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What's New and Beneficial About Cauliflower

 Information gathered for a large-scale study called the European Prospective Investigation
into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) has shown cauliflower to be an especially popular
cruciferous vegetable in 10 western European countries, tying for first place with cabbage for
the vegetable consumed most frequently. Here is how cauliflower stacked up against other
cruciferous vegetables as a percentage of all vegetables eaten:cauliflower (25%); white
cabbage (13%), and cabbage "unspecified" (12%). It is also interesting to compare cauliflower
with broccoli in the study findings since cauliflower accounted for a greater percentage of
total vegetable consumption than broccoli (18%).

 Recent studies have shown that boiling, full submersion of cauliflower in water when
cooking, is not the best cooking practice if you want to preserve key phytonutrients in this
cruciferous vegetable. In one study, 3 minutes of cauliflower submersion in a full pot of
boiling water was enough to draw out more phytonutrients than 10 full minutes of steaming.
Glucosinolates and flavonoids were the phytonutrients lost from cauliflower in greater
amounts with full water submersion.

 At least in some countries, cooked cauliflower is greatly preferred over raw cauliflower. The
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)—also referred to above
—has found that 80% of the cauliflower consumed in 10 European countries (including
France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark) is
enjoyed in cooked form (versus raw).

 Several recent studies have shown the cooking of raw cauliflower to significantly improve its
ability to bind together with bile acids. Since bile acid binding is a well-documented method
for helping regulate blood cholesterol levels, these studies point to potential cardiovascular
benefits from consumption of cooked cauliflower. The most detailed study that we have seen
in this area examined cauliflower that had been steamed for 10 minutes.

WHFoods Recommendations

You'll want to include cauliflower as one of the cruciferous vegetables you eat on a regular basis if
you want to receive the fantastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous vegetable family. At a
minimum, we recommend 3/4 cup of cruciferous vegetables on a daily basis. This amount is
equivalent to approximately 5 cups per week. A more optimal intake amount would be 1-1/2 cups per
day, or about 10 cups per week. You can use our Veggie Advisor for help in figuring out your best
cruciferous vegetable options.

As with all vegetables, be sure not to overcook cauliflower. We suggest Healthy Sautéeing cauliflower
rather than the more traditional methods of boiling or steaming, which makes it waterlogged, mushy
and lose much of its flavor. Cut cauliflower florets into quarters and let sit for 5 minutes before
cooking. For great tasting cauliflower add 1 teaspoon of turmeric when adding the cauliflower to the

This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Cauliflower provides for each of the nutrients
of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional
information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Cauliflower can be found in the Food
Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Cauliflower, featuring
information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

 Health Benefits

 Description

 History

 How to Select and Store

 Individual Concerns

 Nutritional Profile

 References

Health Benefits

Perhaps because the most commonly consumed varieties of cauliflower are white, many people may
not associate cauliflower with the same nutrient richness as its fellow green cruciferous vegetables
like broccoli or kale. This perspective on cauliflower does not match up with the research findings on
this amazing food. White varieties of cauliflower are just as rich in phytonutrients as green
cruciferous vegetables, and this nutrient richness is exemplified by its glucosinolates, described

Glucosinolates in Cauliflower

The phytonutrients provided by cauliflower are headed off by its glucosinolates. These sulfur-
containing compounds are well studied and known to provide a variety of health benefits. The
glucosinolates best studied in cauliflower include:

 glucobrassicin

 glucoiberin

 glucoerucin

 glucoraphanin

 neo-glucobrassicin

 progoitrin

 sinigrin

 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin

 4-methoxyglucobrassicin

Glucosinolates are the subject of increasing health research, and the more that is learned about
glucosinolates, the broader scientists see their role in supporting our body systems. The list of body
systems supported by intake of glucosinolates from cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables has
now come to include our cardiovascular, digestive, immune, inflammatory, and detoxification
systems. For in-depth information about glucosinolates and health support, see our article, Feeling
Great with Cruciferous Vegetables.

Antioxidants in Cauliflower

Beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, rutin, and
kaempferol are among cauliflower's key antioxidant phytonutrients. An emphatic addition to this list
would be vitamin C since cauliflower is our 10th best source of vitamin C among all 100 WHFoods.
Like most of its fellow cruciferous vegetables, cauliflower is also a very good source of manganese—a
mineral antioxidant that is especially important in oxygen-related metabolism.

