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1 visualizzazioni35 paginethis is my design document

Apr 19, 2019

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this is my design document

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this is my design document

© All Rights Reserved

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F = 𝑀T × 𝑔

Where,

Assume the maximum mass of concrete is 50Kg and mass of the four mixing paddles be 5Kg.

F=MT x g=55Kg*10m/s2=550N

Vmc=𝜋R2h,

Where,

R=radius of mixer=0.5m

Therefore,

Vmc=𝜋*0.52*0.6=0.471m3

T=Fl

Where,

T=torque

F=force applied on the concrete

Therefore,

T=550N*0.62m=341Nm

Determination of power

The power required to drive the mixer shaft is from the motor and calculated as,

P = FV

V=𝜋DN/60

Where,

P=power

V=velocity

Then, V=(𝜋*0.08*1440rpm)/60=6.0288m/s

Therefore,

P=FV=550N*6.0288m/s=3315.84W=3.31584KW

Motor specification

Power=5HP

Speed=1440rpm

Figure 3.4 belt 1

Figure 3.5 types of belt 1

Following are the various important factors upon which the selection of a belt drive depends:

3. Power to be transmitted, 4. Centre distance between the shafts,

5. Positive drive requirements, 6. Shafts layout,

7. Space available, and 8. Service conditions.

𝜌=1140Kg/m3

𝜎𝑢𝑙 = 21 − 35𝑀𝑝𝑎

F.S=8-10

𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 1.75𝑀𝑝𝑎

Belt speed (v) = 20-22.5 m/s

Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley

0.54 − 42.6

𝜇=

152.6 + v

0.54 − 42.6

𝜇= = 0.29

152.6 + 20

𝜇 =0.18(standard value on khurmi book table 18.2)

Belt thickness=5mm

Total percentage of sleep of the belt considering belt thickness is given by the formula;

𝑁2 𝑑1 + 𝑡 𝑠

= [1 − ]

𝑁1 𝑑2 + 𝑡 100

24rpm 80mm + 5mm 𝑠

= [1 − ]

150rpm 500mm + 5mm 100

S=4.93%

Belt length

𝜋 (𝑑1 −𝑑2 )2

𝐿 = 2 (𝑑1 + 𝑑2 ) + 2𝑥 + …………… (In terms of pulley diameters)

4𝑥

𝜋 (80 − 500)2

𝐿= (80 + 500) + 2 × 1418.38 +

2 4 × 1418.38

L =3.78m

Angle of contact /lap

Angle of contact or lap,

𝜋

𝜃 = (180𝑜 − 2𝛼) 180 𝑟𝑎𝑑…………….(For open belt drive)

𝜋

= (180𝑜 + 2𝛼) 180 𝑟𝑎𝑑…………….(For cross-belt drive)

𝑟1 −𝑟2

But 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 = ……………. (For open belt drive)

𝑥

𝑟1 +𝑟2

= ………………. (For cross-belt drive)

𝑥

250 − 40

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 = = 0.148

1418.38

𝜶 = 𝟖. 𝟓°

𝜋

𝜃 = (180 − 2 × 8.5) ×

180𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝜽 =2.84rad

𝜎u =700MPa 𝜎y=390MPa

According to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code for the design of

transmission shafts, the maximum permissible working stresses in tension or compression may

be taken as

(a) 112 MPa for shafts without allowance for keyways.

(b) 84 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

(a) 56 MPa for shafts without allowance for key ways.

(b) 42 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

Stress analysis

1. Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).

2. Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements

like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.

Our pulley shaft is subjected to combined twisting and bending stress According to

maximum shear stress theory for ductile materials (cast steel), the maximum shear stress

in the shaft,

1 𝑀×𝑌

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2 √(𝜎𝑏 )2 + 4𝜏 2 Where; 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐼

𝜋𝑑4 𝑑

But, 𝐼 = 𝑌=

64 2

32𝑀

Then 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑3

𝐺𝜃 𝑇 𝜏

= = 𝑅……………….fluxural formula

𝐿 𝐽

𝑇𝑅 𝜋𝐷 3

⇒𝜏= But, 𝐽 =

𝐽 32

16𝑇

⇒𝜏=

𝜋𝑑3

550N

Ra 80 170 90 Rb 110

550N

⟹Ra=Rb so,

Rb = (550*340-550*80)/340=420.588N

Ra=Rb=420.6N

80mm 170mm 90mm 110mm 0 SFD

-129.4N

33.65Nm 55.648Nm

0 BMD

5.6126Nm 3.47166Nm

21.998Nm

𝑝∗𝐾𝑙 3.31584𝐾𝑤∗1.75

Twisting moment(𝑇) = = = 38.5𝑁𝑚, where Kl-load factor=1.75 for line

𝜔 150.72𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

shaft.

