Sei sulla pagina 1di 35

Detailed Design of multi block producing machine with mixer and conveyor

Design of concrete mixer

1 Determination of Mixing Force of the Concrete

The mixing force of the concrete is calculated as follow:

F = 𝑀T × 𝑔

Where,

MT = Total Mass = Mass of concrete + Mass of mixing paddle

g = Acceleration due to gravity = 10m/s2

Assume the maximum mass of concrete is 50Kg and mass of the four mixing paddles be 5Kg.

Total mass =50Kg+5Kg=55Kg

Then the force required for proper mixing of concrete is;

F=MT x g=55Kg*10m/s2=550N

Determination of volume of mixing;

The volume of the mixer is calculated as;

Vmc=𝜋R2h,

Where,

Vmc=volume of mixing chamber

R=radius of mixer=0.5m

H=height of the mixer=0.6

Therefore,

Vmc=𝜋*0.52*0.6=0.471m3

Determination of Torque from mixer shaft

The torque is obtained from the equation as follows,

T=Fl

Where,

T=torque
F=force applied on the concrete

L=length of the mixing paddle perpendicular to the force (arm length).

Therefore,

T=550N*0.62m=341Nm

Determination of power

The power required to drive the mixer shaft is from the motor and calculated as,

P = FV

V=𝜋DN/60

Where,

P=power

F=force=550N (equally transmitted through the belt drive as a tension)

V=velocity

D=diameter of the pulley mounted on the motor (driver pulley) = 80mm

N=rotational speed of the motor shaft=1440rpm (estimated)

Then, V=(𝜋*0.08*1440rpm)/60=6.0288m/s

Therefore,

P=FV=550N*6.0288m/s=3315.84W=3.31584KW

P=3.31584/0.746=4.4448HP≅ 5HP (considering safety factor)

Motor specification

Power=5HP

Speed=1440rpm

3.6.3 BELT design


Figure 3.4 belt 1

Figure 3.5 types of belt


Figure 3.5 types of belt 1

Following are the various important factors upon which the selection of a belt drive depends:

1. Speed of the driving and driven shafts, 2. Speed reduction ratio,


3. Power to be transmitted, 4. Centre distance between the shafts,
5. Positive drive requirements, 6. Shafts layout,
7. Space available, and 8. Service conditions.

Material selected for belt is rubber with mechanical properties,

𝜌=1140Kg/m3
𝜎𝑢𝑙 = 21 − 35𝑀𝑝𝑎
F.S=8-10
𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 1.75𝑀𝑝𝑎
Belt speed (v) = 20-22.5 m/s
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley
0.54 − 42.6
𝜇=
152.6 + v
0.54 − 42.6
𝜇= = 0.29
152.6 + 20
𝜇 =0.18(standard value on khurmi book table 18.2)
Belt thickness=5mm
 Total percentage of sleep of the belt considering belt thickness is given by the formula;
𝑁2 𝑑1 + 𝑡 𝑠
= [1 − ]
𝑁1 𝑑2 + 𝑡 100
24rpm 80mm + 5mm 𝑠
= [1 − ]
150rpm 500mm + 5mm 100
S=4.93%
 Belt length

𝜋 (𝑑1 −𝑑2 )2
𝐿 = 2 (𝑑1 + 𝑑2 ) + 2𝑥 + …………… (In terms of pulley diameters)
4𝑥

𝜋 (80 − 500)2
𝐿= (80 + 500) + 2 × 1418.38 +
2 4 × 1418.38
L =3.78m
 Angle of contact /lap
Angle of contact or lap,
𝜋
𝜃 = (180𝑜 − 2𝛼) 180 𝑟𝑎𝑑…………….(For open belt drive)
𝜋
= (180𝑜 + 2𝛼) 180 𝑟𝑎𝑑…………….(For cross-belt drive)
𝑟1 −𝑟2
But 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 = ……………. (For open belt drive)
𝑥
𝑟1 +𝑟2
= ………………. (For cross-belt drive)
𝑥

 For open belt drive


250 − 40
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 = = 0.148
1418.38
𝜶 = 𝟖. 𝟓°

𝜋
𝜃 = (180 − 2 × 8.5) ×
180𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝜽 =2.84rad

Support Shaft design

Material selected; Carbon steel 50c12

𝜎u =700MPa 𝜎y=390MPa

According to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code for the design of
transmission shafts, the maximum permissible working stresses in tension or compression may
be taken as
(a) 112 MPa for shafts without allowance for keyways.
(b) 84 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

The maximum permissible shear stress may be taken as


(a) 56 MPa for shafts without allowance for key ways.
(b) 42 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

Stress analysis

The following stresses are induced in the shafts:

1. Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).
2. Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements
like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.

3, Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads

 Our pulley shaft is subjected to combined twisting and bending stress According to
maximum shear stress theory for ductile materials (cast steel), the maximum shear stress
in the shaft,

1 𝑀×𝑌
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2 √(𝜎𝑏 )2 + 4𝜏 2 Where; 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐼
𝜋𝑑4 𝑑
But, 𝐼 = 𝑌=
64 2

32𝑀
Then 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑3

𝐺𝜃 𝑇 𝜏
= = 𝑅……………….fluxural formula
𝐿 𝐽

𝑇𝑅 𝜋𝐷 3
⇒𝜏= But, 𝐽 =
𝐽 32

16𝑇
⇒𝜏=
𝜋𝑑3

Shear force and bending moment diagram

550N

Ra 80 170 90 Rb 110

550N

𝜀𝐹𝑦 =0;↑ + Ra+Rb+550N-550N=0…………………………………………………..1

⟹Ra=Rb so,

𝜀𝑀𝑎 =0; ccw+ Rb*340+550*250-550*80=0……………………………………………..2

Rb = (550*340-550*80)/340=420.588N

Ra=Rb=420.6N

420.6N 129.4N 550N


80mm 170mm 90mm 110mm 0 SFD

-129.4N

33.65Nm 55.648Nm

0 BMD

5.6126Nm 3.47166Nm

21.998Nm

Then Mmax=55.648Nm 𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑛⁄60 but, n=1440rpm

𝑝∗𝐾𝑙 3.31584𝐾𝑤∗1.75
Twisting moment(𝑇) = = = 38.5𝑁𝑚, where Kl-load factor=1.75 for line
𝜔 150.72𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

shaft.

For suddenly applied load (heavy shock) considering the factors;

Kb-bending factor=2 to 3

Kt-torsional factor=1.5 to 3

16
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = [√(𝐾𝑏𝑀)2 + (𝐾𝑡𝑇)2 ]
𝜋𝑑 3

16
42𝑀𝑝𝑎 = [√(3 ∗ 55.648)2 + (3 ∗ 38.5)2 ]
𝜋𝑑 3

16
42*106= 𝜋𝑑3 ∗ 203.004

𝑑 = 29.095𝑚𝑚 ≅ 29𝑚𝑚
3.6.2 PULLEY DESIGN

Figure 3.3 pulley 1

Material selected for pulley is cast iron.

The diameter of pulley could be determined from either centrifugal stress consideration or
velocity ratio consideration.
 Centrifugal stress consideration
𝜎𝑡 = 𝜌. 𝑣 2
7200kg
Where, 𝜌 = density of the material = for cast iron
m3
𝜋𝐷𝑁
V = Velocity of the rim = , D being the diameter of pulley and N is speed of the
60

pulley.
 Velocity ratio consideration
D4 D3

Motor pulley D2 D1
Motor
Speed reduction pulley support
Dimensions of pulley
D1=80mm, D2=640mm, D3=80mm, D4=500mm to get the required speed of mixer.
𝐷1 𝑁
= 𝑁2
𝐷2 1

𝐷4 𝑁3
=
𝐷3 𝑁4
N3=N2 on the same shaft
Where N1 = angular speed of motor
=1440rpm
N2 = angular speed of support pulley
D1=diameter of motor pulley = 80mm
N2= speed of support shaft is determined from the relation.
𝐷1 ×𝑁1
N2= 𝐷2
80×1440rpm
N2= = 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝒓𝒑𝒎 =N3=angular speed of support pulley
640rpm

