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PUNCHING BAG MOTION AS A SOURCE OF

ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Ervin John Addun, Mohammad Diflof Mohiuddin, Dennisson Macalan,
Van Glaceter Bulan, Tanisha Faye Sorita
Electrical Engineering Program

Abstract

The researchers used the wasted motion of the punching bag as an alternative source of
electrical power. This study aimed to provide and utilize the use of punching bag to generate power that
can be used by boxer or trainee as an alternative source of electrical energy for small electronic devices.
Specifically, it aimed to harvest electrical energy, to power up small electronic device and to store
unused electrical energy. The researchers focused on implementing the use punching bag to generate
electricity and utilizes its generated electricity that can be used to operate small electronic devices.

Based from the testing, several parameters can be investigated, the voltage produced by
punching the punching bag continuously with the required number of punches and battery percentage
of a cellphone with the used of the prototype with the required number of minutes. The prototype
successfully tested that it is feasible to harvest wasted motion of the punching bag as an alternative
source of electrical power.

With that it produces enough energy to charge the installed storage (battery) and use it to charge
small electronic devices like the cellphone and its effective since it can be an alternative source of energy
for this electronic devices in times of power outage.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, Generator, Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier, Converter, Booster, Punching Bag

INTRODUCTION

The demand for electricity is growing worldwide, with increasingly frequent use of handheld
devices by population, and consequently the increase in demand for battery power and other energy
sources are needed for recharging, nowadays most are sources polluters and disposable. Thus,
evidence an opportunity for the development and use of micro alternative sources from clean energy
sources for the sustainability of the planet. A renewable energy is needed to reduce the use of fossil
fuels as a major source of energy for power generation. It is a source of sustainable energy that is
available in nature and can be used in a relatively long time so that there is no need to worry about the
lack of the resources. Reflecting to the last few years, many studies have been conducted in developing
renewable energy sources both in large and small scale. (Iswanto, Suripto, S. et al., 2018).
There is no shortage of tiny random vibrations in the natural environment. Scavenging ambient
vibrations from mechanical structures and systems is the focus of many researchers. The goal of a
power scavenging device is to capture the normally lost energy surrounding a system and convert it into
usable energy for the electrical device to consume. Piezoelectric materials generate charges when
squeezed, and therefore can be used as a means of scavenging vibration energies to electrical energy.
The harvested electric energy can be stored and used to power small electronic devices. By scavenging
the untapped vibration energy sources electronic units can be energized. (Chukwu, U. & Mahajan, S.,
2017).
The generator is driven by the flow of river water and ocean currents to produce very low energy.
Controls and modifiers for energy harvesters using micro power are examined by Shengwen Xu et al.,
(2005). Piezoelectric transducer is used to generate micro power and digital control is used to increase
the dc power of micro power. The mechanical analysis of vibrate energy harvesters on piezoelectric is
carried out by Blažević et al., (2010). In an experiment to analyze the mechanics of energy harvesters,
a Caterpillar is used to create vibrations against the piezoelectric. The energy harvester of the

Punching Bag Motion as a Source of Electrical Energy| 1


piezoelectric transducers is applied to shoes by Rocha et al., (2010). When the shoes are used for
walking, they will produce energy from piezoelectric transducers applied to the shoe’s sole.
The generator that is installed converts the mechanical energy to a useful electrical energy. The
basic idea of a generator is you put mechanical movement on the axle and the one end will create
electricity. To increase the output of the device we also put a piezoelectric crystal on the surface on the
punching bag. A piezoelectric crystal is placed between two metal plates. At this point the material is in
perfect balance and does not conduct an electric. When mechanical pressure is applied to the
piezoelectric crystal by the metal plates, which forces the electric charges within the crystal out of
balance so excess negative and positive charges appear on opposite sides of the crystal face. This
metal plate collects these charges, which can be used to produce a voltage and send an electric current
through a circuit.
This paper presents a prototype punching bag is designed, developed, and tested for training of
boxers. It has advantages of ease of adaptability and flexibility. With the forces acted on the punching
bag created a backward and forward motion like a pendulum until it stops. Continuous punching, the
motion it generated also increases and this can be used by another mechanical device installed in it to
produce another form of energy. The electrical power that had been generated undergoes rectification
and filtering and at the same time it boosted to supply enough power that can be used to operate
speakers or even power up small electronics devices and charge power banks.
Research Objectives

This study aimed to provide and utilize the use of punching bag to generate power that can be
used by boxers or trainees as an alternative source of electrical energy. Specifically, it aimed to achieve
the following:

a. To harvest electrical energy


b. To power up small electronic device and;
c. To store unused electrical energy

Significance of the Study

This study focused on implementing the use punching bag to generate electricity and utilizes its
generated electricity that can be used to operate small electronic devices. The communities are seen to
benefit from this study. Boxer or a person who often went to gym for workout will basically benefited by
this device. They can use this as power source for their personal electronic devices while doing they
workout. It can help also to reduce some of the monthly electric bill and can saved little by little.

