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Art History Megaliths

• Cave art • means great stone
• Egyptian and Greek art • refers to any huge, human –built or assembled structure
• Roman and Medieval or collection of stones.
• Chinese painting, Ukiyo-e (Japanese Print) • typically refers to monumental architecture (large man-
• Renaissance and Mannerism made structure of stone or earth)
• Baroque and Rococo • purpose of these structure include burial sites for the
• Neo Classicism, Romantic and realism elite and masses, temple, astronomical observatory, and
• Impressionism, Post impressionism meeting place
• most found in Britany, France and the British Isles.
2. Painting
• Medium of Painting 4. EGYPTIAN ART
• Art Elements of Painting Culture has the elements of nature as the sun, moon, stars,
• Moods of presenting the Art of sacred animals on wall carvings, life size figures of men and
Painting women.
• Styles of Painting The forms of Egyptian culture are:
• The Artists and His Painting 1. palettes - shield pieces of stone with relief carvings
• Famous Filipino Painters 2. wall carvings -bas or high reliefs found in walls of tombs
• How to Start a Painting 3. statues - figures of men and women sitting and standing
positions usually impressive.
- civilizations of early times  The earliest work of art that we can give a date to is the
- culture Palette of Narmer, who was the first king of the first
- ideas and beliefs dynasty, about 3000 B.C. (5000 years ago). This palette
- customs shows Narmer’s victories. It is carved with ‘reliefs’
which means that the artist has carved away the slate
Prehistoric Art background to make the pictures stand out.
-is primarily focused on hunting , and shows great variety of  Most of the sculpture of ancient Egypt was
stylistic treatment, and sophistication of form, color, and line. worshipful or funerary. Temples were the resting
places of gods whose statues stayed in the temple.
ART OF THE OLD STONE AGE  Sculptors used natural materials such acacia and
- known as Paleolithic Period sycamore wood, limestone, sandstone, granite and
- 30,000-10,000 B.C. others.
- life was filled with danger, hunger,  Ancient Egyptians made a lot of sculptures to
and fear include in the burial tombs of their pharaohs.
 When the Egyptians carved sculptures of their
1.1 PAINTING gods and pharaohs, they were always facing forward.
- discovered on the wall of a cave in Their reasoning was that they should always be looking
France towards eternity.
- others in Spain, Western Europe,
Sahara desert to the Artic Function of Egyptian art.
- These images, whether statues or relief, were designed to
Cave Art benefit a divine or deceased recipient.
- no one knows the real reason behind the creation of this kind - Statuary provided a place for the recipient to manifest and
-experts think paintings played a part in hunting rituals. receive the benefit of ritual action.