N4=angular speed of mixer pulley is,


D3=diameter of support small pulley =80mm
D4=diameter of mixer pulley=500mm
𝐷3 ×𝑁3
N4= 𝐷4
80×180
N4= = 𝟐𝟖. 𝟖𝒎𝒎
500

If the width of the belt is known, then width of the pulley or face of the pulley (B) is taken 25%
greater than the width of belt.
B = 1.25 b; where b = Width of belt.
The following are the width of flat cast iron and mild steel pulleys in mm:
16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 315, 355,
400, 450, 560, 630
We selected B=40mm ⇛b=B/1.25=40/1.25=32mm
For double v groove pulley,
Groove width (B) = 16mm, then belt width for one groove (b) = 1.25B=1.25*16mm=12.8mm
Dimensions of hub
The diameter of the hub (d1) in terms of shaft diameter (d) may be fixed by the following
relation:
d1 = 1.5 d + 25 mm=1.5*59.5+25=114.25mm<119mm (2d)
The diameter of the hub should not be greater than 2 d.
The length of the hub,
𝜋 3.14
𝐿= ×𝑑 = × 59.5 = 93.415𝑚𝑚
2 2
KEY DESIGN

Figure 3.7 key 1

From standard table 3.3 on khurmi book the key cross section based on shaft diameter is;

Material for the key is mild steel with properties


Table 3.3mild steel with its properties 1
 Width=20mm, thickness=12mm for shaft ∅ of 60mm (mixer shaft).
 Width =10mm, thickness=8mm for shaft ∅ of 29mm (support shaft).
Stress analysis for the key
Considering shearing of the key, the tangential shearing force acting at the circumference of the
Shaft,
F = Area resisting shearing × Shear stress = l × w × 𝜏
Torque transmitted by the shaft,
𝑑 𝑑
𝑇 = 𝐹 × 2 = 𝑙 × 𝑤 × 𝜏 × 2…………………………………………………………………1

Considering crushing of the key, the tangential crushing force acting at the circumference of the
Shaft,
𝑙×𝑡
F = Area resisting crushing × Crushing stress= 2×𝜎
𝑐

Torque transmitted by the shaft,


𝑑 𝑡 𝑑
𝑇 = 𝐹 × 2 = 𝑙 × 2 × 𝜎𝑐 × 2……………………………...2
𝑑 𝜋𝑑3 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 210𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑇 =𝐿×𝑊×𝜏×2 =𝜏× , 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 105𝑀𝑝𝑎
16 2 2

 For shaft ∅ of 60mm


Lx20 × 105MPa × 60 105MPa × 3.14 × 603
=
2 16

L=70.65mm

 For shaft ∅ of 29mm

L × 10 × 105MPa × 29 105MPa × 3.14 × 293


=
2 16

L=33.01mm
paddle Shaft design

Material selected; Carbon steel 50c12

𝜎u =700MPa 𝜎y=390MPa

According to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code for the design of
transmission shafts, the maximum permissible working stresses in tension or compression may
be taken as
(a) 112 MPa for shafts without allowance for keyways.
(b) 84 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

The maximum permissible shear stress may be taken as


(a) 56 MPa for shafts without allowance for key ways.
(b) 42 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

Stress analysis

The following stresses are induced in the shafts:

3. Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).
4. Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements
like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.

3, Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads


 Our pulley shaft is subjected to combined twisting and bending stress According to
maximum shear stress theory for ductile materials (cast steel), the maximum shear stress
in the shaft,

1 𝑀×𝑌
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2 √(𝜎𝑏 )2 + 4𝜏 2 Where; 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐼

𝜋𝑑4 𝑑
But, 𝐼 = 𝑌=
64 2

32𝑀
Then 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑3

𝐺𝜃 𝑇 𝜏
= = 𝑅……………….fluxural formula
𝐿 𝐽

𝑇𝑅 𝜋𝐷 3
⇒𝜏= But, 𝐽 =
𝐽 32

16𝑇
⇒𝜏=
𝜋𝑑3

Shear force and bending moment diagram

550N

Ra 620mm

𝜀𝐹𝑦 =0;↑ + Ra+550N=0…………………………………………………..1

⟹Ra= -550N so,

𝑀𝑎 = 550𝑁 ∗ 0.62𝑚 = 341𝑁𝑚


500N

620mm 0 SFD

341Nm

0 BMD

Then Mmax=341Nm 𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑛⁄60 but, n=28.8rpm

𝑝∗𝐾𝑙 3.31584𝐾𝑤∗1.75
Twisting moment(𝑇) = = = 1925𝑁𝑚, where Kl-load factor=1.75 for line
𝜔 3.0144𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

shaft.

