new offspring. The aim is to
maintain the type and preserve the species so that it does not become extinct. In which
humans to produce new offspring begins with fertilization. So that reproduction in
humans is done in a generative or sexual way.
To be able to know reproduction in humans, it must first know the genitals involved
and the processes that take place in it.
The reproductive system in humans will begin to function when a person reaches
maturity (puberty) or a period of return. In a man the testicles have been able to produce
male sex cells (sperm) and testosterone. The hormone testosterone functions to affect the
emergence of secondary sex signs in men, including the voice changes to be bigger, the
growth of hair in certain places such as a jambang, mustache, beard, and chest grow into a
field, the Adam's apple enlarges. Whereas a woman
the ovary has been able to produce eggs (ovum) and female hormones namely
estrogen. The hormone estrogen functions to affect the emergence of secondary sex signs
in women, namely the skin becomes more refined, the voice becomes higher, the growth
of breasts and hips enlarge.
The reproductive system is a system that functions to reproduce. Consisting of testes,
ovaries and other parts of the genitals
Reproduction or breeding is part of physiology (physiology). Physiological
reproduction is not vital to individual life and even though a human reproductive cycle
stops, humans can still survive, for example humans who have vasectomy in their
reproductive organs (testes or ovaries) or reach menopause and andropouse will not die.
In general, new reproduction can take place after the human reaches puberty or adult sex,
and this is regulated by the endocrine glands and hormones produced in the human body.
Reproduction is also part of the body's processes that are responsible for the
continuity of a generation.
For the life of reproductive living beings it is not vital to mean that without the
reproduction process living things do not die. However, if living creatures cannot
reproduce, the continuation of the generation of living things is threatened and extinct,
because offspring (children) cannot be produced which are a means to continue the
generation.
Sexuality is something of the strength and drive of life between men and women
where these two creatures are a system that allows for continued descent - connecting so
that human existence is not extinct. Many happy and lively events aroused by the
existence of sex, but not a few also the existence of sad events, calamities and destruction
caused by sex too.
So important is the issue of sexuality in human life that there is an expert opinion that
extensively states that all human behavior is essentially motivated and driven by sex. So it
is not surprising that there are opinions of other researchers saying that most personality
disorders, behavioral disorders occur by the disruption of the pattern of development of
psychosexual life.

B. Formulation of the problem


1. What is the male reproductive system?
2. What is the female reproductive system?
C. The purpose of the problem
3. To know the male reproductive system
4. To know the female reproductive system
CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

A. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside the body and
around the pelvis of a man who contributes to the reproductive process. The main function
directly of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm for fertilization of the ovum.
1. Male reproductive organs
a) Internal Reproductive Organs
The reproductive organs in men consist of the testicles, outlet and gland accessory.
 Testis
Testes (male gonads) are oval in shape and are located in the scrotum. Testes
number in pairs (testes = plural). Testicles are in the left and right parts of the body.
Left and right testes are limited by a bulkhead consisting of connective tissue fibers
and smooth muscle.
Testicular function is generally a tool for producing sperm and male sex hormones
called testosterone.
 Expenditure Channels
The discharge channel in the reproductive organs in men consists of epididymis,
vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and urethra.
a. Epididymis
The epididymis is a winding channel in the scrotum that exits the testis. The
epididymis amounts to a pair on the right and left. Epididymis functions as a
temporary storage area for sperm until the sperm ripens and moves towards the
vas deferens.
b. Vas deferens
Vas deferens or sperm ducts (ductus deferens) are straight channels that point
upward and are a continuation of the epididymis. The vas deferens does not stick
to the testis and the end of the duct is inside the prostate gland. The vas deferens
functions as a conduit through which the sperm from the epididymis travels to the
semen or semen sac (seminal vesicles).
c. Ejaculatory ducts
The ejaculatory duct is a short canal that connects the semen sac with the urethra.
This channel serves to remove sperm so that it enters the urethra.
d. Urethra
The urethra is the final reproductive tract in the penis. The urethra functions as
the genital tract that originates from the semen bag and the duct to remove urine
from the bladder.
 Accessory gland
As long as the sperm through the discharge ducts, there is an addition of various
sex gums produced by the accessory glands. These sap function to maintain the
survival and movement of sperm. The accessory gland is the genital gland consisting
of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper gland.
a. Seminal vesicles
The seminal vesicles or semen bags (seminal sacs) are squiggly glands located
behind the bladder. The wall of the seminal vesicles produces food which is a
food source for sperm.
b. Prostate gland
The prostate gland encircles the upper part of the urethra and is located at the
bottom of the bladder. The prostate gland produces sap that contains cholesterol,
salt and phospholipid which plays a role in the survival of sperm.
c. Cowper gland
The Cowper gland (bulboretra gland) is a gland whose ducts directly go to the
urethra. The Cowper gland produces an alkaline (alkaline) sap
b) External reproductive organs
The male reproductive organs consist of the penis and scrotum.
a. Penis
The penis consists of three cavities that contain spongy tissue. Two cavities
located at the top are spongy corpus cavernous tissue. One more cavity is at the
bottom in the form of spongy spongiosum spongy tissue that wraps the urethra. The
urethra in the penis is surrounded by erectile tissue where the cavities contain a lot
of blood vessels and nerve endings. If there is a stimulus, the cavity will be filled
with blood so that the penis becomes tense and expands (erection).

