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钢筋混凝土和预应力混凝土梁计算 Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced and Pre-Tensioned IJETAE_1014_70.pdf

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

Concrete Beams

Nimiya Rose Joshuva1, S. Saibabu2, P. Eapen Sakaria3, K. N. Lakshmikandhan4, P. Sivakumar5

1

M.Tech Student, 3Head of Department, Department of Civil Engineering, SAINTGITS College of Engineering, Kottayam,

Kerala, India

2

Sr. Principal Scientist, 4Scientist, 5Chief Scientist, CSIR-SERC, Chennai, India

Abstract— Concrete is strong in compression but weak in The use of computer software to model the elements has

tension. Reinforced concrete, in which steel rods are provided been proved to be convenient, faster and extremely cost-

to resist tensile stresses, however, does not meet the effective compared to experimental analyses. This study

satisfactory structural demands. The concept of prestressing presents an analytical investigation of the nonlinear

was introduced to generate compressive stresses in concrete

behaviour of reinforced and pre-tensioned concrete beams

prior to loading, by means of prestressing tendons inserted in

the member. These compressive stresses resist the tensile in the finite element software package ANSYS 12.0.

forces, thereby effectively increasing the tensile strength of the

concrete member. In this study, reinforced and pre-tensioned II. LITERATURE REVIEW

concrete beams are analysed for their nonlinear behaviour Literature survey was carried out to comprehend the

under external loading using the finite element method of

nonlinear behaviour of reinforced and prestressed concrete

analysis. ANSYS 12.0, an efficient finite element software

package, is used for the analysis of the concrete members. beams and the applicability of the finite element software

Load-deflection responses, variations of stresses in concrete packages in simulating the nonlinear behaviour of the

and steel and the crack patterns at critical stages of loading beams. Barbosa and Rebeiro, (1998) considered the

are studied. The numerical predictions are compared to the practical application of nonlinear models in the analysis of

data obtained using the theories of structural analysis. In reinforced concrete structures and the consequences of

comparison to the theoretically predicted data, the numerical small changes in modelling. The best results were obtained

method of analysis using ANSYS was seen to satisfactorily from the elastoplastic-perfectly plastic, work-hardening

predict the behavioural responses of the beams up to ultimate, models that reached ultimate loads, very close to the

but was not as effective in predicting the strain variation in

predicted values. It was also concluded that the highest

the prestressing tendons.

analysis loads could be considered as the ultimate loads of

Keywords— finite element analysis, prestressed concrete the models and the actual beams. Revathi and Menon,

beams, reinforced concrete beams. (2005) conducted finite element and experimental studies

on under-reinforced, over-reinforced and shear test beams

I. INTRODUCTION in ANSYS, to validate the potential of numerical

simulation in predicting the nonlinear response of the

The efficient application of concrete structures requires

elements. The numerical and test results were seen to

an understanding of their response to a variety of loadings.

compare well. The ductile behaviour of under-reinforced

There are a number of approaches for the study of the

beams and the brittle mode of failure in the over-reinforced

behaviour of concrete structures, viz., experimental,

and shear beams were produced well by the numerical

numerical, theoretical, etc. Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

model. The crack patterns of the specimens were also seen

is a numerical one which provides a tool that can accurately

to be in good correlation with the patterns obtained from

simulate the behaviour of concrete structures. Finite

the numerical analysis. The study recommended the use of

Element Analysis, as used in structural engineering,

convergence criteria in terms of force to get more reliable

determines the overall behaviour of the structure by

and accurate results. Dahmani, Khennane, et.al., (2010)

dividing it into a number of simple elements, each of which

conducted an investigation into the applicability of ANSYS

has well-defined mechanical and physical properties. A

software for analysis and prediction of crack patterns in RC

number of commercial finite element analysis codes are

beams and the advantage of performing numerical

available (ABAQUS, ATENA, ANSYS, NASTRAN,

simulation instead of experimental tests. For this purpose,

Hypermesh, etc.) for the analytical study of structures.

different phases of the behaviour of the FE model of an RC

beam was studied from initial cracking to failure of the

beam.