Kb-bending factor=2 to 3

Kt-torsional factor=1.5 to 3

16

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = [√(𝐾𝑏𝑀)2 + (𝐾𝑡𝑇)2 ]

𝜋𝑑 3

16

42𝑀𝑝𝑎 = [√(3 ∗ 55.648)2 + (3 ∗ 38.5)2 ]

𝜋𝑑 3

16

42*106= 𝜋𝑑3 ∗ 203.004

𝑑 = 29.095𝑚𝑚 ≅ 29𝑚𝑚

3.6.2 PULLEY DESIGN

The diameter of pulley could be determined from either centrifugal stress consideration or

velocity ratio consideration.

Centrifugal stress consideration

𝜎𝑡 = 𝜌. 𝑣 2

7200kg

Where, 𝜌 = density of the material = for cast iron

m3

𝜋𝐷𝑁

V = Velocity of the rim = , D being the diameter of pulley and N is speed of the

60

pulley.

Velocity ratio consideration

D4 D3

Motor pulley D2 D1

Motor

Speed reduction pulley support

Dimensions of pulley

D1=80mm, D2=640mm, D3=80mm, D4=500mm to get the required speed of mixer.

𝐷1 𝑁

= 𝑁2

𝐷2 1

𝐷4 𝑁3

=

𝐷3 𝑁4

N3=N2 on the same shaft

Where N1 = angular speed of motor

=1440rpm

N2 = angular speed of support pulley

D1=diameter of motor pulley = 80mm

N2= speed of support shaft is determined from the relation.

𝐷1 ×𝑁1

N2= 𝐷2

80×1440rpm

N2= = 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝒓𝒑𝒎 =N3=angular speed of support pulley

640rpm

D3=diameter of support small pulley =80mm

D4=diameter of mixer pulley=500mm

𝐷3 ×𝑁3

N4= 𝐷4

80×180

N4= = 𝟐𝟖. 𝟖𝒎𝒎

500

If the width of the belt is known, then width of the pulley or face of the pulley (B) is taken 25%

greater than the width of belt.

B = 1.25 b; where b = Width of belt.

The following are the width of flat cast iron and mild steel pulleys in mm:

16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 315, 355,

400, 450, 560, 630

We selected B=40mm ⇛b=B/1.25=40/1.25=32mm

For double v groove pulley,

Groove width (B) = 16mm, then belt width for one groove (b) = 1.25B=1.25*16mm=12.8mm

Dimensions of hub

The diameter of the hub (d1) in terms of shaft diameter (d) may be fixed by the following

relation:

d1 = 1.5 d + 25 mm=1.5*59.5+25=114.25mm<119mm (2d)

The diameter of the hub should not be greater than 2 d.

The length of the hub,

𝜋 3.14

𝐿= ×𝑑 = × 59.5 = 93.415𝑚𝑚

2 2

KEY DESIGN

From standard table 3.3 on khurmi book the key cross section based on shaft diameter is;

Table 3.3mild steel with its properties 1

Width=20mm, thickness=12mm for shaft ∅ of 60mm (mixer shaft).

Width =10mm, thickness=8mm for shaft ∅ of 29mm (support shaft).

Stress analysis for the key

Considering shearing of the key, the tangential shearing force acting at the circumference of the

Shaft,

F = Area resisting shearing × Shear stress = l × w × 𝜏

Torque transmitted by the shaft,

𝑑 𝑑

𝑇 = 𝐹 × 2 = 𝑙 × 𝑤 × 𝜏 × 2…………………………………………………………………1

Considering crushing of the key, the tangential crushing force acting at the circumference of the

Shaft,

𝑙×𝑡

F = Area resisting crushing × Crushing stress= 2×𝜎

𝑐

𝑑 𝑡 𝑑

𝑇 = 𝐹 × 2 = 𝑙 × 2 × 𝜎𝑐 × 2……………………………...2

𝑑 𝜋𝑑3 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 210𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝑇 =𝐿×𝑊×𝜏×2 =𝜏× , 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 105𝑀𝑝𝑎

16 2 2

Lx20 × 105MPa × 60 105MPa × 3.14 × 603

=

2 16

L=70.65mm

=

2 16

L=33.01mm

paddle Shaft design

𝜎u =700MPa 𝜎y=390MPa

According to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code for the design of

transmission shafts, the maximum permissible working stresses in tension or compression may

be taken as

(a) 112 MPa for shafts without allowance for keyways.