Recent research has begun to investigate the relationship between cauliflower's overall antioxidant
capacity and its sulfur-containing glucosinolates. The glucosinolates in cauliflower appear to have an
important relationship with its antioxidant capacity, although scientists are not yet sure about the
exact role that glucosinolates play in this regard.

A final note about cauliflower antioxidants: the Graffiti variety of purple cauliflower has been the
subject of several recent research studies and has been shown to have especially strong antioxidant
capacity due to its rich concentration of anthocyanins. If you decide to incorporate purple cauliflower
into your meal plan, we recommend that you be extra careful to avoid overcooking it. Research
studies on anthocyanins in cauliflower have shown that the greatest proportion of these antioxidant
pigments is found in the outermost layers of the cauliflower head and this location makes them
especially susceptible to loss from overcooking.

Cauliflower and Risk of Specific Health Conditions

Intake of cauliflower has been analyzed in relationship to a variety of different disease risks. When
consumed at least once per week, cauliflower has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal
cancer and has been shown to be associated with a greater decrease of risk than broccoli (when
consumed in a comparable amount). In terms of prostate cancer risk, cauliflower and broccoli have
shown a similar ability to decrease risk. While we have not seen individual studies focused exclusively
on the relationship between cauliflower and cardiovascular diseases, cauliflower has been included
along with other cruciferous vegetables (most commonly broccoli and cabbage) in studies on
cardiovascular diseases and has been repeatedly associated with decreased risk. Because of its ability
to bind bile acids, intake of cooked cauliflower has also been linked to better regulation of blood
cholesterol. In one study focusing on intake of broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts in
middle-aged women, incidence of obesity was reduced when women in the study increased their
servings over time by about 3 servings per day.

Nutritional Benefits From Raw Versus Cooked Cauliflower

Studies show strong nutrient richness in both raw and cooked cauliflower. We've been impressed by
study results not only in areas involving conventional nutrients like vitamin C but also in areas
involving phytonutrients like sulfur-containing compounds and flavonoids. Although there can be loss
of water-soluble nutrients during cooking with water or other liquids, there can also be increased
bioavailability from the freeing up of nutrients that remained inside the cells in raw cauliflower but
got released from those cells during cooking due to the breakdown of cell walls. For example, we've
seen studies showing increased bioavailability of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin following the
cooking of cauliflower. Of course, since the chewing of raw cauliflower could also serve to break down
cell walls and make carotenoids more bioavailable, what we end up with here is a "win-win" situation
in which both raw and cooked cauliflower can make great nutrient contributions to our health.

This same "win-win" situation appears to hold true for cauliflower's sulfur-containing compounds. For
example, studies have shown that levels of sinigrin—one of the best-studied glucosinolates in
cauliflower—decrease as a result of both steaming and boiling. However, alongside of this decrease in
sinigrin is significantly improved bioavailability of the sinigrin that still remains inside the cooked

One final note on temperature and the health benefits of cauliflower. A recent study on the freezing
of cauliflower has shown its nutrients to be fairly stable after one-year freezer storage. Cauliflower in
the study was blanched in near-boiling water for three minutes prior to freezing for one year.
Numerous phytonutrients were evaluated in the study, including cauliflower's sulfur-containing
compounds. While nutrients levels were typically reduced after this year of freezer storage, loss of
nutrients typically averaged about 15-35%. Although we strongly support purchase of fresh
vegetables—including cauliflower—whenever possible, frozen cauliflower may make a second-best
option in some meal plans.


While many people recognize cauliflower as a member of the cruciferous vegetable family, this
popular plant is more closely connected with its fellow "crucifers" than people might realize.
Cauliflower, cabbage, collard greens, kale, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli all belong to the same genus
and species of plant (Brassica oleracea) and this degree of commonality among popular plant foods is
somewhat unusual. While the traditional family name for this group of foods is "cruciferous
vegetables," many scientists are tending away from the science name Crucifereaefor this plant family
and more toward the name Brassicaceae. So you will also hear cauliflower being referred to as not
only a "cruciferous" vegetable but a "brassica" vegetable as well. (In Latin, the word "brassica" means

In the U.S., most cauliflower varieties have been selected for their formation of a fairly large compact
head (which is also called the "curd"). The cauliflower head is actually a closely packed arrangement
of undeveloped flower buds. Surrounding the curd are ribbed, coarse green leaves that help shield
this part of the plant from sunlight. This shielding of the cauliflower head also discourages the
development of chlorophyll in the head and is one of the reasons that this portion of the plant is
typically not bright green in color. (That being said, there are green varieties of cauliflower available in
the marketplace.) The raw cauliflower head tends to be firm yet slightly spongy in texture and can
have a slightly sulfur-like flavor, which some people also describe as faintly bitter. However, it is also
common for people to describe the cauliflower flavor as nutty and slightly sweet.

