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Design and Flow Analysis in

Micro jet turbine engine

Ajith .E 211115114004
Barzil .V 211115114018
Keerthivasan .G 211115114039
Krishna Mahato 211115114042

Guide : Mr. R. Gopinath


ABSTRACT :
The goal of this major qualifying project is to

• Understand the Thermodynamic principles governing the


working of a micro jet engine.
• Design an axial turbine blade by changing the inlet and exit
airfoil angle using CAD software.
• Conduct CFD, thermal and stress analysis of the new design by
changing the blade material.
• Comparing the new design with the standard design.
INTRODUCTION

𝐬𝐨𝐥𝐢𝐝𝐰𝐨𝐫𝐤𝐬 ®
Power : 1050 bhp
Turbine : 5
RPM : 120,000
Fuel : Jet A1 or Diesel
Flight time : 5-10 minutes
Max speed : 32mph
Altitude limit : 6000ft
Jet Engine PBS TJ100
The PBS TJ100 jet engine was developed for UAVs, missiles,
light sport aircraft and gliderswith an additional engine.

• Compact design
• Excellent thrust-to-weight ratio, low power consumption
• The built-in stator-generator allows a reliable start, power supply to the
deck network and engine cooling when standing still
• Modification available(adjustment of the outer nozzle length)
THERMODYNAMIC Equation for the energy of a gas :
PRINCIPLES
H = U + PV
U – internal energy of the gas
P – avg. pressure of the gas
V – volume of the gas

Centrifugal Increases the gas


compressor pressure
blade

Combustion Increases the gas


chamber temperature
Components
of a
micro jet
P engine
2 3
1-2 COMPRESOOR STAGE
4 2-3 COMBUSTOR STAGE
5 3-4 TURBINE STAGE
1 4-5 NOZZLE STAGE
V
LITERATURE REVIEW 1
CFD ANALYSIS OF RADIAL FLOW MICRO GAS TURBINE
J. SIVA SAI KUMAR, Dr. V.V. PRATHIBHA BHARATHI (2018)

A turbine blade is the vital component of a gas turbine. The turbine blades are
frequently the restricting factor of gas turbines. To survive in this difficult environment,
turbine blades generally use distinct materials like notable alloys and lots of exceptional
methods of cooling, which includes inner air channels, boundary layer cooling, and
thermal barrier coatings. In this project, a turbine blade is designed and modeled in 3D
modeling software CREO. The design is modified by changing the base of the blade to
increase the cooling efficiency. Since the design of turbo machinery is complex, and
efficiency is directly related to material performance, material selection is of prime
importance. In this project, two materials and two different gas flow conditions (laminar
and turbulent flow) are considered for turbine blade.. Optimization is done by varying
the materials Titanium alloy and Super Alloy by performing conjugated field analysis
(hot structural) on the turbine blade for both the designs.
LITERATURE REVIEW 2
TURBINE BLADE DESIGN OF A MICRO GAS TURBINE
Bhagawat Yedla, Sanchit Nawal, Shreehari Murali (Vellore Institute of Technlogy,)

The introduction of small drones, missiles and small, made micro gas turbines fairly
ubiquitous. The project refers to the design of a micro gas turbine blade. Micro gas
turbines are smaller versions of Jet Engines typical used to propel aircrafts of medium to
high sizes and capacity. The Blade is theoretically designed and further rendered in
Solidworks 2014. CFD analysis has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS ICEM
CFX, meshing done by ANSYS Mesh and results shown by CFX Post.
LITERATURE REVIEW 3
Turbine blade profile design method based on Bezier curves
R.A. Alexeev, V.A. Tishchenko, V.G. Gribin, Yu. Gavrilov