(b) 84 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

(a) 56 MPa for shafts without allowance for key ways.

(b) 42 MPa for shafts with allowance for keyways.

Stress analysis

3. Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).

4. Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements

like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.

Our pulley shaft is subjected to combined twisting and bending stress According to

maximum shear stress theory for ductile materials (cast steel), the maximum shear stress

in the shaft,

1 𝑀×𝑌

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2 √(𝜎𝑏 )2 + 4𝜏 2 Where; 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐼

𝜋𝑑4 𝑑

But, 𝐼 = 𝑌=

64 2

32𝑀

Then 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑3

𝐺𝜃 𝑇 𝜏

= = 𝑅……………….fluxural formula

𝐿 𝐽

𝑇𝑅 𝜋𝐷 3

⇒𝜏= But, 𝐽 =

𝐽 32

16𝑇

⇒𝜏=

𝜋𝑑3

550N

Ra 620mm

500N

620mm 0 SFD

341Nm

0 BMD

𝑝∗𝐾𝑙 3.31584𝐾𝑤∗1.75

Twisting moment(𝑇) = = = 1925𝑁𝑚, where Kl-load factor=1.75 for line

𝜔 3.0144𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

shaft.

Kb-bending factor=2 to 3

Kt-torsional factor=1.5 to 3

16

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = [√(𝐾𝑏𝑀)2 + (𝐾𝑡𝑇)2 ]

𝜋𝑑 3

16

56𝑀𝑝𝑎 = [√(3 ∗ 341)2 + (3 ∗ 1925)2 ]

𝜋𝑑 3

𝒅 = 𝟔𝟔. 𝟗𝟓𝟕𝒎𝒎

16𝑇

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜋𝑑3 , T= 1925Nm

16 × 1925

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

3.14 × 66.9573

Container leg design

Resolving load along the leg direction, total load on the mixer includes weight of the concrete

and dead weight of the mixer.

120N

70°

Length of leg =700mm

Force along leg is then FL=120N/cos20°=127.7N

Compressive stress on the leg is given by;

𝜎c=127.7N/425mm2=0.3MPa≪12MPa, safe

Check for buckling stress.

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = ………………..Euler column formula

𝐿2

𝑏1 ∙ℎ1 3 𝑏2 ∙ℎ2 3

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = + =27135.42mm4

12 12

𝜋 2 ×200𝐺𝑝𝑎×27135.42𝑚𝑚4

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = (700𝑚𝑚)2

=109201.8N, this is the critical load in which selected material

could carry. But, actual critical load on the leg is 120N*4=480N (considering a safety factor of

4). So the design of leg support for the selected material is safe.

Bearing selection

Bearings classified as rolling contact and sliding contact, rolling contact bearing is further

classified as radial and thrust bearing.

Thrust bearing supports axial load (WA), support bearing

Radial bearing supports radial load (WR), conveyor bearing

Material selected for bearing is lead bronze. It has good corrosion resistance.

Table 3.2Principal dimensions for radial ball bearings 1

Our bearing based on shaft diameter =29mm≅30mm is

Bearing number=206

Bore diameter=30mm

Outside diameter=62mm

Width=16mm

Selection of mixer shaft bearing (thrust)

Our bearing based on shaft diameter =59.5mm≅60mm is

Bearing number=212

Bore diameter=60mm

Outside diameter=110mm

Width=22mm

Selection of support bearing (thrust)

Our bearing based on shaft diameter =25mm is,

Bearing number=205

Bore diameter=25mm

Outside diameter=52mm

Width=15mm

Static equivalent load for rolling contact bearing

W0R = X0.WR + Y0.WA; and 2. W0R = WR

Where WR = Radial load,

WA = Axial or thrust load,

X0 = Radial load factor, and

Y0 = Axial or thrust load factor.