b. Scrotum
Scrotum (testicle bag) is a sac inside which contains testicles. Scrotum amounts
to a pair, the right scrotum and left scrotum. Between the right scrotum and the left
scrotum is limited by the bulkhead in the form of connective tissue and smooth
muscle (dartos muscle). The dart muscle functions to move the scrotum so that it can
contract and relax. Inside the scrotum there are also muscle fibers that originate from
the striated muscle of the abdominal wall called the cremaster muscle. This muscle
acts as a regulator of the temperature of the testicular environment so that the
condition is stable. The process of sperm formation(spermatogenesis) requires a
stable temperature, which is several degrees lower than body temperature.
2. Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis occurs in the testis, precisely in the seminiferous tubules.
Spermatogenesis includes the maturation of germinal epithelial cells through a process of
cell division and differentiation, which aims to form functional sperm. Cell maturation
occurs in the seminiferous tubules which are then stored in the epididymis. The walls of
the seminiferous tubules are composed of connective tissue and germinal epithelium tissue
(seed epithelium tissue) that functions during spermatogenesis. The spinning of
seminiferous tubules is present in the testicular chambers (testicular lobules). One testis
generally contains about 250 testicular lobules. The seminiferous tubules consist of a large
number of germinal epithelial cells (seed epithelial cells) called spermatogonia (single
spermatogonia). Spermatogonia is located in two to three outer layers of seminiferous
tubular epithelial cells.

Spermatogonia continues to divide to multiply, some of the spermatogonia differentiate


through certain stages of development to form sperm. In the first stage of spermatogenesis,
spermatogonia which is diploid (2n or contains 23 paired chromosomes), gathers on the
membrane edge of the germinal epithelium called spermatogonia type A. Spermatogenia
type A divides mitosis into type B spermatogonia. Then, after several splits, these cells
eventually become primary spermatocytes which are still diploid. After several weeks,
each primary spermatocyte divides meiosis to form two haploid secondary spermatocytes.
Secondary spermocytes then divide again meiosis to form four spermatids. Spermatids are
prospective sperm that do not have tails and are haploid (n or contain 23 unpaired
chromosomes). Each spermatid will differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm).

The process of changing spermatids into sperm is called spermination. When


spermatids are first formed, spermatids have the shape of epithelial cells. However, after
the spermatids begin to elongate into sperm, a shape consisting of the head and tail will
appear.

The sperm head consists of thick nucleated cells with only a few cytoplasm. In the
surface membrane at the end of the sperm head there is a thick sheath called the acrosome.
Akrosom contains hyaluronidase and proteinase enzymes which function to penetrate the
protective layer of the ovum.
In the tail of the sperm there is a sperm body located in the middle of the sperm. Sperm
bodies contain lots of mitochondria which function as energy producers for sperm
movement.

All stages of spermatogenesis occur due to the influence of sertoli cells which have a
special function to provide food and regulate the process of spermatogenesis.