Cauliflower and broccoli are so closely related that some naturally occurring varieties of cauliflower
are often referred to by both names. Romanesco cauliflower—also called romanesco broccoli—is a
perfect example. This variety of Brassica oleracea has a flavor somewhere in between cauliflower and
broccoli and a highly distinct appearance in which the compact cauliflower head rises upward in a
tree-like or pyramidal shape. Romanesco cauliflower is also sometimes referred to as broccoflower,
but this name is more commonly used to refer to yet different cultivars of cauliflower with a green
head (or curd). As you can see, it is sometimes difficult to clearly differentiate between cauliflower
and broccoli due to the strong biological overlap between these foods. It's also interesting to note
that in most market analyses of broccoli imports and exports, the two foods are grouped together
into a single category.
Types of Cauliflower

Color can be a very practical way of separating different varieties of cauliflower into basic types. The
chart below shows basic color groupings for cauliflower and specific varieties that belong to each

White Green Purple Orange

Snow Cloud Emeraude Graffiti Cheddar

Snowball Vitaverde Violetta Orange Burst

Cloud Green Macerata Purple of Sicily Sunset

Aviso Monte Verde Mulberry


Cauliflower is generally thought to be native to the general Mediterranean region, especially the
northeastern portion of this region in what is now the country of Turkey. Its history here dates back
over 2,000 years. It's interesting to note that varieties of cauliflower were not always selected to
include a large, compact head (or "curd") and that in many regions of the world, cauliflower crops still
do not focus on those varieties. "Loose curd" cauliflower, for example, is widely enjoyed in many
areas of China. Roughly speaking, "loose curd" cauliflower can be considered as comparable to
broccoli raab—a form of broccoli that also lacks a large compact head and features longer stems and

Among cruciferous vegetables in general, cauliflower is not nearly as popular in the U.S. as in other
parts of the world. While the U.S. is the world's largest producer of broccoli, when it comes to
cauliflower, it is not remotely close to China or India, which produce 74% of the world's cauliflower.
Given the remarkable nutritional benefits of cauliflower, we hope that this pattern will change over
time and the cauliflower will become a more widely enjoyed cruciferous vegetable.

How to Select and Store

When purchasing cauliflower, look for a clean, creamy white, compact curd in which the bud clusters
are not separated. Spotted or dull-colored cauliflower should be avoided, as well as those in which
small flowers appear.

Heads that are surrounded by many thick green leaves are better protected and will be fresher. As its
size is not related to its quality, choose one that best suits your needs.

At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and cauliflower is no
exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of
exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the
purchased of certified organic foods, including cauliflower. In many cases, you may be able to find a
local organic grower who sells cauliflower but has not applied for formal organic certification either
through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or through a state agency. (Examples of states
offering state-certified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and
Washington.) However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of
organically grown cauliflower is very likely to be cauliflower that display the USDA organic logo
Store uncooked cauliflower in a paper or plastic bag in the refrigerator where it will keep for up to a
week. To prevent moisture from developing in the floret clusters, store it with the stem side down.

Here is some background on why we recommend refrigerating cauliflower. Whenever food is stored,
four basic factors affect its nutrient composition:exposure to air, exposure to light, exposure to heat,
and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B6, and carotenoids are good examples of nutrients
highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason, their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down
through refrigeration.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Preparing Cauliflower

Cauliflower florets are the part of the plant that most people eat. However, the stem and leaves are
edible too and are especially good for adding to soup stocks.

To cut cauliflower, first remove the outer leaves and then slice the florets at the base where they
meet the stalks. You can further cut them, if you desire pieces that are smaller or of uniform size.
Trim any brown coloration that may exist on the edges.

Cauliflower contains phytonutrients that release odorous sulfur compounds, especially when heated.
These odors become stronger with increased cooking time. If you want to minimize odor, retain the
vegetable's crisp texture, and in some cases reduce nutrient loss, cook the cauliflower for only a short

The Nutrient-Rich Way of Cooking Cauliflower

From all of the cooking methods we tried when cooking cauliflower, our favorite is Healthy Sauté. We
think that it provides the greatest flavor, texture, and overall recipe success. Healthy Sauté—similar to
Quick Boiling and Quick Steaming, our other recommended cooking methods—follows three basic
cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with improved nutrient
retention. These three guidelines are: (1) minimal necessary heat exposure; (2) minimal necessary
cooking duration; (3) minimal necessary food surface contact with cooking liquid.