According to IS: 3824 – 1984, the values of X0 and Y0 for different bearings are given in the

table:

Xo=0.6

Yo=0.5, for single row radial contact groove ball bearing

For radial bearing WA=0N, WR=550N

Then, WOR=0.6*550N+0.5*0N

WOR =330N

For thrust bearing WA=150N(weight of mixer shaft and paddle assumed), WR=550N

Then, WOR=0.6*550N+0.5*150N

WOR=405N

Dynamic Equivalent Load for Rolling Contact Bearing

W = X. V. WR + Y. WA

Where V = A rotation factor,

= 1, for all types of bearings when the inner race is rotating,

= 1, for self-aligning bearings when inner race is stationary,

= 1.2, for all types of bearings except self-aligning, when inner race is stationary.

The values of radial load factor (X) and axial or thrust load factor (Y) for the dynamically loaded

bearings is given in the table:

X=1, Y=0 in table 27.4 of khurmi text book

W=1*1*330N+0*0(radial)

=330N

W= 1*1*0+0*7(thrust)

=0N

Service life of bearing

𝐶 𝑘

𝐿 = ( ) × 106 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠

𝑊

Where, L = Rating life,

C = Basic dynamic load rating,

W = Equivalent dynamic load, and

k = 3, for ball bearings,

= 10/3, for roller bearings.

Basic static load rating (CO) =10KN

Basic dynamic load rating (C) =15.3KN, from table 27.6 on khurmi book to bearing number 206.

15.3𝐾𝑁 3

𝐿=( ) × 106 𝑟𝑒𝑣

60𝑁

= 16581375x106rev

𝐿𝐻 = =

60𝑁 60 × 28.8rpm

= 6565.3195x106 hr.

Conveyor design

Fig 3.12 idler

B=400mm

(a)

Table Lengths of return idlers

d1=63.5mm

L=250mm (for each two), for carrying idler with B=400mm and v- idler.

Weight of moving part =24Kg/m

Maximum speed of belt=1.5m/s (abrasive material), for belt width of 400mm in Daniel kitaw

book table 7.5.

Specific weight of bulk material=2200Kg/m3

Inclination of belt conveyor=20°, for conveyed bulk material of concert.

Diving and driven pulleys

Welded steel pulley is selected.

Table

a, nominal diameter of driving pulley

D(mm) 160 200 215 250 315 400 500 630 800

b, The pulley length L is given with regard to the belt width b in millimeters

b(mm) 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200

l(mm) 400 500 600 750 950 1150 1400

C, Diameter of the driven pulleys

d(m 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1400 1 1

m) 6 8

0 0

0 0

Selected pulley dimensions are;

Nominal diameter of driving pulley=160mm

Pulley length L=500mm

Diameter of the driven pulley=100mm

Capacity of belt conveyor

If the material to be conveyed is in bulk, then the capacity Q [tons/h] is calculated using

equation,

𝑄 = 3.6𝛾𝐴𝑣

A = the cross-sectional area of the material being conveyed [m2]

v = Velocity of the belt [m/s]

If the belt conveyor has an inclination(𝛿), then the capacity Q will be reduced by a factor p.

Q=3.6*2200Kg/m3*1.5m/s*1.6m2

Q =19008Kg/h

Considering inclination

Table Value of p as a Function of 𝛿

Q𝛿=p*Q, p=0.76 for𝛿=22°

Q𝛿=0.76*19008Kg/h

The cross-sectional area of the material to be conveyed for a flat belt and for the troughed one

may be calculated using an empirical formula.

Af = (B+4)*B2/110

Af = (400+4)*4002/110=0.00058763636m2

Ac=2Af=2*0.00058763636m2=0.0011752723m2

Ac = cross-sectional area of the material on the troughed belt [m2]

B = belt width [m]

Resistance Forces

The forces which are opposing the movement of the belt, the material and all moving parts are

due to friction on the parts and due to material transport, force required to overcome the level

difference, discharge forces and fixed resistance.

a. Frictional force on the moving parts (belt, idlers, drum, etc)

r1=fqsl

f = coefficient of frictional force of the idlers

qs = weight of the moving part in kg/m of the belt

Then, r1=0.1*24Kg/m*4m=9.6Kg

r2=fqmlm=0.1*24*4=9.6Kg = r1

r3=qmH=24Kg/m*4msin20°=32.834Kg

d. Discharging force

Fixed discharger

r4=a*qm

a=0.085

Then, r4=0.085*24Kg/m=2.04Kg

R=9.6Kg+9.6Kg+32.834Kg+2.04Kg=54.074Kg

Power Requirement

In order to determine the required motor power [kW], we use the total resistance R and calculate

the power N.