Literature Review

Energy harvesting background

Levron et al., (2015) stated that energy harvesting is a research subject that is gaining relevance
for powering electronic devices because of an almost infinite life-time potential. Energy harvesting from
motion, temperature changes, and solar light has proven to be a confident alternative to batteries for
commercial applications, such as flash lights, hand-cranking radios, thermal-powered wrist watches,
and solar-powered calculators. Hao & Foster, (2008) said that Energy harvesting also addresses the
possibility of using body motion for powering portable, implantable, or wearable systems, such as
biomedical devices. Considering another point of view, the increasing use of small low-power wireless
and electronics technologies for new medical monitoring devices, such as health-monitoring via body
sensor networks will challenge current technologies because of limited size and lifetime of batteries.

Piezoelectric energy

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Satish et al., (2017) characterized piezoelectric–based vibration energy scavenging is becoming
increasingly attractive in recent time due to emerging requirement to power ultra-low power transmitters
without the use of batteries. This paper investigated scavenging vibration energy from different parts of
a hybrid vehicle for the purpose of powering onboard ultra-low power transmitters. Amaratunga, A. J.,
Zhao C. et al., (2018) said that a series configuration topology is proposed, where the monolithic
electrode layer of a piezoelectric energy harvester is split into several equal regions connected in series.
The theoretical modeling shows that series configurations do not increase the raw output power, which
is consumed in an impedance-matched resistive load, from a piezoelectric transducer. Wen, S., Feng,
H. et al., (2017) proposed the design and evaluation of a novel piezoelectric wind energy harvester.
Theoretical modeling is conducted to assess the structure performance. Finite element analysis
simulations are carried out to obtain an optimal design of the piezoelectric vibrator by considering the
impacts of magnet fields, material, nature frequency, shape, length, width and thickness.

Micro Generator

Gierczak, M., Czajka, J. P. et al., (2017) described the design, fabrication and characterization
of newly developed, cost-effective thermoelectric microgenerators based on magnetron sputtered
constantan (copper-nickel alloy) and screen-printed silver layers. Geometrical measurements of width
of paths and distance between them evidenced very similar results to the designed values.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

PIEZOELECTRIC RECTIFIER

DC TO DC
PUNCHING
BATTERY
BAG CONVERTER

MICRO
RECTIFIER DC LOAD
GENERATOR

Figure 1. Block Diagram

Figure 1 shows the block diagram where the punching bag has two sources of energy. The
piezoelectric crystal is used to accumulate electric charge, researchers placed it in the punching area
so that the force that will land on it will be converted into electrical energy. As the piezoelectric receive
force and vibration this will create AC electricity going to full bridge rectifier to filter out ripple voltage
output and provide output in DC voltage to power up electronic devices. Another source of energy is the
AC generator as the punching bag moves this will rotate the generator therefore creating AC voltage
then rectifying it to become DC voltage for the DC load.

Punching Bag Motion as a Source of Electrical Energy| 3


Figure 2. Schematic Diagram
Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram. The two sources of energy are G1 and P1 where G1 is
the generator while the P1 is the piezo. This two sources converts AC voltage to DC voltage through
the use of full wave bridge rectifier where the components are four diodes on each source. At the end
of the rectifier is a capacitor noted as C1, the use of the capacitor is to reduce ripple voltage that gives
constant DC voltage. Battery, denoted as BAT1, is used after the process of rectification this is where
the storage of energy. The DC-to-DC converter has a components of an inductor(L1), MOSFET(Q1),
Two diodes (D9 & D10) and capacitor, this device converts high voltage into a usable voltage to the DC
load(O1). S1 is a switch for the battery, first go through a resistor(R1) and then through the LED(L2).
LED(L2) is an indicator that the charge is storing to the battery. S2 is the second switch for the DC load.