3. Hormone in men
a. Estoteron
Testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells found between seminiferous tubules. This
hormone is important for the division of germinal cells to form sperm, especially
meiotic division to form secondary spermatocytes.
b. LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
LH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. LH functions to stimulate Leydig cells
to secrete testosterone
c. FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
FSH is also secreted by the cells of the anterior pituitary gland and serves to
stimulate sertoli cells. Without this stimulation, conversion of spermatids to sperm
(spermination) will not occur.
d. Estrogen
Estrogen is formed by sertoli cells when stimulated by FSH. Sertoli cells also secrete
an androgen binding protein that binds to testosterone and estrogen and brings them
into the fluid in the seminiferous tubules. These hormones are available for sperm
maturation.
e. Growth Hormone
Growth hormone is needed to regulate testicular metabolic functions. Specifically,
growth hormone increases initial division.
4. Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
1. Hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a decrease in testicular function caused by disruption of hormone
interactions, such as the hormone androgen and testosterone. This disorder causes
infertility, impotence and absence of signs of personality. Treatment can be done with
hormone therapy.

2. Cryptoridism
Cryptoridism is the failure of one or both testes to descend from the abdominal
cavity into the scrotum during infancy. This can be handled by administering the
human chorionic gonadotropin hormone to stimulate phytoterone. If it hasn't gone
down too, surgery is done
 Urethritis
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra with symptoms of itching in the penis and
frequent urination. The most common organism that causes urethritis is Chlamydia
trachomatis, Ureplasma urealyticum or herpes virus.
 Prostatitis
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate. The cause can be bacteria, such as
Escherichia coli or not bacteria.
 Epididymitis
Epididymitis is an infection that often occurs in the male reproductive tract. The
epididymitis causing organisms are E. coli and Chlamydia.
3. Orchitis
Orchitis is inflammation of the testes caused by viral parotitis. If it occurs in adult
men it can cause infertility.

