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1 Máquina de corrente continua

1.1 Introdução

! " #$%&$' ( )
* ! +
# ', - + + *
.
$, " / + 0
, " ! 0
&, " / 1 0
2, 1 ,

1.2 Princípio de funcionamento de uma máquina de corrente


contínua
( ", $ + + ,
" * *
! " 3 * * "
,

( ", $ # 4 5*
" " 6 ! 4
5* ', 4 1 *
6 + * * * 6
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7* " ! ,
5 1
" * 8 ! 8 *
! 4 5, ! *
" * ! 7
! "
/ .
e=B ,

9 ! ,$ / .
= ,B
4 8 !
! ! " ,
- " * !* : 1
3 4 5 * :
; 1 τ* ,<
( ", $ ,
= 1 / . /
! " 6
" * * > ? !
#( ", '0 *
!* 1 ,
" ( ", $ *
* 1 "/ *
,
* 1 *
1 1 ,= * +
" * + ,= @ + " ; *
1#A1',

4 " " * ; 1
*

f = pn *

! 8 " # ', B * /
8 .
pn
f=
60

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!
; ,
C *
* 6 + " .
! " " * 3 *
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* *: " , !
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,
", D

1.3 Partes constitutivas de corrente contínua


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*
' * " 1 * !
" 3 #" ' ! "
3 # ',
! ,
.
$' ! "
0
' !* *
/ 0
&' ,
= 1 + " * +
.
$' 0
' * 0
&' ,
/ ,
1.4 Circuito magnético de uma máquina de corrente contínua
= 6 !
" 1# ' : ! "
,
C " + /
Φ * τ*
1 ,
4 ( ", D / *
+ / 6 "
,< * *
/ * " " *
* ,
= @ " @ *
,
= ,
" " ! #Φ δ'* / 1 !
! ,
5 Φ .
Φδ
Φ = Φ + Φδ = Φ # $ + ' = Φδ κδ
Φ

= κ δ = $ + ΦΦδ / !

* * ! $*$ $* D,

! "
= " *
6 * / ! , "
" / * /
" * ! * ! "
,E /
" /
,
" ( ", D*
2H + 2Hd hd + 2HM hM + Hc Lc + H a La = wI ,

1.5 Circuito eléctrico de uma máquina de corrente contínua


= + +
1 * * *
! " # !
',

1.5.1 Enrolamento do induzido


= 1 *
! " , C 1 6
"; .
' - 1 1 ! + * !
0
' - " ; 3 " 1
" 6 #$F
'0
' = ! "
,

1.5.2 Classificação dos enrolamentos do induzido


1 1
1 ! 6 ,= 1
+ * .
' 0
' 0
' @ 0
' @ ,
= * !
: 3
* " ,

#$ % & '
( ) * (

4 ( ", F / ! 1 ,G
! * :
! " ,

+ % ,- . ' *-'.

4 ( ", / * * 8
( ", # ' ( ", # '* 6 ,
8 ! ,4 8
8 +
* 6 ,
5 " ! * " / !
1 ( ", % # ' 1 ( ", % # ',
/( ' ,- . & *-'. &

C ! 1 1 *
1 * 6* ,5 ! 3
#( ", ># ''* ! ! 1 *
3 #( ", ># '* 1 ,

0 ,- . & *-'. &

5 " + ! * " / .
' 8 " * 8 ; 8 #( ",
$ # '0
' 8 * 8 !
8 *
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# * '',
H @ 8 @ *
@ / * &*,,, 8 *
! : ,
1 % -. % -'2 .

C 1 "/
1 ,
< / * *: 3
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@ !, 4
, /
#( ", $$ # '',

3 & - .2 -'. 4 3

< * * *
! 3 * !
5= J =I *
! @ ,
I I
E , 1 !

@ * *
" @ ,C 1
!* " * *
ε 8 * .
I
)$ = ε= @ ,

1.6 Força electromotriz de uma máquina de corrente contínua


! /
8 * * ,
< 6 " #( ", $ # ''
! * 6 * @
" 8 * ! !
/ 1 ,
< 1 " * *
1 * 1/ e x = Bx l v , 5
N
+ " + # *
2a
< " ,
C ! $
, *
N N
2a 2a

Ea = e1 + e2 + e3 + ... + e N = e x = (B1 + B2 + B3 + ... + B N ) l v = Bx l v ,


2a 2a
1 1

!
< @ 8 " *
N
2a
N
Bx = Bmed =
1 2a
!

1
Bmed = Bx dx ,
0

!*
N
Ea = B lv ,

! 1

v = π D n = 2p n = 2pτ n ,
2p
B lv =Φ* * .

Ea = CE Φ ω ,
#
Np πn
5 CE = ω= ,
πa F

) ,- . ) 3 " *-'. )
3

1.7 Binário electromagnético de uma máquina de corrente


contínua
C ! " *
" " #( ", $&',

5 "

" % 8 "
* " #( ", $&',
5 " * 1 1/ "
,
- ! " &* *
& ,< l′
Da D
M x = fx = Bx l ′ i a a ,
2 2
= " /
" * ( ", $2# ', =
( ", $2 # ', &

1 * 1/ " %&
! %,

6 '
N
4 * *
2p
" # * .
N N
2p
D 2p

M a = 2p M x =2pl ′ i a a Bx ,
1 2 1

N
2p

< @ " * Bx "


1

! # ' @ * *
N
2p
N
Bx = Bmed ,
1 2p
Φ Ia
< 7 = p ia = * * .
π Da l ′ 2

M a = CM I a Φ
+
pN
< = ,
2π a