For suddenly applied load (heavy shock) considering the factors;

Kb-bending factor=2 to 3

Kt-torsional factor=1.5 to 3

16
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = [√(𝐾𝑏𝑀)2 + (𝐾𝑡𝑇)2 ]
𝜋𝑑 3
16
56𝑀𝑝𝑎 = [√(3 ∗ 341)2 + (3 ∗ 1925)2 ]
𝜋𝑑 3

𝒅 = 𝟔𝟔. 𝟗𝟓𝟕𝒎𝒎

Check for failurity due to torsional shear stress.

16𝑇
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜋𝑑3 , T= 1925Nm

16 × 1925
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
3.14 × 66.9573

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =32.676MPa≪ 𝜏 y (56MPa), safe.


Container leg design

Figure 3.15 container leg 1

Material for container is AISI 1020. Angle iron 45x45x5

𝜎t=420MPa, 𝜎y=352MPa, E=200GPa

Resolving load along the leg direction, total load on the mixer includes weight of the concrete
and dead weight of the mixer.

W= (50Kg+10Kg)*10m/s2=600N, the mixer includes 5 legs.

The load per leg=600N/5=120N

120N

70°
Length of leg =700mm
Force along leg is then FL=120N/cos20°=127.7N
Compressive stress on the leg is given by;

𝜎c=FL/A, cross sectional area of the angle iron is (45*5+40*5) =425mm2


𝜎c=127.7N/425mm2=0.3MPa≪12MPa, safe
Check for buckling stress.
𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = ………………..Euler column formula
𝐿2
𝑏1 ∙ℎ1 3 𝑏2 ∙ℎ2 3
𝐼𝑥𝑥 = + =27135.42mm4
12 12

𝜋 2 ×200𝐺𝑝𝑎×27135.42𝑚𝑚4
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = (700𝑚𝑚)2
=109201.8N, this is the critical load in which selected material

could carry. But, actual critical load on the leg is 120N*4=480N (considering a safety factor of
4). So the design of leg support for the selected material is safe.

Bearing selection

Bearings classified as rolling contact and sliding contact, rolling contact bearing is further
classified as radial and thrust bearing.

Figure 3.6 types of bearing 1

Types of Radial Ball Bearings


Thrust bearing supports axial load (WA), support bearing
Radial bearing supports radial load (WR), conveyor bearing
Material selected for bearing is lead bronze. It has good corrosion resistance.
Table 3.2Principal dimensions for radial ball bearings 1

Selection of conveyor bearing (radial)