B. WOMEN’S REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


The female reproductive system is a series of organs located in the body and around the
female pelvis, which are responsible for the reproductive process. The female reproductive
system consists of three main parts: the vulva, which leads to the vagina, the vaginal
opening, the uterus that holds the developing fetus and the ovary.
1. Female reproductive organs
1. internal reproductive organs
Reproductive organs in women consist of the ovary and reproductive tract
(genital tract).
 Ovary
Ovaries (ovaries) are a pair, oval shaped with a length of 3-4 cm. The ovary is in
the body cavity, in the waist area. Generally each ovary produces ovum every 28
days. The ovum produced by the ovary will move to the reproductive tract.
The function of the ovary is to produce ovum (egg cells) and the hormones
estrogen and progesterone.
 Reproductive Tract
Reproductive tract (genital tract) consists of oviduct, uterus and vagina.
 Oviduct
Oviduct (fallopian tube) or a number of oviducts (on the right and left of the
ovary) with a length of about 10 cm. The base of the funnel-shaped oviduct called
the infundibulum. In the infundibulum there are tufts (fimbrae). Fimbrae
functions to catch the ovum released by the ovary. Ovum captured by the
infundibulum will enter the oviduct. Oviduct serves to channel the ovum from the
ovary to the uterus.
 Uterus
The uterus (breeding sac) or the uterus is the cavity of the right and left oviduct
that is shaped like a pear and its lower portion is called a cervix. The human
uterus functions as a place for the development of the zygote when fertilization
occurs. The uterus consists of a wall in the form of a tissue layer composed of
several layers of smooth muscle and the endometrial layer. The endometrial layer
(uterine wall) is composed of epithelial cells and limits the uterus. The
endometrial layer produces a lot of mucus and blood vessels. The endometrial
layer will thicken at the time of ovulation (release of the ovum from the ovary)
and will decay during menstruation.
 Vagina
The vagina is the end channel of the inner reproductive tract in women. The
vagina empties into the vulva. The vagina has multiple walls with the outer
portion of the mucous membrane, the middle part is a muscle layer and the
deepest part is fibrous connective tissue. The mucous membrane (mucous
membrane) produces mucus during sexual arousal. The mucus is produced by
Bartholin's gland. Muscle tissue and fibrous connective tissue are elastic which
play a role to dilate the uterus when the fetus is born and will return to its original
state after the fetus is removed.
2. external reproductive organs
External reproductive organs in women in the form of vulva. The vulva is the
outermost gap of the female genital organs. Vulva consists of mons pubis. Mons
pubis (mons veneris) is the upper and outer region of the vulva that contains a lot of
fat tissue. At puberty this area begins to grow with hair. Below the mons pubis there
are folds of the labium major (large lips) which are a pair. Inside the labium major
there are minor labium folds (small lips) that also number a pair. Labium major and
minor labium function to protect the vagina. The combined labium major and minor
labium at the top of the labium form small protrusions called the clitoris.
The clitoris is an erectile organ that can be likened to the penis in men. Although
the clitoris is structurally not exactly the same as the penis, the clitoris also contains
the corpus cavernosa. In the clitoris there are many blood vessels and nerve endings.
At the vulva empties into two channels, namely the urethral (urinary tract) and
genital (vaginal) ducts. In the area near the vaginal end canal, there is hymen or
hymen. Hmen is a mucous membrane that contains a lot of blood vessels
2. Oogenesis
Oogenesis is the process of ovum formation in the ovary. Inside the ovary there is
oogonium (oogonia = plural) or ovarian cells. Oogonium is diploid with 46
chromosomes or 23 chromosome pairs. Oogonium will multiply by mitosis to form
primary oocytes.
Oogenesis has begun when a baby girl is still in the womb, which is when the baby
is around 5 months in the womb. When the baby girl is 6 months old, the primary
oocyte will divide meiosis. However, the first stage of meiosis in the primary oocyte is
not continued until the baby girl grows into a daughter who experiences puberty. The
primary oocyte is in a resting state (dormant).
When a baby girl is born, inside each ovary contains about 1 million primary
oocytes. When reaching puberty, girls only have about 200 thousand primary oocytes.
While other oocytes degenerate during their growth.
When entering puberty, girls will experience hormonal changes that cause the
primary oocyte to continue meiosis in the first stage. Oocytes that experience meiosis I
will produce two cells that are not the same size. The first oocyte cells are normal
(large) oocytes called secondary oocytes, while smaller cells are called the first polar
bodies (primary polocytes).
Furthermore, secondary oocytes continue the meiosis II stage (second meiosis). But
at meiosis II, secondary oocytes are not immediately resolved until the final stage, but
stop until ovulation occurs. If fertilization does not occur, secondary oocytes will
degenerate. But if there is sperm entering the oviduct, meiosis II in the secondary
oocyte will be resumed. Finally, meiosis II in the secondary oocyte will produce one
large cell called the ootid and one small cell called the second polar body (secondary
polocyte). The first polar body also divides into two second polar bodies. Finally, there
are three polar bodies and one ootid that will grow into ovum from oogenesis every one
oogonium.
Oocytes in oogonium are inside an egg follicle. Egg follicles (follicles) are fluid-
filled cells surrounding the ovum. Follicles serve to provide a food source for oocytes.
Follicles also change with changes in primary oocytes to secondary oocytes until
ovulation occurs. Primary follicles first appear to cover the primary oocytes. During the
meiosis I stage in the primary oocyte, the primary follicle develops into a secondary
follicle. When secondary oocytes are formed, secondary follicles develop into tertiary
follicles. During ovulation, tertiary follicles develop into de Graaf follicles (mature
follicles). After the secondary oocytes are released from the follicles, the follicles will
turn into the corpus luteum. If not fertilized, the corpus luteum will shrink into the
albicus body.
3. hormone in women
In women, the role of hormones in the development of oogenesis and the
development of reproduction is far more complex than in men. One of the roles of
hormones in women in the reproductive process is in the menstrual cycle.
1. Menstrual cycle
Menstruation (period) is periodic and cyclic bleeding from the uterus
accompanied by the release of endometrium. Menstruation occurs when the ovum is
not fertilized by sperm. Menstrual cycle is around 28 days. The release of the ovum
in the form of secondary oocytes from the ovary is called ovulation, which is
associated with a collaboration between the hypothalamus and the ovary. The results
of this collaboration will spur the release of hormones that affect the mechanism of
the menstrual cycle.
To facilitate an explanation of the menstrual cycle, the standard is the presence of
a very important event, namely ovulation. Ovulation occurs in the mid cycle (½ n) of
menstruation. For the period or cycle of the first day of menstruation, ovulation
occurs on day 14 from the first day of menstruation. The menstrual cycle is grouped
into four phases, namely the menstrual phase, the pre-ovulation phase, the ovulation
phase, the post-ovulation phase.
1) Menstrual phase
Menstrual phase occurs when the ovum is not fertilized by sperm, so the
corpus luteum will stop the production of the hormones estrogen and
progesterone. Decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone cause the release of
the ovum from the thickened uterine wall (endometrium). The release of the
ovum causes the endometrium to tear or decay, so that the wall becomes thinner.
Decay in the endometrium containing blood vessels causes bleeding in the
menstrual phase. This bleeding usually lasts for five days. The volume of blood
released an average of about 50mL.
2) Pre-ovulation phase
In the pre-ovulation phase or the end of the menstrual cycle, the hypothalamus
secretes the hormone gonadotropin. Gonadotropin stimulates the pituitary to
secrete FSH. The presence of FSH stimulates the formation of primary follicles in
the ovary surrounding a primary oocyte. Primary follicles and primary oocytes
will grow until day 14 until the follicles mature or are called de Graaf follicles
with ovum in them. During its growth, the follicle also releases the hormone
estrogen. The presence of estrogen causes the re-formation (proliferation) of cells
making up the walls of the uterus and endometrium. Increased estrogen
concentration during follicular growth also affects the cervix to expel alkaline
mucous. Alkaline mucus is useful for neutralizing the acidic properties of the
cervix to better support the sperm's environment.
3) Ovulation phase
When approaching the ovulation phase or nearing the 14th day there is a
change in hormone production. Increased estrogen levels during the pre-ovulatory
phase cause a negative feedback reaction or inhibition of further FSH release
from the pituitary. Decreasing FSH concentration causes the pituitary to release
LH. LH stimulates secondary oocyte release from de Graaf follicles. At this time
it is called ovulation, which is when a secondary oocyte is released from de
Graaf's follicles and is ready to be fertilized by sperm. Ovulation generally occurs
on the 14th day.
4) Post-ovulation phase
In the post-ovulation phase, the de Graaf follicles are left by secondary
oocytes because of the influence of LH and FSH to shrink and turn into the
corpus luteum. The Corpus Luteum continues to produce estrogen (but not as
much as de Graaf's follicles produce estrogen) and other hormones, namely
progesterone. Progesterone supports the work of estrogen by thickening the walls
of the uterus or endometrium and growing blood vessels in the endometrium.
Progesterone also stimulates mucus secretion in the vagina and the growth of
mammary glands in the breast. The overall function of progesterone (also
estrogen) is useful for preparing zygote implantation in the uterus if fertilization
or pregnancy occurs.