Begin by cutting cauliflower florets into quarters and let sit for at least 5 minutes to enhance its
health-promoting benefits. To Healthy Sauté cauliflower, heat 5 TBS of broth (vegetable or chicken) or
water in a stainless steel skillet. Once bubbles begin to form add cauliflower florets (cut into quarters)
and turmeric, cover, and Healthy Sauté for 5 minutes. Toss with our Mediterranean Dressing. For
details see, 5-Minute Healthy Sautéed Cauliflower.

Recent studies on cauliflower cooking methods have shown a diverse set of interesting results. In one
study, microwaving did a better job preserving quercetin than steaming. But at the same time,
steaming did a better job of preserving kaempferol—another flavonoid—than microwaving. In terms
of total antioxidant capacity (as measured by FRAP, or ferric reducing antioxidant potential), 5
minutes of steaming produced slightly better results than 10 minutes of steaming, although this
entire range—5-10 minutes of steaming—produced great results. The boiling of cauliflower also
showed some health benefits, and the degree of these benefits was especially dependent on length
of boiling. As it turns out, 75% of total glucosinolates in cauliflower were lost after 30 minutes of
boiling, whereas only 30-40% were lost after 10 minutes of boiling. After analyzing all of these
nutrient trade-offs and taking texture and flavor into account, we arrived at a 5-minute Healthy
Sautéas our recommended approach for cooking cauliflower.
Nutritional Profile

Cauliflower is an excellent source of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B6. It
is a very good source of choline, dietary fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, manganese, phosphorus, and
biotin. Additionally, it is a good source of vitamin B1, B2, and B3, the minerals potassium and
magnesium, and protein.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the
calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods
that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this
food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that
explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that
the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or
concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes
values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use
the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner
where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient
composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the
amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the
nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this
amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating
we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government
standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference
Values for Nutrition Labeling.

Cauliflower, cooked
1.00 cup
124.00 grams

Calories: 29
GI: very low

DRI/DV Nutrient World's Healthiest

Nutrient Amount (%) Density Foods Rating

vitamin C 54.93 mg 73 46.2 excellent

vitamin K 17.11 mcg 19 12.0 excellent

folate 54.56 mcg 14 8.6 excellent

pantothenic acid 0.63 mg 13 8.0 excellent

vitamin B6 0.21 mg 12 7.8 excellent

choline 48.48 mg 11 7.2 very good

fiber 2.68 g 10 6.0 very good

omega-3 fats 0.21 g 9 5.5 very good

manganese 0.16 mg 7 4.4 very good

phosphorus 39.68 mg 6 3.6 very good

biotin 1.61 mcg 5 3.4 very good

vitamin B2 0.06 mg 5 2.9 good

protein 2.28 g 5 2.9 good

vitamin B1 0.05 mg 4 2.6 good

potassium 176.08 mg 4 2.4 good

vitamin B3 0.51 mg 3 2.0 good

magnesium 11.16 mg 3 1.7 good

World's Healthiest
Foods Rating Rule

DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%

DRI/DV>=50% OR
very good
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%

DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for
Cauliflower. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates,
sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Cauliflower, cooked
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)

1.00 cup
GI: very low
(124.00 g)


nutrient amount
Protein 2.28 g 5

Carbohydrates 5.10 g 2

Fat - total 0.56 g 1

Dietary Fiber 2.68 g 10

Calories 28.52 2


nutrient amount


Starch 0.00 g

Total Sugars 2.42 g

Monosaccharides -- g

Fructose -- g

Glucose -- g

Galactose -- g

Disaccharides -- g

Lactose -- g

Maltose -- g

Sucrose -- g

Soluble Fiber 0.85 g

Insoluble Fiber 1.82 g

Other Carbohydrates 0.00 g

Monounsaturated Fat 0.04 g

Polyunsaturated Fat 0.27 g

Saturated Fat 0.09 g

Trans Fat 0.00 g

Calories from Fat 5.02

Calories from Saturated Fat 0.78

Calories from Trans Fat 0.00

Cholesterol 0.00 mg

Water 115.32 g


nutrient amount


Water-Soluble Vitamins

B-Complex Vitamins

Vitamin B1 0.05 mg 4

Vitamin B2 0.06 mg 5

Vitamin B3 0.51 mg 3

Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents) 1.00 mg

Vitamin B6 0.21 mg 12

Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0

Biotin 1.61 mcg 5

Choline 48.48 mg 11
Folate 54.56 mcg 14

Folate (DFE) 54.56 mcg

Folate (food) 54.56 mcg

Pantothenic Acid 0.63 mg 13

Vitamin C 54.93 mg 73

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)