N=R*v/102𝜂

𝜂 = efficiency of the electromotor≅0.8

N=54.074*1.5/102*0.8=0.994KW

Conveyor leg support design beam

Column

Leg support includes horizontal beam and vertical column.

The beam part subjected to bending stress and the column part subjected to buckling and

compressive stress.

Beam

Subjected to uniformly distributed load due to live load (weight of transporting concrete) and

dead weight (weight of all the conveyor components).

WT=96Kg+100Kg=196Kg

udl=WT/l, where l- length of the beam1=820mm, beam2=1220mm

udl1=196Kg/0.82m=239.024Kg/m*10m/s2=2390.24N/m and

udl2=196Kg/1.22m=160.66Kg/m*10m/s2=1606.6N/m

2390.24N/m

RB

RA 0.82m

1606.6N/m

RB

RA 1.22m

Material ASTMA36 steel 𝜎y= 250MPa, E= 200GPa, factor of safety=4

120×80×8 and l1=820mm, l2 =1220mm RHS is selected.

RA=RB=979.9984N, then Mmax1=979.9984N*0.41m=401.7993Nm and

Mmax2=979.9984N*0.61m=597.8Nm

𝑏ℎ3 120×803 −104×643

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = = =2848085.3mm4

12 12

𝜎b1=MY/I, Y=h/2=80/2=40mm

𝜎b1=401.7993Nm*40mm/2848085.3mm4=5.64MPa and

𝜎b2=597.8Nm*40mm/2848085.3mm4=8.4MPa

𝜎b1,𝜎b2 both< 𝜎bmax (62.5MPa), safe.

Column

490N

After bend

Before bend

120×80×8 and l1=1300mm,l2= 300mm RHS is selected

Check for buckling stress.

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = …………….. Euler column formula

𝐿2

Ixx=bh3/12= (80*1203-64*1043)/12=5520725.3mm4

Pcr1=𝜋2*200GPa*5520725.3mm4/ (1300mm)2=6441.67N

Pcr2=𝜋2*200GPa*5520725.3mm4/ (300mm)2 = 120960.32N

But, actual critical load on the legs is 420N (considering safety factor of 4),

Wcr=420N*4=1680N so the four legs are safe for buckling.

Hook design

Figure 3.12 hook

The unit stress on the saddle of the hook can be found from the equation,

𝑄 𝑀 𝑀 1 𝛾

𝜎= + + ∙ ∙

𝐴 𝐴𝑟 𝐴𝑟 𝑥 𝛾 + 𝑟

Where, 𝜎= unit stress for the fiber at a distance y from the neutral axis [kgf/cm2]

Q = load on the hook [kgf]

A = area of the critical cross-section here cross-section I [cm2]

r = radius of curvature of the neutral axis at the critical cross section [cm]

x = factor depending on the shape of the cross-section and the curvature of the beam

y = distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. Y is negative if the fiber is between the Centre

of curvature and the natural axis; and is positive if the fiber is on the other side of the neutral

axis, [cm]

M = bending moment [kgf.cm]. M is positive if it causes the hook curvature to increase (its

radius decrease) or negative if the curvature decreases. Since the load tends to open the hook,

Tensile Stress in the Inner Fiber

𝑄 1 2𝑒1

𝜎1 = 𝐴 ∙ 𝑥 ∙ ≤ 𝜎𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒 𝑎𝑙𝑙 - Maximum tensile stress

𝑎

From Daniel kitaw book in standard table 4.4 by taking minimum load capacity of 0.25ton

Area of cross section (A) =3.44cm2

Distance between centroid and inner contour (Xc) =1.13cm

Radius of mouse (a/2) =1.5cm

Shape factor (𝜒) =0.081

Distance between zero line and centroid (𝛾) =0.196

Distance between zero line and inner core (e1) =0.934

40𝐾𝑔 1 2 × 0.934

𝜎𝑡 = × ×

3.44 0.081 3

=89Kgf/cm2< 𝜎tall (150 Kgf/cm2)…………………………………………………………safe

Compressive Stress in the Outer Fiber

𝑄 1 𝑒

𝜎2 = − 𝐴 ∙ 𝑥 × 𝑎 2 < 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙 - Maximum compressive stress