4. Fertilization
Fertilization or conception occurs when secondary oocytes containing the ovum are
fertilized by sperm. Fertilization generally occurs as soon as the secondary oocytes
enter the oviduct. However, before sperm can enter the secondary oocyte, the sperm
must first penetrate the layers of granulosa cells attached to the outer side of the
secondary oocyte called the corona radiata. Then, the sperm must also penetrate the
layer after the corona radiata, the pellucida zone. The pellucida zone is the inner layer
of the corona radiata, which is a glycoprotein that encloses the secondary oocyte.
Sperm can penetrate secondary oocytes because both sperm and secondary oocytes
secrete enzymes and / or certain compounds, so that activities support each other.
In sperm, the chromosome part secretes:
1. Hyaluronidase
An enzyme that can dissolve hyaluronid compounds in the corona radiate.
2. Acrosine
Protease which can destroy glycoproteins in the pellucida zone.
3. Antifertilizin
Antigen to secondary oocytes so that sperm can attach to secondary oocytes.
Secondary oocytes also secrete certain compounds, namely fertilizin which is
composed of glycoproteins with functions:
1) Activate sperm to move faster.
2) Attract positive sperm chemotactically.
3) Gather sperm around the secondary oocyte.
When one sperm penetrates a secondary oocyte, granulocyte cells in the
secondary oocyte cortex secrete certain compounds that cause the pellucida zone to
be penetrated by other sperm. The presence of sperm penetration also stimulates the
completion of meiosis II in the secondary oocyte nucleus, so that from the whole
process of meiosis I to completion of meiosis II three polar bodies and one ovum are
called secondary oocytes.

As soon as the sperm enters the secondary oocyte, the nucleus (nucleus) in the
head of the sperm will enlarge. Instead, the sperm's tail will degenerate. Then, the
sperm core containing 23 chromosomes (haploid) with an ovum containing 23
chromosomes (haploid) will unite to produce a zygote with 23 chromosome pairs
(2n) or 46 chromosomes.