- prehistoric people stopped wandering and - The ruins of tombs and temples have provided a valuable record
formed villages. of Egyptian life.
- learned to raise livestock and started -The Egyptians were extremely religious, and their belief in
growing their own food life after death was an important part of their culture.
- ways of making arts changed, too. - Kings and other wealthy persons had elaborate tombs built.
-Much of the artwork created by the Ancient Egyptians had
2.1 Crafts to do with their religion.
- learned to spin fibers, weave and making pottery. Notice how -They would fill the tombs of the Pharaohs with paintings
the geometric design and balance combine to give the work a sense and sculptures.
of unity. -Much of this artwork was there to help the Pharaohs in the
- Temples were another popular place for art.
Characteristics Four Major Forms of Greek art?
- Besides pyramids and sphinxes, the Egyptians are known for 1. Sculpture
hieroglyphics, or a form of picture writing. - the most recognizable art form of ancient Greece. Thousands of
-Hieroglyphics use small pictures which represent different Greek sculptures have survived in modern times.
words, actions, or ideas. Many ancient Egyptian paintings have 2. Pottery
survived due to Egypt's extremely dry climate. - one of the oldest types of Greek art. Many times, these vessels
had mythological or history imagery painted on them.
 Hieroglyphs were written on papyrus reed, which is a 3.Architecture
water or marsh plant, with tall straight hollow stems. - represented perhaps the most prominent aspects of Greek
The reeds were flattened, dried, and stuck together to culture, like in temples such as the Parthenon.
make pages. The Egyptians also 4. Theater –
carved hieroglyphs onto stone and painted them on the - Greek dramas centered around productions displaying their
walls of the tombs. heritage or religion and only used male actors with no speaking
 Ancient Egyptian Art, Painting, Sculpture. Ancient parts. It was the job of actors to display their emotions and story
Egyptian art is five thousand years old. visually.
 It emerged and took shape in the ancient Egypt, the
civilization of the Nile Valley. Patrons of the Arts in Ancient Greek
 Phidias, also spelled Pheidias, (flourished c. 490–
Art Materials 430 BCE), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the
The softer stones, like limestone and sandstone, were used to construction of the Parthenon, who created its most
create reliefs. important religious images and supervised and probably
Harder stones, like granite from Aswan or basalt from Faiyum, designed its overall sculptural decoration.
were reserved for temples and tombs.  Iktinos ( Ictinus)
Flint and other hard stone was used to carve the softer rocks,  Kallikrates ( Callicrates) - the architects who built the
while copper and bronze tools were used to carve the harder Parthenon under the supervision of Phidias.
stones.  The Parthenon is a former temple, on the Athenian
Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena,
Who created ancient Egyptian Art? whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
- Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian
other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the Empire was at the peak of its power.
lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD.  The Venus of Milo - Hellenistic sculpture discovered
- Ancient Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and on the island of Milo. Famous for the mystery of her
sculpture, and was both highly stylized and symbolic. missing arms, the statue is an incredible embodiment of
the beauty of the female form.
ART OF ANCIENT GREECE  The Mask of Agamemnon - it is a funeral mask made
 Greece - birthplace of western civilization of gold found over the face of a body in a grave shaft.
- the influences of ancient Greek culture  The Derveni Krater - a type of large vase typically
and art can still be seen and felt today. used to mix wine and water in Ancient Greece – was
 Athens – most important in the history of the art. discovered in a tomb at Derveni. The elaborate
 Painting and Crafts decoration is an ode to the god Dionysus power over
- Greek painters sought to make their picture as nature, in both life and death.
realist in the history
- none of the works of the great Greek painters THE ROMAN ART
have survived Pre-historic Roman Art encompassed two periods:
1. Etruscan Period (2000-1000BC) the subject matters
were ancestor worship, catacombs , and sarcophagus
GREEK ART (stone coffin).
Pre- Historic Periods of Greek Art 2. Roman Period ( 2000 Bc-400 AD) characterized by
1. Formative or Pre-Greek period – motif was sea and nature. commemorative statues, sarcophagus, frescoes, and
2. First Greek period – largely Egyptian influence. designs with vine motifs.
3. Golden Age (480-400 BC)
4. Hellenistic Period (4th century -1st BC) - heightened Influences
individualism, tragic mood, and contorted faces.  The art of the Roman Empire was heavily influenced by
the Etruscans, Rome's predecessors on the Italian
Why did the Greeks make art? mainland, and by the Hellenic influences of the Greeks.
 The arts reflect the society that creates them.  The Romans not only directly imitated and copied
 Through their temples, sculpture, and pottery, Greek artistic ideas, Greek artists were brought to
the Greeks incorporated a fundamental principle of Rome and relied upon to design and repair monumental
their culture buildings.
 Ancient Greek art emphasized the importance and  The Greek influence was very predominant in Roman
accomplishments of human beings. painting and sculpture.
Painting o artists worked in naturalistic modes,
 Painting techniques were developed to enhance the producing vital elegant images.
walls and to make the living space a more comfortable  Ukiyo-e (Japanese Painting)
dwelling. o a Japanese art movement that flourished
 Romans refined the technique of painting mosaics and from the 17th to the 19th century and
murals and emphasized natural themes such as produced paintings and prints depicting the
landscapes and narrative themes drawn from literature everyday life and interest of the common
and mythology. people.
 The best preserved examples of Roman wall painting o the famous genre of Japanese woodblock
are Herculaneum and Pompeii. printing that translates to the beautiful name
of “pictures of the floating world.
Relief Sculpture o Ukiyo – means world and life, ever moving,
 Relief sculptures were works of art carved on long o Ukiyo-e – gets its name primarily from the
pieces of stone or on the side of buildings. things it seeks to portray.
 They were created both as decoration and as a tool to o sought to portray the regular life of Japan’s
record and celebrate an important event common people- fleeting and beautiful in its
o One Hundred Famous Views of Edo -
famous woodlock print

6. MEDIEVAL ART - focused on spiritual expression than

physical beauty. Symbol was emphasized. Renaissance and Mannerism - a period of great awakening;