4
3

Punching Bag Motion as a Source of Electrical Energy| 4


6
7

Figure 3. Design of Punching Bag


Figure 3 shows the structure of the punching bag. [1] is the metal pole where the foam is
attached to it. [2] is the punching area its material is a multi-layer foam. [3] is a cement box, this will hold
the device firmly to avoid wobble during punching. [4] is a hollow metal for the base of the project, hollow
metal is lighter comparing to ordinary metal because of its volume. [5] is a chain, this component
connects the rotating part of the punching bag to the flywheel. [6] is a spring where it uses the pendulum
effect so that when the punching bag moves it slowly returns to its original position. [7] is a rubber belt,
this is used to connect the rotating flywheel to the shaft of the generator.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Prototype Design

Figure 4. Finished Prototype

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Figure 4 is the finished project of the punching bag. The researchers painted the base with red
because Jennifer Bourn, (2011) stated that red represents power and courage, she also said that the
color red is assertive, daring, determined, energetic, powerful, enthusiastic, impulsive, exciting, and
aggressive thus these characteristics is required for a person to power up the project especially
energetic and powerful.
Testing the Machine

TEST 1
Researchers tested the prototype with a person having a weight of 60 kilograms.
The results are:
Table 1
Time Number of Punches Voltage produced
2 minutes 80-85 0.2-0.8 V
3 minutes 86-94 0.8-1.1 V
4 minutes 95-100 1.2-1.6 V
5 minutes 101-107 1.7-1.9 V

TEST 2
Researchers tested the prototype with a person having a weight of 50 kilograms.
The results are:
Table 2
Time Number of Punches Voltage produced
2 minutes 73-79 0.01-0.3 V
3 minutes 81-90 0.4-0.9 V
4 minutes 90-97 1.0-1.3 V
5 minutes 98-102 1.4-1.6 V

TEST 3
Researchers tested the prototype with a person having a weight of 40 kilograms.
The results are:
Table 3
Time Number of Punches Voltage produced
2 minutes 65-70 0.01-0.1 V
3 minutes 71-79 0.2-0.5 V
4 minutes 80-91 0.6-1.0 V
5 minutes 92-105 1.1-1.8 V

TEST 4
Researcher tested the prototype with a person having a weight of 80 kilograms.
The results are:
Table 4
Time Number of Punches Voltage produced
2 minutes 60-65 0.01-0.08 V
3 minutes 66-73 0.09-0.2 V
4 minutes 74-80 0.3-0.8 V
5 minutes 81-95 0.9-1.4 V

TEST 5
Researcher tested the prototype with a person having a weight of 70 kilograms.
The results are:
Table 5
Time Number of Punches Voltage produced
2 minutes 78-81 0.2-0.9 V

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3 minutes 82-90 1.0-1.2 V
4 minutes 91-95 1.3-1.5 V
5 minutes 96-102 1.5-1.7 V

GIVE EXPLANATION TO EVERY TABLE. ON THE TOP OF


THE TABLE , WRITE THE TITLE OF THE TABLE,
EXPLANATION MUST BE WRITTEN BELOW IT.

Graph of the Results


2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
Voltage

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1 minute 2 minute 3 minute 4 minute 5 minute
Time (minutes)

Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5

Among all the results from test 1 to test 4, test 4 has the least produced voltage and test 1 has
the most produced voltage in the given time frame. Test 4 have the least produced voltage; one reason
must be due to fatigue of punching thus decreasing in punches thrown. As test 3 gradually increases
the voltage from time to time. Test 2 is ahead of test 3 from 1-minute to 3-minutes after the 3-minute
period test 3 is now gaining momentum thus surpassing test 2 in the 5-minute mark, test 2 is declining
between the period of 4 minutes to 5 minutes, one reason is due to their differences in body physique.
Test 5 and Test 1 intersects at a certain time period between 3-minute mark and 4-minute mark although
test 5 starts to decline after the intersection while test 1 continues to produce voltage.

Therefore, the average experimental value of all the test in the 5-minute mark is 1.68 Volts, the
researchers’ accepted value is 2 Volts.

2 − 1.68
% 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 = (1 − ) ∗ (100)
2

= 84%

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CONCLUSION

This project is successfully tested and proved to be feasible to harvest electrical energy and can
be used for further development for a new technology for harvesting electrical energy. It manage to
power up a small electronic devices like cell phone, arduino and etc. by the use of the stored electrical
energy in the battery that we manage stored using the punching bag. This project can be future hope
for new generation to produce energy and also can be used as a backup supply. This project encourages
youth of today where they use electronic devices as their day to day basis as the same time taking care
of their body through workout and exercises.

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