Our bearing based on shaft diameter =29mm≅30mm is
Bearing number=206
Bore diameter=30mm
Outside diameter=62mm
Width=16mm
Selection of mixer shaft bearing (thrust)
Our bearing based on shaft diameter =59.5mm≅60mm is
Bearing number=212
Bore diameter=60mm
Outside diameter=110mm
Width=22mm
Selection of support bearing (thrust)
Our bearing based on shaft diameter =25mm is,
Bearing number=205
Bore diameter=25mm
Outside diameter=52mm
Width=15mm
 Static equivalent load for rolling contact bearing
W0R = X0.WR + Y0.WA; and 2. W0R = WR
Where WR = Radial load,
WA = Axial or thrust load,
X0 = Radial load factor, and
Y0 = Axial or thrust load factor.
According to IS: 3824 – 1984, the values of X0 and Y0 for different bearings are given in the
table:
Xo=0.6
Yo=0.5, for single row radial contact groove ball bearing
 For radial bearing WA=0N, WR=550N
Then, WOR=0.6*550N+0.5*0N
WOR =330N
 For thrust bearing WA=150N(weight of mixer shaft and paddle assumed), WR=550N
Then, WOR=0.6*550N+0.5*150N
WOR=405N
 Dynamic Equivalent Load for Rolling Contact Bearing
W = X. V. WR + Y. WA
Where V = A rotation factor,
= 1, for all types of bearings when the inner race is rotating,
= 1, for self-aligning bearings when inner race is stationary,
= 1.2, for all types of bearings except self-aligning, when inner race is stationary.
The values of radial load factor (X) and axial or thrust load factor (Y) for the dynamically loaded
bearings is given in the table:
X=1, Y=0 in table 27.4 of khurmi text book
W=1*1*330N+0*0(radial)
=330N
W= 1*1*0+0*7(thrust)
=0N
 Service life of bearing
𝐶 𝑘
𝐿 = ( ) × 106 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑊
Where, L = Rating life,
C = Basic dynamic load rating,
W = Equivalent dynamic load, and
k = 3, for ball bearings,
= 10/3, for roller bearings.
Basic static load rating (CO) =10KN
Basic dynamic load rating (C) =15.3KN, from table 27.6 on khurmi book to bearing number 206.
15.3𝐾𝑁 3
𝐿=( ) × 106 𝑟𝑒𝑣
60𝑁
= 16581375x106rev

Life in hour is given by

𝐿 16581375 × 106 𝑟𝑒𝑣


𝐿𝐻 = =
60𝑁 60 × 28.8rpm

= 6565.3195x106 hr.

Conveyor design

Figure 3.11 belt conveyors

Material selected for conveyor belt is cotton fabric.


Fig 3.12 idler

Fig carrying idler

Fig return idler

Belt width from standard table 7.1b on Daniel kitaw book

B=400mm

Length of idler from standard table 7.1c on Daniel kitaw book

Table recommended dimensions of idlers ES1537:1975

External diameters, d1, of carrying idlers and return idlers

(a)
Table Lengths of return idlers

d1=63.5mm

L=250mm (for each two), for carrying idler with B=400mm and v- idler.

L=500mm, for return idler with B=400mm and single idler.


Weight of moving part =24Kg/m
Maximum speed of belt=1.5m/s (abrasive material), for belt width of 400mm in Daniel kitaw
book table 7.5.
Specific weight of bulk material=2200Kg/m3
Inclination of belt conveyor=20°, for conveyed bulk material of concert.
Diving and driven pulleys
Welded steel pulley is selected.

Fig driving/driven pulley


Table
a, nominal diameter of driving pulley
D(mm) 160 200 215 250 315 400 500 630 800
b, The pulley length L is given with regard to the belt width b in millimeters
b(mm) 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200
l(mm) 400 500 600 750 950 1150 1400
C, Diameter of the driven pulleys
d(m 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1400 1 1
m) 6 8
0 0
0 0
Selected pulley dimensions are;
Nominal diameter of driving pulley=160mm
Pulley length L=500mm
Diameter of the driven pulley=100mm
Capacity of belt conveyor
If the material to be conveyed is in bulk, then the capacity Q [tons/h] is calculated using
equation,
𝑄 = 3.6𝛾𝐴𝑣

Where 𝛾= the density of the material [kg/m3]


A = the cross-sectional area of the material being conveyed [m2]
v = Velocity of the belt [m/s]
If the belt conveyor has an inclination(𝛿), then the capacity Q will be reduced by a factor p.
Q=3.6*2200Kg/m3*1.5m/s*1.6m2
Q =19008Kg/h
Considering inclination
Table Value of p as a Function of 𝛿
Q𝛿=p*Q, p=0.76 for𝛿=22°

Q𝛿=0.76*19008Kg/h

Q𝛿 =14446.08Kg/h (conveyor capacity).

Trough cross section for different idler alignment

Fig two carrying idler

The cross-sectional area of the material to be conveyed for a flat belt and for the troughed one
may be calculated using an empirical formula.