449

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

The entire load-deformation response produced In the finite element modelling of the beam, concrete,

correlated well with the hand-calculated results and it was steel support and loading plates and the steel reinforcing

inferred that failure model of concrete adopted by ANSYS bars were represented using SOLID65, SOLID45 and

was adequate to determine the nonlinear response of LINK8 elements respectively. Shear reinforcements were

reinforced concrete structures. Fanning, (2001) studied the neglected. The SOLID65 element required linear isotropic

experimental load-deflection response of ordinary and multilinear isotropic material properties to be defined.

reinforced concrete beams and post-tensioned concrete T- Table I summarises the material properties assumed for

beams and used it to assess the suitability of numerical reinforced concrete.

modelling implemented in the FE software ANSYS, in Table I

predicting the ultimate response of RC beams. The Material Properties Of Concrete

correlation of test and numerical data was found to depend

on the values of linear and nonlinear material properties Density of concrete 2.5485 x 10-6 kg/mm3

assigned to the materials, most importantly the Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 25000 N/mm2

modulus of elasticity of concrete and the yield strengths of

the reinforcing bars and the post-tensioning tendons. Uniaxial cracking stress 3.5 N/mm2

Anthony J. Wolanski, (2004) in his thesis work, studied

reinforced and prestressed concrete beams using Finite Poisson’s Ratio 0.2

Element Analysis (FEA) to understand their load-

deformation response. The results were compared to Open shear transfer 0.3

experimental data. Characteristic points on the load- coefficient

deformation curve predicted using FEA were then Closed shear transfer 1

compared to theoretical results. The nonlinear analysis of coefficient

the model yielded results that compared well to the Uniaxial crushing stress -1

calculated values. Bursting was also seen to occur in

concrete at the area of prestressing where maximum stress Biaxial crushing stress 0

and localised cracking were observed. It was concluded

Hydrostatic pressure 0

from the work that the failure mechanism of the beams

could be modelled well using the finite element package. Hydrostatic biaxial 0

crushing stress

III. ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM Hydrostatic uniaxial 0

The RC beam of concrete grade M25 is 150mm x crushing stress

300mm in cross-section and simply supported over a span Tensile crack factor 0.6

of 3m. The beam is loaded symmetrically at third points

along its span. Internal longitudinal reinforcement consists

The compressive uniaxial stress-strain relationship for

of two numbers of 20mm diameter Fe415 bars placed at an

concrete was obtained using the equations developed by

effective cover of 25mm. Two-legged 8mm diameter

MacGregor (1992). Fig. 2 represents the stress-strain

Fe415 stirrups are provided at a spacing of 50mm c/c as

relationship of reinforced concrete. The steel plates were

shear reinforcement. The hangar bars have a diameter of

modelled as linear isotropic materials with modulus of

10mm and are placed at a cover of 25mm. Fig. 1 shows the

elasticity of steel (2 x 105 N/mm2) and Poisson’s ratio (0.3).

dimensional details of the RC beam.

The reinforcing steel was assumed to have bilinear

isotropic properties with yield stress of 415 N/mm2 and

hardening modulus 20 N/mm2. Linear isotropic properties

of the steel rebars were the same as that of the steel plates.

450

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

Therefore, it was concluded that failure of the beam had

taken place and 119.58kN was taken as the failure load for

the model.

The first crack in the FE model was a flexural crack

(vertical) in the constant moment region of the beam,

formed at 18.8025kN. The deflections and stresses in the

beam were seen to increase with loading. Cracking also

progressed consequentially and was observed to increase in

the constant moment region before it spread out towards

the supports in the form of diagonal cracks. The beam was

seen to fail due to excessive cracking of concrete in the

tension side. Therefore, failure of the beam was attributed

to flexural failure and yielding of the steel reinforcement.

Fig. 2 Stress-Strain Relationship Of Concrete The ultimate mid-span deflection of the model was 20mm

The beam and steel plates were modelled using separate at 119.58kN. The numerical crack and stress distributions

volumes. The beam was meshed such that it consisted of at ultimate load are illustrated in Fig. 4.

square or rectangular elements of size 25mm. The

necessary mesh attributes were set before the volumes were

meshed. Fig. 3 shows the meshed beam in ANSYS.