Vitamin A International Units (IU) 14.88 IU

Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) 0.74 mcg (RAE) 0

Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE) 1.49 mcg (RE)

Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE) 0.00 mcg (RE)

Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE) 1.49 mcg (RE)

Alpha-Carotene 0.00 mcg

Beta-Carotene 8.68 mcg

Beta-Carotene Equivalents 8.68 mcg

Cryptoxanthin 0.00 mcg

Lutein and Zeaxanthin 35.96 mcg

Lycopene 0.00 mcg

Vitamin D

Vitamin D International Units (IU) 0.00 IU 0

Vitamin D mcg 0.00 mcg

Vitamin E

Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents 0.09 mg (ATE) 1


Vitamin E International Units (IU) 0.13 IU

Vitamin E mg 0.09 mg

Vitamin K 17.11 mcg 19


nutrient amount

Boron 158.36 mcg

Calcium 19.84 mg 2

Chloride -- mg

Chromium -- mcg --

Copper 0.02 mg 2

Fluoride -- mg --

Iodine -- mcg --

Iron 0.40 mg 2

Magnesium 11.16 mg 3

Manganese 0.16 mg 7

Molybdenum -- mcg --

Phosphorus 39.68 mg 6

Potassium 176.08 mg 4

Selenium 0.74 mcg 1

Sodium 18.60 mg 1

Zinc 0.21 mg 2

nutrient amount

Omega-3 Fatty Acids 0.21 g 9

Omega-6 Fatty Acids 0.06 g

Monounsaturated Fats

14:1 Myristoleic 0.00 g

15:1 Pentadecenoic 0.00 g

16:1 Palmitol 0.00 g

17:1 Heptadecenoic 0.00 g

18:1 Oleic 0.04 g

20:1 Eicosenoic 0.00 g

22:1 Erucic 0.00 g

24:1 Nervonic 0.00 g

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

18:2 Linoleic 0.06 g

18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA) -- g

18:3 Linolenic 0.21 g

18:4 Stearidonic 0.00 g

20:3 Eicosatrienoic 0.00 g

20:4 Arachidonic 0.00 g

20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 0.00 g

22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 0.00 g

22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 0.00 g

Saturated Fatty Acids

4:0 Butyric 0.00 g

6:0 Caproic 0.00 g

8:0 Caprylic 0.00 g

10:0 Capric 0.00 g

12:0 Lauric 0.00 g

14:0 Myristic 0.00 g

15:0 Pentadecanoic 0.00 g

16:0 Palmitic 0.08 g

17:0 Margaric 0.00 g

18:0 Stearic 0.01 g

20:0 Arachidic 0.00 g

22:0 Behenate 0.00 g

24:0 Lignoceric 0.00 g


nutrient amount

Alanine 0.12 g

Arginine 0.11 g

Aspartic Acid 0.27 g

Cysteine 0.03 g

Glutamic Acid 0.30 g

Glycine 0.07 g

Histidine 0.05 g

Isoleucine 0.09 g

Leucine 0.13 g

Lysine 0.12 g

Methionine 0.03 g

Phenylalanine 0.08 g

Proline 0.10 g

Serine 0.12 g

Threonine 0.08 g

Tryptophan 0.03 g

Tyrosine 0.05 g

Valine 0.11 g


nutrient amount

Ash 0.74 g

Organic Acids (Total) 0.00 g

Acetic Acid 0.00 g

Citric Acid 0.00 g

Lactic Acid 0.00 g

Malic Acid 0.00 g

Taurine -- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total) 0.00 g

Glycerol 0.00 g

Inositol 0.00 g

Mannitol 0.00 g

Sorbitol 0.00 g

Xylitol 0.00 g

Artificial Sweeteners (Total) -- mg

Aspartame -- mg

Saccharin -- mg

Alcohol 0.00 g

Caffeine 0.00 mg


The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0,
ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163
nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular
food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was
included in this version of the database.


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