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Conceptual Tests

UPSC Syllabus
 Salient features of world’s physical
TEST: 1 geography
 Geophysical phenomena such as
Earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic
PHYSICAL activity, Cyclone etc.
 Geographical features and their
GEOGRAPHY location- changes in critical
geographical features (including
(WORLD & INDIA) water-bodies and ice-caps) and in
flora and fauna, and the effects of
such changes.

Sub-Topic Listing

Physical Geography (world)

(1) Geomorphology  Socio-economic impact of earthquakes and

 What is the Scope of Geomorphology?
 What measures should be taken for disaster
 What is the internal structure of the earth?
risk reduction?
 Earthquake waves indicating internal physical
 What are the Locational factors for
structure of the earth
 Varying temperature and density variation in
the interior of the earth  Landform features formed by volcanism
 What is continental drift theory?  Impact of volcanism on local climate.
 How continental drift theory let to development  What are the types of plains and plateaus?
of plate tectonic theory?  Theories of formation of plains and plateaus
 Evidences in support of continental drift  Types of lakes and swamps
theory  Reasons for formations of lakes and swamps
 Description of convective magma theory  Factors responsible for Weathering and
 Utility of plate tectonic theory Erosion
 What is plate tectonic theory?  Theories for Landforms Evolution
 How convective current theory explains  Stages of cycles of erosion
locations of volcanism and earthquakes?  Example of different landform features in
 Locational analysis of various landform different stages of development
 Rocks cycle (2) Oceanography
 What are Endogenetic forces?  Ocean Bottom Relief - Pacific ocean, Indian
 What are Exogenetic forces? ocean
 Concept of Cycle of erosion  How it affects oceanic currents?
 Kober’s theory of mountain building  Horizontal and vertical variation of temperature
 What are the Locational factors for earthquakes and salinity
and tsunamis?  How temperature and salinity affects ocean
water movement?
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physical geographhy (World & India)

 Factors which affects temperature and salinity  Stages of Soil Formation

of ocean water  Soil Forming Processes
 Ocean currents in different oceans
 Soil Profiles and Horizons
 How currents affects the climate of coastal
regions?  Soil Classification
 How currents create fishing grounds around  Factors responsible for Soil Erosion and
the world? Conservation measures
 Factors affecting tides
 Different types of tides
(5) Important Geophysical
 Different types of coral reefs Phenomena
 Coral bleaching causes and impact  Earthquakes
 Bleaching of Australian barrier reef  Tsunami
(3) Climatology  Volcanic activity

 Temperature variation with height  Cyclone

 Economic significance of various temperature  Landslides
layers of the atmosphere  Thunderstorm
 Evolution of atmosphere in geological time  Tornadoes
 Heat/Cold waves
 Factors affecting weather and climate.
 Climatic regions on earth  Floods/Droughts
 Basis for classification of air masses (6) Geographical features and their
 Types of airmasses
 How airmass affects the climate of the region
 Airmasses and temperate cyclones  How mountains affects socio-economic and
 Characteristics of temperature and tropical culture of a region?
cyclones  Different types of mountains
 Climate change impact on cyclonic frequency,  Theories of mountain formation
intensities and path
 Different types of plains
 Climate associated with different stages of
cyclonic formation  Theories of their formation of plains
 Koppen’s climatic classification  Different types of plateaus
 Human impact on geographical features
(4) Bio-geography as climate change, ocean acidification,
 Soil Characteristics water depletion, pollution, deforestation,
 Factors Responsible for Soil Formation desertification, erosion

Physical Geography (India)

(1) Space Relations of India with Region, West Asia, Central Asia
Neighbouring Countries
(2) Major Rock Systems of India
 Sino-Indian Relations
 Archaean Group
 Indo-Pak Border Dispute
 The Purana Group
 India Bangladesh Border
 The Dravidian Group
 Structure and Relief
 The Aryan Group
 Geopolitics of Indian Ocean, Indo Pacific
 The Tertiary System

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Conceptual Tests

(3) Physiography of India  Trenches

 Northern Mountains  Bottom Deposit
 The Great Northern Plains  Climate in Indian Ocean Region
 The Peninsular Upland  Monsoon Zone
 The Indian Coastal Plains  Trade-Winds Zone
 The Indian Islands  Subtropical and Temperate Zone
 Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Zone
(4) Drainage System
 Economic aspects of Indian Ocean
 Features of Himalayan Rivers System
 Mineral Resources
 Theories of formation of Himalayan river
system  Biological Resources
 Features of Peninsular River System  Fisheries
 A Comparative Analysis of Himalayan and  Trade and Transportation in Indian Ocean
Peninsular Rivers  Indian Ocean: Foreign Policy Objectives of
 Changing river regime India
 Differences between Himalayan and peninsular  Major Objectives
 Specific Foreign Policy Objectives for Key
 What are the impact of urbanization on
Indian Ocean States and Regions
drainage system
 Geopolitics of Indian Ocean: Why the Indian
 National water grid
Ocean Matters?
 National waterways
(7) Soils of India
(5) Indian Monsoon and Climatic
Regions of India  Different types of Soils of India and its General
 Theories for Mechanism of Monsoon
 Reasons for Soil Erosion and ways for its
 Role of Tibetan Plateau (TP)
 Theory for “Bursting” of Monsoon
 Retreating Monsoon (8) Natural Vegetation in India
 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect on
 Briefs about Forest Resource of India
 Problems of Indian Forestry
 Indian Ocean Dipole and Monsoon
 Rainfall Patterns in India  Remedial measures for reduction of forest
 Climatic Regions of India
 Changing nature of Indian climate (9) Drought and Floods in India
(6) Indian Ocean  Causes of Floods
 Continental Rise, Slope, and Shelf  Measures for Flood Management
 Oceanic Ridges and Fracture Zones  Causes of Droughts in India
 Ocean Basins  Measures for Drought Management
 Seamounts  Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)


Off. No. 6, Ist Floor, Apsara Arcade, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005
4 9953595114, 9873245114 /iasscore