In this paper, the technique of two-dimensional parametric blade profile design


is presented. Bezier curves are used to create the profile geometry. The main feature of
the proposed method is an adaptive approach of curve fitting to given geometric
conditions. Calculation of the profile shape is produced by multi-dimensional
minimization method with a number of restrictions imposed on the blade geometry. The
proposed method has been used to describe parametric geometry of known blade
profile. Then the baseline geometry was modified by varying some parameters of the
blade. The numerical calculation of obtained designs has been carried out. The results
of calculations have shown the efficiency of chosen approach.
LITERATURE REVIEW 4
Study of KJ-66 micro gas turbine: Steady and unsteady
Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach
Junting Xiang, Jorg Uwe Schluter, Fei Duan

Numerical study on the compressor stage of a KJ-66 micro gas turbine was
conducted in this paper through both steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–
Stokes. The study was conducted for the numerical prediction of micro gas turbine
compressor performance at various operation conditions, with special attention given to
the transient flow behaviors during compressor operation. The numerical results
showed reasonable agreements with experimental data while providing predictions for
the charting of compressor performance map at various operation speeds. The
simulation results indicated that the increase of operation speed from 80 kr/min to 117
kr/min would leads to an increased peak total pressure ratio from 1.54 to 1.96, while
decreasing the peak adiabatic efficiency from 0.73 to 0.55. This paper also provided
discussion on details of transient flow field within the compressor stage as well as
demonstrated the smooth flow transition through rotor–stator interactions.




Standard Turbine
Design (NACA 23012)

Input flow angle : 56.92 °


Exit flow angle : 54.97 °
Overall blade diameter : 66mm
Blade height : 11mm
Overall Blade mass : 61.11g
Single blade mass : 2.7g
Overall blade volume : 7543.96 𝑚𝑚3
Blade top area : 16.57 𝑚𝑚2
New Turbine
Design

Input flow angle : 80 °


Exit flow angle : 34 °
Overall blade diameter : 66mm
Blade height : 11mm
Overall Blade mass : 91.93g
Single blade mass : 2.1g
Overall blade volume : 11349.94 𝑚𝑚3
Blade top area : 20.57 𝑚𝑚2
Modified blade New blade
characteristics characteristics

Input flow angle : 80 ° 56.92 °


Exit flow angle : 34 ° 54.97 °
Overall blade diameter : 66mm 66mm
Blade height : 11mm 11mm
Overall Blade mass : 91.93g 61.11g
Single blade mass : 2.1g 2.7g
Overall blade volume : 11349.94 𝑚𝑚3 7543.96 𝑚𝑚3
Blade top area : 20.57 𝑚𝑚2 16.57 𝑚𝑚2
Ideal Cycle conditions
CFD Analysis : Pressure

Standard design Modified design


PRESSURE vs NODE
120000.00

100000.00 PRESS STD

PRESSURE ( Pa) PRESS NEW

80000.00

60000.00

40000.00

20000.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6
PRESS STD 91256.23 85364.32 72404.60 56816.10 48756.27 39286.50
PRESS NEW 98405.32 81489.20 75630.60 64262.80 51186.20 41092.40

NODE
CFD Analysis : Velocity flow

Standard design Modified design


VELOCITY vs NODE
600

500

400
VILOCITY IN m/s

300
VEL STD

VEL NEW

200

100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
VEL STD 261.24 314.33 364.23 423.52 459.66 496.62
VEL NEW 305.49 350.15 398.00 430.62 521.49 551.18

NODE
CFD Results

Geometry Inlet velocity Pressure Exit Temperatu Heat Mass Heat


(m/s) (Pa) velocity re (K) transfer flow rate transfer
(m/s) coefficient rate

Standard 320(laminar) 0.920 e+05 6.144e+02 1.20e+03 2.42e+03 0.0040 93142

Modified 320(laminar) 1.561e+05 7.407e+02 1.20e+03 2.66e+03 0.0020 123244


Turbine Design Material (NIMONIC 101)
• Material – NIMONIC101
Chromium - 24.2% cobalt -19.7%
Titanium - 3% molybdenum -1.5%
Aluminium -1.4% niobium -1%
Nickel - rest
• Properties :
Young’s modulus - 210 Gpa
Poisson’s ratio - 0.3
Ultimate tensile strength -1034 Mpa
Yield strength - 1158 Mpa
Thermal co-efficient - 23.6 w/mk