+ℎ

2

e2=3cm-0.934cm=2.066cm

𝜎y=325MPa, E=205GPa

𝑝𝑐𝑟 𝑆𝑦 𝑙 2 1

= 𝑆𝑦 − (2𝜋 𝑘) …………………………..3

𝐴 𝑐𝐸

𝐼

𝐾=√

𝐴

𝑏𝑑3

𝐾 = √12𝑏𝑑 , b=50mm, d=25mm

K =7.22mm

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐹. 𝑆 × 𝑃𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 4 × 300N = 1200N

From equation 3 above

325 500 2 1

1200N/A= 325 − ( 2𝜋 × 7.22) × 205𝐺𝑝𝑎

1200N/A=262.34MPa

A=125mm2, bd=125mm2⇛b=125mm2/25mm=5mm

N2 388mm

160° W2

W1 B1

BA B2

230mm B 371mm

In solving the forces on each link and joint, the forces are resolved along the x and y-axis and moments at pin joint

A and B respectively. Nc is the force resisting the breakage of the system due to W 2 (weight of link B). B1 and B2 are

the reaction at pin B as shown in the free-body-diagram above.

Where, p- load on the link including weight of the mold and rammer=30Kg*10m/s 2=300N

W2=2Kg*10m/s=20N

W1=1Kg*10m/s=10N

Link 1

B2……………………………………………………………………………………………….……………

………………1

𝜀𝐹𝑦 = 0 =B1+W1⟹B1=W1=10N

(0.371sin60°+0.388sin80°)

1.15Nm+2.3Nm+0.4155Nm+0.1855Nm+20.213Nm-0.0674N2+0.7034Nc=0

24.264Nm-

0.0674N2+0.7034Nc=0……………………………………………………………………..………………

….2

Link 2

𝜀𝐹𝑦 =0=N2-P-W2-

B1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……..3

N2-300N-20N-10N=0 ⟹N2=330N

𝜀𝐹𝑥 =0=Nc-B2

B1=10N, B2=5.75N (to the right), BA=5.75(to the left), N2=330N, NA=5.75N(to the left).

Weld design

If there is a combination of single transverse and double parallel fillet welds as shown in fig

above. Then the strength of the joint is given by the sum of strengths of single transverse and

double parallel fillet welds. Mathematically,

𝑃 = 0.707𝑠 × 𝑙1 × 𝜎𝑡 + 1.414𝑠 × 𝑙2 × 𝜏

𝑃 = 0.707 × 3 × 90 × 200 × 110𝑀𝑝𝑎 + 1.414 × 3 × 110 × 55

=46.662KN

Circular fillet weld subjected to bending moment.

Consider a circular rod connected to a rigid plate by a fillet weld as shown in Fig above

𝑀 𝑀 4𝑀

𝜎𝑏 = = =

𝑍 𝜋𝑡𝑑 /4 𝜋𝑡𝑑 2

2

M = Bending moment acting on the rod,

s = Size (or leg) of weld,

t = Throat thickness,

Z = Section modulus of the weld section

We know that the bending stress,

4𝑀 5.66𝑀

𝜎𝑏(𝑚𝑎𝑥) = 2

=

𝜋 × 0.707𝑠 × 𝑑 𝜋𝑠𝑑2

5.66 × 1500MPa

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 4𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝜋 × 3 × 152

Tensile strength for double-V butt joint

𝑃 = (𝑡1 + 𝑡2 )𝑙 × 𝜎𝑡

Where t1 = Throat thickness at the top, andt2 = Throat thickness at the bottom.

𝜎t=35MPa, for fillet weld subjected to fatigue load with coated electrode in table 10.5 on khurmi.

P= (3+2)*80mm*35MPa=14KN

Figure 3.9 link pin 1

E=200GPa

𝜎t=420MPa

𝜎y=351MPa, 𝜏max=1/2𝜎y=175.5MPa

Pin is subjected to combined shear and bending stress. Based on maximum shear stress theory,

𝟏

𝜏𝒎𝒂𝒙 = √(𝝈𝒃 )𝟐 + 𝟒(𝝉)𝟐

𝟐

1 32𝑀 2 16𝑇 2 16

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √( 3 ) + ( 3 ) = 3 √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2

2 𝜋𝑑 𝜋𝑑 𝜋𝑑

1 32 ∗ 120 2 16 ∗ 150𝑁𝑚 2

175.5 = √( ) + ( )

2 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

16

175.5 = √1202 + 1502

𝜋𝑑 3

d=17.73mm

Bolt design

𝑃𝑖 = 1420𝑑𝑁

d = Nominal diameter of bolt, in mm.

Pi=1420*12=17040Nmm

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