Af = (B+4)*B2/110
Af = (400+4)*4002/110=0.00058763636m2
Ac=2Af=2*0.00058763636m2=0.0011752723m2

Where Af = cross-sectional area of the material on the flat belt [m2]


Ac = cross-sectional area of the material on the troughed belt [m2]
B = belt width [m]

Resistance Forces

The forces which are opposing the movement of the belt, the material and all moving parts are
due to friction on the parts and due to material transport, force required to overcome the level
difference, discharge forces and fixed resistance.
a. Frictional force on the moving parts (belt, idlers, drum, etc)

r1=fqsl

Where r1 = frictional forces due to moving parts


f = coefficient of frictional force of the idlers
qs = weight of the moving part in kg/m of the belt

l = belt length between two extreme drum centers [m]

Table friction coefficient, m, between driving pulley and rubber belting

For our case f=0.1

Then, r1=0.1*24Kg/m*4m=9.6Kg

b. Frictional force due to material transport

r2=fqmlm=0.1*24*4=9.6Kg = r1

Where qm = weight of material transported [kg/m of belt]

lm = the distance that the material is transported [m].

c. Force required to overcome the level difference


r3=qmH=24Kg/m*4msin20°=32.834Kg

Where H = elevation difference

d. Discharging force

Fixed discharger

r4=a*qm

Where a - fixed discharge coefficients (Table 7.5 Daniel kitaw book).

a=0.085

Then, r4=0.085*24Kg/m=2.04Kg

The total resistance to motion, R, is the sum of the resistances.

R=r1+r2+r3+r4 (fixed discharge)

R=9.6Kg+9.6Kg+32.834Kg+2.04Kg=54.074Kg

Power Requirement

In order to determine the required motor power [kW], we use the total resistance R and calculate
the power N.
N=R*v/102𝜂

Where v = speed of the belt in m/s=1.5m.s


𝜂 = efficiency of the electromotor≅0.8
N=54.074*1.5/102*0.8=0.994KW
Conveyor leg support design beam

Column

Fig conveyor leg support 1


Leg support includes horizontal beam and vertical column.

The beam part subjected to bending stress and the column part subjected to buckling and
compressive stress.
Beam
Subjected to uniformly distributed load due to live load (weight of transporting concrete) and
dead weight (weight of all the conveyor components).
WT=96Kg+100Kg=196Kg
udl=WT/l, where l- length of the beam1=820mm, beam2=1220mm
udl1=196Kg/0.82m=239.024Kg/m*10m/s2=2390.24N/m and
udl2=196Kg/1.22m=160.66Kg/m*10m/s2=1606.6N/m

2390.24N/m

RB
RA 0.82m

1606.6N/m

RB
RA 1.22m
Material ASTMA36 steel 𝜎y= 250MPa, E= 200GPa, factor of safety=4
120×80×8 and l1=820mm, l2 =1220mm RHS is selected.
RA=RB=979.9984N, then Mmax1=979.9984N*0.41m=401.7993Nm and
Mmax2=979.9984N*0.61m=597.8Nm
𝑏ℎ3 120×803 −104×643
𝐼𝑥𝑥 = = =2848085.3mm4
12 12

𝜎b1=MY/I, Y=h/2=80/2=40mm
𝜎b1=401.7993Nm*40mm/2848085.3mm4=5.64MPa and
𝜎b2=597.8Nm*40mm/2848085.3mm4=8.4MPa
𝜎b1,𝜎b2 both< 𝜎bmax (62.5MPa), safe.

Column
490N

After bend

Before bend

Material AISI cold drawn steel𝜎y=250MPa, E=200GPa


120×80×8 and l1=1300mm,l2= 300mm RHS is selected
 Check for buckling stress.
𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = …………….. Euler column formula
𝐿2

Ixx=bh3/12= (80*1203-64*1043)/12=5520725.3mm4
Pcr1=𝜋2*200GPa*5520725.3mm4/ (1300mm)2=6441.67N
Pcr2=𝜋2*200GPa*5520725.3mm4/ (300mm)2 = 120960.32N
But, actual critical load on the legs is 420N (considering safety factor of 4),
Wcr=420N*4=1680N so the four legs are safe for buckling.

 Check for compressive stress.

𝜎c=P/A=, p for one leg =1960/4=490N and A = (bo*ho-bi*hi)

𝜎c=490N/ (120*80-104*64) =5.09MPa<62.5MPa, safe

Hook design
Figure 3.12 hook

A part of hook includes; shank, saddle and mouth.