• Reason for selection :


Turbine wheels of most GE single shaft heavy-duty gas turbines are made of this
steel. This steel is used in the quenched and tempered condition to enhance bore
toughness.
Turbine Design Material (Inconel 718)
• Material – 718(Nickel based alloy)
Nickel…………...…56-55 % carbon……………….0.08%
Chromium……..….17-21% manganese………….0.35%
Titanium……………0.65-1.15% phosphorous……..….0.015%
Molybdenum.……2.8-3.3% sulphur………………...0.015%
Niobium …….……..3.15-4.15. silicon………………….0.35%
Aluminium………....0.2-0.8% cobalt………………....1%
Copper……………..0.30% iron……………………..balance
• Properties :
Young’s modulus - 200 Gpa Yield strength - 725 Mpa
Thermal co-efficient - 6.5 w/mk Poisson’s ratio - 0.294
Ultimate tensile strength -1035 Mpa
• Reason for selection :
INCONEL( nickel-chromium alloy ) 718 ,is used for its high strength, excellent fabricability
(including joining), and outstanding corrosion resistance. Service temperatures range
from cryogenic to 1800°F (982°C)
THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS COMPARISION

NIMONIC 101 INCONEL 718


TEMPERATURE VS NODE

705.00 701.85
701.85
TEMPERATURE
700.00 700.58
698.21
699.30
695.57698.03
695.00
692.93696.75
695.48
690.00 690.29 694.2
692.93
687.65 691.65
685.00
685.02 690.38
680.00 682.38
680.74
675.00
678.1
670.00

665.00
1
2
3
4 THEMAL INCONEL 718
5
NODE 6
7
8
THERMAL NIMONE 101
9
10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
THERMAL NIMONE 101 701.85 700.58 699.30 698.03 696.75 695.48 694.2 692.93 691.65 690.38
THEMAL INCONEL 718 701.85 698.21 695.57 692.93 690.29 687.65 685.02 682.38 680.74 678.1
Conclusion
For the CFD analysis of both the blades standard air
flow characteristics were given , and based on the results it was
determined that the new design produces much higher
pressure impact thus resulting in greater turbine work
efficiency.

when considering the mechanical properties of the


turbine blade (INCONEL 718 ) , NIMONIC 101 was found to
have similar mechanical strength during elevated temperature
and thus due to its ease of machinability it is considered as the
best alternative.
REFERANCE
1. Experimental and Computational Studies on Cryogenic Turbo expander – S. K. Ghoshand Sarangi
2. Design, fabrication and characterization of an air-driven micro turbine device-X. C. Shan, Qide Zhang and Yaofeng
Sun, Zhenfeng Wang
3. Experimental simulation on the integration of solid oxide fuel cell and micro-turbine generation system-by Wei-
Hsiang Lai , Chi-An Hsiao , Chien-Hsiung Lee , Yau-PinChyoub, Yu-Ching Tsai
4. Laser Profiling of 3-D Micro turbine Blades-by Andrew S. Holmes, Mark E. Heaton,Guodong Hong, Keith R.
Pullen and Phil T. Rumsby
5. Experimental and simulation analysis of micro turbines- by S. M. Flockhart and R.S.Dhariwal
6. ―Analytical and Experimental Studies on Turbo expander‖ - Ghosh, P and Sarangi, IIT Kharagpur (2002)
7. .A micro turbine device with enhanced micro air bearings-by X. C. Shan , Q. D. Zhang ,Y. F. Sun and R. Maed
8. 8.High efficiency expansion turbines in air separation and liquefaction plants International Conference on Production
and Purification of Coal Gas & Separation of Air, Kun, L .C.and Sentz, R. N. , Beijing, China (1985), 1-21
9. Hammerstein-model-based predictive control of micro-turbines- by Francisco Jurado
10. Hydraulics an Fluid Mechanics- by Modi and Seth