Merging of nodes and key points were carried out to avoid

errors due to multiple nodes at the same location. The Fig. 4 Crack Distribution In The Beam At Failure

longitudinal reinforcement bars were then modelled by Using the data obtained from the numerical analysis of

creating individual link elements through the nodes of the the beam, mid-span deflection, compressive stress in

concrete volume mesh at the desired depth after setting the concrete and stress in the reinforcing steel were plotted

rebar element attributes. The supports were modelled such against the applied load and compared with theoretical

that roller and hinged supports were created at either ends computations of the same. From Fig. 5, it is seen that the

of the beam. Self–weight of the concrete beam was taken ANSYS model has captured the entire load-deflection

into account by providing the value of acceleration due to response of the beam from zero loads up to failure. The

gravity (9.81m/s2). The external loads were applied as curve exhibits three approximately straight segments

concentrated forces distributed equally among the nodes reflecting three different stages during the loading process.

forming the centre line of the two loading plates located at The initial linear portion of the curve represents the elastic

third points along the span. uncracked region where the numerical and theoretical

results are seen to compare well. The sudden change in

linearity represents commencement of cracking in the

beam. The initial cracking load, obtained as 20.65kN from

the finite element analysis and 20.16kN from the structural

analysis of the beam, also show good agreement in values.

The nonlinear region that follows represents the behaviour

of the beam in the cracked stage, where cracking

propagates throughout the constant moment region,

Fig. 3 Meshed Beam reducing the stiffness of the section. The effective concrete

For the analysis of the model, the static analysis type area thus decreases and the steel reinforcement bears the

was utilized. Prestress effects were not considered and the tensile stresses developed. This leads to a faster rate of

analysis was carried out for ‘Small Displacement Static’ increase of deflections with applied load. The theoretical

condition. The rest of the commands were set to ANSYS curve in this region is observed to deviate from the ANSYS

defaults. The beam was analysed with its self-weight and curve. The transition from the second stage to the third

the loads in one load step. The analysis was seen to stage marks the start of yielding of reinforcement.

terminate at the sub step corresponding to 119.58kN due to

non-convergence of solution.

451

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

Classical reinforced concrete theory predicted the

yielding to commence at 115.3kN which is observed to be

consistent with the change in slope of the numerical curve

at 116.77kN. The finite element model was assumed to fail

in flexure shortly after yielding of steel due to excessive

cracking in the beam at a load of 119.58kN producing an

ultimate deflection of 20.3mm.

in the extreme concrete fibre under compression. The

theoretical computation of compressive stress in the top

concrete fibre was carried out only up to initial cracking in

the beam owing to lack of formulations that accounted for

the reduction in effectiveness of the section due to

cracking. In the uncracked stage, the theoretical and Fig. 7 Load Vs Stress In Reinforcing Steel

ANSYS curves are seen to compare well. The numerical

curve beyond that stage represents nonlinear variation of IV. ANALYSIS OF PRE-TENSIONED CONCRETE BEAM

stress with load with an ultimate compressive stress value

of 25.08N/mm2 in concrete at failure. The pre-tensioned concrete beam of grade M40 is

The variation of steel stress with applied load is 150mm x 300mm in cross-section with a simply supported

represented in Fig. 7. The plot shows good agreement span of 3m and loaded symmetrically at third points along

between the analytical values and the results from the span. Internal prestressing is provided through two

theoretical computations. Stress in the tensile reinforcement numbers of straight, 7 ply 12.7mm diameter prestressing

increases linearly with load, at a faster rate beyond initial strands placed at an eccentricity of 100mm and tensioned to

cracking of the beam compared to that in the uncracked 80kN each. Internal longitudinal reinforcement consists of

stage. The theoretical computation of steel stress was two numbers of 8mm diameter Fe415 bars placed at 25mm

terminated at yield stress of steel (415N/mm2) due to the from the soffit of the beam. Two-legged 8mm diameter

lack of means to compute the stress beyond yielding of Fe415 stirrups are provided at a spacing of 150mm c/c as

steel. The ultimate value of steel stress at failure of the shear reinforcement. The hangar bars have a diameter of

beam was observed to be 419.76N/mm2 from the finite 8mm and are placed at an effective cover of 25mm. Fig. 8

element analysis. shows the dimensional details of the beam.

452

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

The stress-strain curve for prestressing steel was

developed using the following equations (Anthony J.

Wolanski, 2004).

