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Grammar Helper

Units 7 & 8
Present Perfect
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Simple Past
O Present Perfect indica ação que ainda está ocorrendo ou que pode
voltar a acontecer, enquanto o Simple Past indica ação ocorrida em
um tempo determinado e concluída.

Present Perfect Simple Past


I have written a lot of e-mails I sent a lot of e-mails
since last Monday. yesterday.

He hasn't gone to school on He didn't go to school last


Saturday for two months. Saturday.

I have been in Salvador for two


I was in Salvador a week ago.
weeks.
Ago + Simple Past
O advérbio de tempo ago expressa algo que aconteceu num passado
determinado (two weeks ago, one hour ago) e, em geral, é empregado
em frases no Simple Past.

I talked to her one minute ago.


My grandfather was born many years ago.

For / since + Present Perfect


No Present Perfect, for expressa um período de tempo que se estende
até o presente e since expressa uma ação que começou num momento
específico e que continua até o presente.

We have been here for three months.


They have been neighbors since 2009.
Passive Voice
A passive voice (voz passiva) é formada pelo verbo to be conjugado
seguido do particípio passado do verbo principal. Quando
mencionado, o agente da passiva é precedido pela preposição by. A
voz passiva é usada para enfatizar mais a ação e sua consequência
do que o sujeito dessa ação.
Cada tempo verbal possui a sua própria forma passiva. Veja a
tabela abaixo.
Tempo verbal da frase original Forma passiva
Simple Present am / is / are + past participle
He opens the door. The door is opened by him.
Simple Past was / were + past participle
The blanket was bought by us
We bought the blanket yesterday.
yesterday.
Future (will) will be + past participle
John will buy a car. A car will be bought by John.
am / is / are + going to be + past
Future (going to)
participle
I am going to send this e-mail. This e-mail is going to be sent by me.
Present Perfect have / has + been + past participle
She has made an orange jam. An orange jam has been made by her.
Present Continuous was / were + past participle
She was telling an interesting fairy An interesting fairy tale was being told
tale. by her.
Conditional Sentences
As conditional sentences descrevem o que pode acontecer no
futuro se uma condição se realizar no presente ou tiver se realizado
no passado. Elas são formadas por duas orações: a if clause, no
presente, e a main clause, no futuro

If you want to participate, I’ll introduce you to other members.

if clause main clause

I will go to South America if I have enough money.

main clause if clause


Zero Conditional: expressa situações que acontecem em
determinadas condições.
if + simple present + simple present

If you eat too much, you get fat.

First Condicional: expressa situações prováveis de acontecer.


if + simple present + will + infinitive

If you rest, you will feel better tomorrow.

Second Condicional: expressa situações imaginárias ou hipotéticas,


possíveis, porém pouco prováveis de acontecer.
if + simple past + would / could / should + infinitive

If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house.


Present Perfect
+
Tag Questions
No Present Perfect, usa-se o auxiliar have/has nas tag questions.
Se a frase estiver na forma afirmativa, a tag question será negativa,
e vice-versa.

You’ve got good marks this month, haven’t you?


You haven’t got good marks this month, have you?

You haven’t saved some money, have you?


You’ve saved some money, haven’t you?