 Periods of Renaissance Art

Classifications of Art o 1. Early Renaissance (14th-15th Century)
 the styles of painting are
1. Early Christian Art - subject matters of art were symbols: cross, simplicity pretty, gesture and
fish, lamb, alpha and omega, doves, and later haloed Christ, saints, expression.
Virgin Mary, and martyrs.  - Painting was on man and nature
in fresco technique.
- Spiritual expression took precedence over o Fresco is a painting created when a pigment
physical beauty and symbols were emphasized. is applied to a section of wall spread with
fresh plaster.
2. Byzantine art - the subject matters of paintings were Christ as
o 2. High Renaissance (16th century)
the Creator, and Mary, as the Mother of God.  its center was in Florence,
Venice and Rome
3. Gothic Art - the subject matters of painting were religious and
 painting style consists of the
grotesque; calmer and plastic style.
deepening of pictorial space,
making the sky more dramatic
with dark clouds and flashes of

 During Neolithic phase (5000-1766BC)

o much pottery was made
o Bronze ritual vessels are the most
impressive ancient Chinese art form.
- is one of the fine arts that depicts various intrinsic values of man
 Zhou Dynasty
through imaginative aggregation of lines and colors.
o Zhou bronzes gives way to a gentler, more
domestic form in Zhou ritual wares. - Through painting, the artist expresses his/her emotion and
o Late Zhou art is imaginative and refined
perception using creative imagination.
 QIN DYNASTY (221-207 BC)
o the Great Wall was constructed - Painting began with the development of pre-historic, Egyptian,
o Buddhism was introduced and artists began Greek, Roman, Medieval, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque,
to stress the human form. Romantic, and modern art.
 TANG DYNASTY ( 618-906 BC)
o artists created many classical forms, notably
figure painting.
Common Media Used in Painting b. Elongation- the object being painted is elongated or
1. Mosaic –small pieces of colored stones or glass
c. Cubism – uses geometrical shapes at the expense of
2. Pastel –stick of dried paste made of pigment round with chalk other pictorial elements
and compounded with gum water.
d. Mangling – object is presented as cut lacerated
3. Watercolor-simple and clear spontaneity is its principal essence mutilated or hacked.

4. Ink- oldest medium (pencil lead)

5. Fresco- paint is applied to wet plaster 2. . Expressionism – the artist has a freedom to consider
his personal style in presenting his subject or expressing
6. Oil – pigments are mixed with linseed oil and applied to the his thought and feeling.
a. Symbolism – a thing that stands for
7. Crayons-pigments bound by wax and compressed into painted another thing
b. Fauvism – characterized by a thick
8. Charcoal-carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or pigment; used to express a feeling of joy, comfort
other organic substances in the absence of oxygen. through bright colors.

9. Tempera-mixing pigment with egg yolk c. Dadaism – protest movement against the
traditional outworn arts and evil spirits.
10. Acrylic –a quick-drying water-based paint
d. Surrealism – pictures out image in a form
of a dream.

Basic Elements of Painting e. Futurism – picture out something in the

future that is portrayed in a painting.
1. Intensity – the perception and representation of impact
in painting.

2 Color and Tone – the qualities of objects or substances Famous Filipino Painters
with respect to the light reflected on them.
Juan Luna
3 Style and texture - techniques and surface angles.
 was a Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist
4 Media – different types of methods and materials used of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th
in painting century. He became one of the first recognized
Philippine artists.
5 Line – the simplest and most universal means for  The famous portrait of Paz Pardo de Tavera by her
creating a visual art. husband, the artist Juan Luna, remains haunted by the
memory of a murder, and a curse believed to bring
6 Form – the external appearance of a clearly defined misfortune to the personalities who have owned it.
Fernando Amorsolo (Father of Philippine)
7 Light and shadow – the means and modelling a figure
in depth, or articulating form.  Painting

8 Value – the relative degree of lightness and darkness in  Amorsolo would spend most of his childhood in the
a graphic work of art or painting. small town setting of Daet, Camarines Norte where his
love for the simple rural life would become the
foundation for his artistic output for which he is most
Moods of Painting
 Success came early to Amorsolo. His professors at the
1. Abstract – when painter does not show the subject as it University of the Philippines were quite impressed with
appears in reality the young painter. Some of them thought that
Amorsolo’s brush work surpassed their own.
a. Distortion – misshapen look of the picture
Apparently they were not the only ones who had this
favorable opinion of the young artist.
 Amorsolo had designed the logo for Ginebra San
Miguel, still in use in its original form today, depicting
St. Michael vanquishing the devil.

 Honored as National Artist in Painting in 1981, Vicente

S. Manansala is considered the country’s pioneer in

Carlos “Botong” Villaluz Francisco

 He single-handedly brought back the art of mural

painting in the Philippines and was its most
distinguished painter in his time.

Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo

 He is acknowledged as one of the great Filipino

painters of the late 19th century.