εps ≤ 0.008 : fps = 28000εps (ksi)

Fig. 8 Dimensional Details Of The Pre-Tensioned Concrete Beam

Where fpu is the ultimate strength of the prestressing

Finite element model for the analysis of the pre- tendons, taken as 1771.58N/mm2 or 256.974ksi. The values

tensioned concrete beam is very similar to the RC beam obtained in units of ksi were then converted to SI units and

model. Numerical modelling was carried out neglecting the used for the analysis. Fig. 10 shows the stress-strain

tensile and shear reinforcements. The initial effective strain relationship for the prestressing strands.

of 0.0035328 was entered in the Real Constant set for the

prestressing strands in addition to the cross-sectional area.

Table II lists the material properties of the prestressed

concrete.

Table II

Material Properties Of Prestressed Concrete

Modulus of elasticity 36049.965 N/mm2

Uniaxial cracking stress 4.427 N/mm2

Fig. 9 Stress-Strain Curve For Prestressed Concrete

Open shear transfer 0.3

coefficient

Closed shear transfer 1

coefficient

Uniaxial crushing stress -1

Biaxial crushing stress 0

Hydrostatic pressure 0

Hydrostatic biaxial 0

crushing stress

Hydrostatic uniaxial 0

crushing stress

Tensile crack factor 0.6 Fig. 10 Stress-Strain Curve For Prestressing Steel

The stress-strain relationship of concrete was obtained included and the analysis was carried out in a number of

using the equations developed by MacGregor (1992) and is load steps as listed in Table III. The analysis was seen to

shown in Fig. 9. Modulus of elasticity for the type of terminate at the sub step corresponding to 143.6kN due to

strands used in the analysis was taken as 195000MPa as non-convergence of solutions. Hence, it was concluded that

specified in IS 1343:1980 and Poisson’s Ratio as 0.3. failure of the beam had taken place at 143.6kN.

453

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

Table III Failure of the beam at 143.6kN produced an ultimate

Load Steps For The Analysis Of Pre-Tensioned Beam mid-span deflection of 39.63mm. The crack distribution in

Beginning Time Load Number Load the beam at failure is illustrated in Fig. 11.

Time (N) at the Step of Sub Increment

End of steps (N)

Load

Step Fig. 11 Crack Distribution In The Beam At Failure

(N)

From the numerical study carried out, the response of the

beam to loading in terms of deflection, compressive stress

0 1 1 1 Prestress in the extreme concrete fibre and steel strains was

evaluated.

1 2 2 1 Self-

weight

2 36600 3 2 18300

56000 58000 5 50 40

Fig. 12 Load Vs Mid-Span Deflection

The FE analysis is seen to predict the entire behaviour of

the beam up to failure, the results closely related to the

Camber in the beam at the mid-span section due to theoretically predicted values. Initially, the beam deflection

application of prestress was observed to be 1.042mm. As increases linearly with the applied load. On appearance of

the load was increased, tensile stresses were induced in the flexural cracks at approximately 25% of the ultimate load,

bottom concrete fibres due to development of bending the beam stiffness is reduced after which the deflections

stresses. A stage was reached when the compressive stress again increase linearly, but at a faster rate. This continues

in concrete at the soffit was balanced by the flexural tensile till yielding of the internal reinforcement at approximately

stresses so that the net stress was zero. The load at this 119.7kN as predicted by the theoretical analysis. After the

stage is called decompression load and was observed to be section becomes sufficiently plasticized, the deflection

36.6kN. With further increase in load, the tensile stresses at increases substantially with very small increase in load.

the soffit of the beam increased. At a load of 57.72kN, the The beam shows considerable ductility at ultimate after

tensile stress approximately equalled the flexural strength which it was observed to fail in flexure due to excessive

of concrete and flexural (vertical) cracking was observed to cracking of concrete and yielding of tension steel

commence in the constant moment region of the numerical producing an ultimate deflection of 38.54mm.

model. As the loading on the beam progressed, vertical The variation of compressive stress at the top concrete

cracking was seen to propagate throughout the flexure zone fibre at mid-span section with load is shown in Fig. 13. The

and subsequently towards the supports in the form of theoretical computations were carried out only in the

diagonal cracks. Later, multiple cracking was also observed uncracked stage where the linear curve was seen to

at the same location. compare well with the numerical results.