The unit stress on the saddle of the hook can be found from the equation,
𝑄 𝑀 𝑀 1 𝛾
𝜎= + + ∙ ∙
𝐴 𝐴𝑟 𝐴𝑟 𝑥 𝛾 + 𝑟

Figure 3.13 cross sectional view of hook 1

Where, 𝜎= unit stress for the fiber at a distance y from the neutral axis [kgf/cm2]
Q = load on the hook [kgf]
A = area of the critical cross-section here cross-section I [cm2]
r = radius of curvature of the neutral axis at the critical cross section [cm]
x = factor depending on the shape of the cross-section and the curvature of the beam
y = distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. Y is negative if the fiber is between the Centre
of curvature and the natural axis; and is positive if the fiber is on the other side of the neutral
axis, [cm]
M = bending moment [kgf.cm]. M is positive if it causes the hook curvature to increase (its
radius decrease) or negative if the curvature decreases. Since the load tends to open the hook,
 Tensile Stress in the Inner Fiber
𝑄 1 2𝑒1
𝜎1 = 𝐴 ∙ 𝑥 ∙ ≤ 𝜎𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒 𝑎𝑙𝑙 - Maximum tensile stress
𝑎

From Daniel kitaw book in standard table 4.4 by taking minimum load capacity of 0.25ton
Area of cross section (A) =3.44cm2
Distance between centroid and inner contour (Xc) =1.13cm
Radius of mouse (a/2) =1.5cm
Shape factor (𝜒) =0.081
Distance between zero line and centroid (𝛾) =0.196
Distance between zero line and inner core (e1) =0.934
40𝐾𝑔 1 2 × 0.934
𝜎𝑡 = × ×
3.44 0.081 3
=89Kgf/cm2< 𝜎tall (150 Kgf/cm2)…………………………………………………………safe
 Compressive Stress in the Outer Fiber
𝑄 1 𝑒
𝜎2 = − 𝐴 ∙ 𝑥 × 𝑎 2 < 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙 - Maximum compressive stress
+ℎ
2

e2=h-e1 but, h=a=3cm

e2=3cm-0.934cm=2.066cm

𝜎c= (40Kgf/3.44)*(1/0.081)*(2.066/ (1.5+3))

=65.9Kgf/cm2< 𝜎call (150 Kgf/cm2)…………………………………………safe

Filling link design

Figure 3.8 links 1

Material for link is cold drawn steel.

𝜎y=325MPa, E=205GPa

The link is subjected to compressive and buckling stress

𝑝𝑐𝑟 𝑆𝑦 𝑙 2 1
= 𝑆𝑦 − (2𝜋 𝑘) …………………………..3
𝐴 𝑐𝐸

From Euler formula c=1, both side pivoted


𝐼
𝐾=√
𝐴

𝑏𝑑3
𝐾 = √12𝑏𝑑 , b=50mm, d=25mm

K =7.22mm
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐹. 𝑆 × 𝑃𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 4 × 300N = 1200N
From equation 3 above
325 500 2 1
1200N/A= 325 − ( 2𝜋 × 7.22) × 205𝐺𝑝𝑎

1200N/A=262.34MPa

A=125mm2, bd=125mm2⇛b=125mm2/25mm=5mm

Checking for compressive stress

𝜎=P/A=300N/125mm2=2.4MPa≪ 𝜎 c, safe in compression P

Mold lifter link design Nc

N2 388mm

160° W2

W1 B1
BA B2

230mm B 371mm
In solving the forces on each link and joint, the forces are resolved along the x and y-axis and moments at pin joint
A and B respectively. Nc is the force resisting the breakage of the system due to W 2 (weight of link B). B1 and B2 are
the reaction at pin B as shown in the free-body-diagram above.

𝜃-veries from 80° to 160°.