5. Labor
Labor is the birth process of a baby. During labor, the uterus slowly becomes more
sensitive until it finally contracts periodically until the baby is born. The cause of
increased sensitivity and activity of the uterus resulting in contractions that are
influenced by hormonal factors and mechanical factors.
Hormones that affect uterine contractions, namely estrogen, oxytocin, prostaglandin
and relaxin.
1. Estrogen
Estrogen is produced by the placenta, whose concentration increases during labor.
Estrogen functions for uterine contractions.
2. Ocytoxin
Oxytocin is produced by the maternal and fetal pituitary. Oxytocin functions for
uterine contractions.
3. Prostaglandins
Prostaglandins are produced by membranes in the fetus. Prostaglandin serves to
increase the intensity of uterine contractions.
4. Vaccine
Vaccine is produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and placenta. Vaccine
serves to relax or soften the cervix and loosen the pelvic bone so that it facilitates
labor.
6. Lactation
The survival of a newborn depends on the milk supply from the mother. Production
of milk (lactation) comes from a pair of mammary (breast) glands of the mother. Before
pregnancy, the breasts only consist of adipose tissue (fat tissue) and a system of
mammary glands and undeveloped gland (ductal gland) channels.
During pregnancy, the initial growth of the mammary gland is designed by
mammotropin. Mammotropin is a hormone produced from the maternal pituitary and
fetal placenta. In addition to mammotropin, there is also a large amount of estrogen and
progesterone released by the placenta, so that the glandular system of the breast glands
grows and divides. Simultaneously the breast glands and surrounding fat tissue also
increase. Although estrogen and progesterone are important for the physical
development of the breast gland during pregnancy, the special effect of these two
hormones is to prevent secretions from milk. Conversely, the hormone prolactin has the
opposite effect, which increases the secretion of milk. This hormone is secreted by the
maternal pituitary gland and its concentration in maternal blood increases from the 5th
week of pregnancy to the birth of the baby. In addition, the placenta secretes large
amounts of human chorionic somatomamotropin, which also has mild lactogenic
properties, thus supporting prolactin from the maternal pituitary.
7. Disorders of the Women's Reproductive System
1. Menstrual disorders
Menstrual disorders in women are divided into two types, namely primary
amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is the absence of
menstruation until the age of 17 years with or without sexual development.
Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation for 3-6 months or more in
people who are experiencing menstrual cycles.
2. Genital cancer
Genital cancer in women can occur in the vagina, cervix and ovary.
3. Vaginal cancer
There is no known cause of vaginal cancer but it is likely to occur due to irritation
which is caused by a virus. Treatment includes chemotherapy and laser surgery.
4. Cervikal cancer
Cervical cancer is a condition where abnormal cells grow throughout the cervical
epithelium. Treatment is done by removing the uterus, oviduct, ovary, upper third of
the vagina and pelvic lymph glands.
5. Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer has unclear symptoms. It can be a severe feeling in the pelvis,
changes in the function of the digestive tract or has abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Treatment can be done surgically and chemotherapy.
6. Endomentriosis
Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue is located outside the
uterus, which can grow around the ovary, oviduct or far outside the uterus, for
example in the lungs.
Symptoms of endometriosis in the form of abdominal pain, waist pain and pain
during menstruation. If not treated, endometriosis can cause difficult pregnancy.
Handling can be done by administering medication, laparoscopy or laser surgery.

7. Vaginal infection
The initial symptoms of vaginal infections are vaginal discharge and itching.
Vaginal infections attack women of childbearing age. The causes include sexual
intercourse, especially if the husband has an infection, fungus or bacteria.
CHAPTER III

CLOSING
A. Conclusion
The male and female reproductive system is different. In male reproduction having a
penis and testicular gland to produce sperm, the maturity of sperm cells is characterized by
wet dreams at the age of puberty. In the reproductive system the woman has a vagina and
ovary to produce an ovum. The maturity of the egg or ovum is marked by menarche
between the ages of 13-16 years. If there is a meeting between sperm cells and ovum cells
there will be a pregnancy that will develop into a fetus.

B. Suggestion
Knowledge about sex & sexuality should be shared by everyone. With the knowledge
that is owned, it is hoped that the person will be able to keep his reproductive organs from
being used freely without knowing the impact, Knowledge provided must be easy to
understand, on target, and not misleading. Thus the person will be able to deal with
external stimuli in a healthy, mature and responsible way.
BIBLIOGRAPHY