454

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

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The numerical curve, after commencement of cracking V. COMPARISON OF REINFORCED AND PRE-TENSIONED

in the beam, was seen to follow a highly nonlinear profile CONCRETE BEAMS

till failure of the beam at which the compressive stress in Fig. 15 shows the load-deflection responses of the

concrete was noted to be 40.93N/mm2. reinforced and pre-tensioned concrete beams predicted

using finite element analysis. The numerical models were

seen to be capable of producing the entire load-deflection

behaviour of the beams till failure. The reinforced concrete

beam model produced a linear curve till a load of 18.8kN

after which it cracked. The linear portion of the curve for

the pre-tensioned concrete beam extended to 57.72kN,

providing a much higher service load range. This is

attributed to the pre-compression applied to concrete which

in turn effected in increased service load capacity. Both the

beam types exhibited sudden increase in deflections beyond

initial cracking, up to 1.6mm approximately. This was

followed by a nearly linear portion again where the pre-

tensioned concrete beam was observed to register a higher

rate of increase of deflections compared to the reinforced

concrete beam. A sudden change of slope followed by a

Fig. 13 Load Vs Compressive Stress In Concrete

nonlinear curve in the response of the reinforced concrete

beam indicated yielding of the steel reinforcement to

The strain in the prestressing strands exhibited commence at a load of 116.77kN whereas this was not as

approximately bilinear variation with load, the rate faster pronounced in the case of pre-tensioned concrete beam

after the onset of cracking. The theoretical and numerical which showed more ductility. Both the beams failed in

predictions compared almost well up to steel yielding load. flexure due to yielding of steel and excessive cracking in

The numerical prediction of steel strain extended up to the tension zone. The pre-tensioned concrete beam

failure load where the ultimate strain was obtained as produced a higher ultimate load capacity of 143.54kN in

0.0089. However, it was noticed that the FE model comparison to 119.58kN of the RC beam.

produced an initial effective strain value of 0.00336, a

value lower than the applied effective prestrain of

0.0035328, the reason for which is unclear. Fig. 14 shows

the plot of load vs strain in the prestressing strands.

variation of compressive stress in the extreme concrete

fibres at the mid-span section, in the reinforced and pre-

tensioned concrete beams is shown in Fig. 16. The curves

Fig. 14 Load Vs Strain In Prestressing Strands represent linear variation of stresses up to commencement

of cracking.

455

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014)

The curves, beyond the stage of initial cracking, are seen VI. CONCLUSIONS

to show uneven increase in stress which reaches an ultimate In the present study, the response of reinforced and pre-

of 25.08N/mm2 for the RC beam and 40.5N/mm2 for the tensioned concrete beams to vertical loading was

pre-tensioned concrete beam. The correctness of the curves investigated using the finite element software package

cannot be assured as the beams have been modelled under a ANSYS 12.0. The load-deflection response, variations of

number of approximations. Fine tuning the model can stresses in concrete and strains in the steel reinforcements

result in better solutions. and prestressing tendons with increasing loads were

evaluated and compared to theoretical data obtained using

the theories of structural analysis. In comparison to the

theoretically predicted data, the numerical method of

analysis using ANSYS was seen to satisfactorily predict the

behavioural responses of the beams up to failure. However,

a discrepancy was observed in the initial value of effective

prestrain in the tendons predicted by the numerical

analysis, the reason for which is unclear. The variation of

compressive stress in concrete beyond the stage of initial

cracking could not be estimated using the theories of

structural analysis owing to the absence of formulations

that took into account the decreasing effectiveness of the

section in the cracked stage. On comparing the behaviour

of the RC beam with that of the prestressed concrete beam,

the advantage of prestressing was verified as the

Fig. 16 Load Vs. Compressive Stress In Concrete

prestressed concrete beam was seen to show a higher

Fig. 17 depicts the variation in steel strain in the bonded service load range and higher ultimate load capacity.

reinforcement with the applied load. The prestressing

tendons show an initial effective stain of 0.00335. From the Acknowledgement

figure, the curves for both the beam types are observed to The paper is published with the permission of the

have similar bilinear profiles. The curves show a small rate Director, CSIR-SERC, Chennai, India. The help rendered

of strain increase in the uncracked, elastic region. The rate by Shri. K. Saravana Kumar, Scientist is acknowledged.

of strain increase, however, rapidly develops in the

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