Where, p- load on the link including weight of the mold and rammer=30Kg*10m/s 2=300N

W2=2Kg*10m/s=20N

W1=1Kg*10m/s=10N

Link 1

𝜀𝐹𝑥 =0= BA-


B2……………………………………………………………………………………………….……………
………………1

𝜀𝐹𝑦 = 0 =B1+W1⟹B1=W1=10N

𝜀𝑀A=0= W1*0.115m+B1*0.23m+W2*(0.23+0.371cos60°) + 0.371cos60°+ 0.388cos80 °(P-N2) + Nc


(0.371sin60°+0.388sin80°)

1.15Nm+2.3Nm+0.4155Nm+0.1855Nm+20.213Nm-0.0674N2+0.7034Nc=0

24.264Nm-
0.0674N2+0.7034Nc=0……………………………………………………………………..………………
….2

Link 2

𝜀𝐹𝑦 =0=N2-P-W2-
B1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……..3

N2-300N-20N-10N=0 ⟹N2=330N

From equation 2 above, Nc= (0.0674N2-24.264Nm)/0.7034

Nc=-5.75N (to the left)

𝜀𝐹𝑥 =0=Nc-B2

B2=Nc=-5.75N (to the right)

From equation 1 BA=B2=-5.75N (to the left)

B1=10N, B2=5.75N (to the right), BA=5.75(to the left), N2=330N, NA=5.75N(to the left).
Weld design

Types of Welded Joints

Figure 3.10Types of lap or fillet joints

Figure 3.10Types of lap or fillet joints 1

Throat area =0.705*l

If there is a combination of single transverse and double parallel fillet welds as shown in fig
above. Then the strength of the joint is given by the sum of strengths of single transverse and
double parallel fillet welds. Mathematically,
𝑃 = 0.707𝑠 × 𝑙1 × 𝜎𝑡 + 1.414𝑠 × 𝑙2 × 𝜏
𝑃 = 0.707 × 3 × 90 × 200 × 110𝑀𝑝𝑎 + 1.414 × 3 × 110 × 55
=46.662KN
 Circular fillet weld subjected to bending moment.

Consider a circular rod connected to a rigid plate by a fillet weld as shown in Fig above
𝑀 𝑀 4𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = = =
𝑍 𝜋𝑡𝑑 /4 𝜋𝑡𝑑 2
2

Let d = Diameter of rod,


M = Bending moment acting on the rod,
s = Size (or leg) of weld,
t = Throat thickness,
Z = Section modulus of the weld section
We know that the bending stress,
4𝑀 5.66𝑀
𝜎𝑏(𝑚𝑎𝑥) = 2
=
𝜋 × 0.707𝑠 × 𝑑 𝜋𝑠𝑑2
5.66 × 1500MPa
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 4𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝜋 × 3 × 152
 Tensile strength for double-V butt joint
𝑃 = (𝑡1 + 𝑡2 )𝑙 × 𝜎𝑡

Where t1 = Throat thickness at the top, andt2 = Throat thickness at the bottom.

𝜎t=35MPa, for fillet weld subjected to fatigue load with coated electrode in table 10.5 on khurmi.

P= (3+2)*80mm*35MPa=14KN

Link pin design


Figure 3.9 link pin 1

Material selected for pin is AISI1020


E=200GPa
𝜎t=420MPa
𝜎y=351MPa, 𝜏max=1/2𝜎y=175.5MPa
Pin is subjected to combined shear and bending stress. Based on maximum shear stress theory,
𝟏
𝜏𝒎𝒂𝒙 = √(𝝈𝒃 )𝟐 + 𝟒(𝝉)𝟐
𝟐

1 32𝑀 2 16𝑇 2 16
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √( 3 ) + ( 3 ) = 3 √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2
2 𝜋𝑑 𝜋𝑑 𝜋𝑑

1 32 ∗ 120 2 16 ∗ 150𝑁𝑚 2
175.5 = √( ) + ( )
2 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

16
175.5 = √1202 + 1502
𝜋𝑑 3

d=17.73mm

Bolt design

Figure 3.17 bolt 1

 Initial Stresses due to Screwing up Forces.

1, tensile stress due to stretching of bolt

𝑃𝑖 = 1420𝑑𝑁

Where, Pi = Initial tension in a bolt, and


d = Nominal diameter of bolt, in mm.
Pi=1420*12=17040Nmm