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PAKISTAN FATA CAPACITY

BUILDING PROGRAM
AGENCY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2010 – FINAL REPORT

WATER SECTOR AGENCY DEVELOPMENT


PLANS – BAJAUR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES

MAIN REPORT

OCTOBER 2010

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International
Development. It was prepared by DAI.
WATER SECTOR

CHAPTER I:
OVERVIEW
FIGURE 1. DEM AND HILL SHADE OF BAJAUR AGENCY

INTRODUCTION
Bajaur Agency’s geographical area is
1,290 km2 and its current population
is 0.942 million. Population density
is 730 persons per km2 being the
highest of other Agencies.
Population growth rate is 4.33% per
annum1. Its terrain is mountainous to
sub-mountainous and climate is
semi-arid to arid having both winter
and summer seasons (Figure 1).
Mean winter temperature ranges
from 5 to 10˚C, whereas mean
summer temperature varies from 23
to 36˚C.
Source: FATA Capacity Building Programme, 2010 using satellite data.

FIGURE 2: DEM AND HILL SHADE OF MOHMAND AGENCY

Mohmand Agency’s geographical


area is 2,296 km2. Its population is
0.527 million. Population density is
230 persons per km2. Population
growth rate is 4.28% per annum2. Its
terrain is mountainous to sub-
mountainous (Figure 2). Nearly
23.6% area is plain while 76.4% is
mountainous. Its climate is semi arid,
subtropical and continental
highlands.

OCTOBER 2010

This publication was produced for Source:


reviewFATA
by Capacity Building Programme, 2010 using satellite data.
the United States Agency for International
Development. It was prepared by DAI.

1
Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Development Brief of Bajaur Agency. Bureau of Statistics (FATA Cell). Planning and Development
Department, FATA Secretariat, Peshawar. 2009.
2
Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Development Brief of Mohmand Agency. Bureau of Statistics (FATA Cell). Planning and Development
Department, FATA Secretariat, Peshawar. 2009.
2
STATUS OF RESOURCE AVAILABILITY AND DISTRIBUTION
NETWORKS
FIGURE 3: BARANI FARMING IN BAJAUR AGENCY

RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Bajaur Agency’s cultivated area is 0.075
million ha3. Around 0.011 million ha are
available as culturable waste. Cultivable area is
0.086 million ha and only 0.020 million ha are
irrigated, representing 23% of cultivable or
27% of cultivated area. Three-fourth of
cultivated area is under Barani and Spate
irrigation and managed by farmers, without any
support from public-sector (Figure 3). Water
availability is from precipitation, surface and
groundwater. Agriculture is main source of livelihood.
Mohmand Agency’s cultivated area and culturable waste are 0.021 and 0.010 million ha, respectively.
Cultivable area is 0.031 million ha, out of which 0.009 million ha are irrigated4, representing 29% of
cultivable or 43% of cultivated area. More than half of cultivated area is under Barani or Spate
irrigation and managed by farmers (Figures 4 and 5). Hardly any support was provided to integrate
existing system of Spate irrigation with flood control measures. Floodwater control is faulty and
recent flood in the KPK illustrates this viewpoint. Water availability is largely from precipitation,
surface water and groundwater. Agriculture is main source of livelihood.

FIGURES 4 & 5. BARANI AND IRRIGATED FARMING IN MOHMAND AGENCY

PRECIPITATION
Westerly disturbances contributed 70 % to precipitation and rest by monsoonal disturbances. Mean
annual rainfall of FATA was used by CHF and Sardar & Sardar (2009)5 to develop iso-hyetal and iso-
percentile maps (Figures 6 and 7). Bajaur Agency’s mean annual rainfall varies from <350 to > 500
mm with an average of 375 mm. ADB-FRDP (2010)6 indicated mean annual rainfall of 738 mm with
variation of <500 to 1000 mm. Wide variation in estimated mean annual rainfall of 375 and 738 mm
is a major constraint limiting sustainable management of water resources.

3
Based on the Agency Profile of 2008-09 by FDA.
4
Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Development Brief of Mohmand Agency. Bureau of Statistics (FATA Cell). Planning and Development
Department, FATA Secretariat, Peshawar. 2009.
5
CHF International and Sardar and Sardar. 2009. Compilation, evaluation and gap identification of existing water sector studies in FATA.
Final Report, July 2009.
6
ADB and FATA DA. 2010. Water assessment study and management plan for Bajaur, Khyber and Mohmand Agencies. Volume I Main
Report. FATA Rural Development Project (FRDP), FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan.
Mohmand Agency’s mean annual rainfall varies from <350 to 500 mm with average of 350 mm (CHF
and Sardar and Sardar 2009). ADB-FRDP (2010) revealed that mean annual rainfall is 422 mm,
which is around 20% higher than previous estimates.

FIGURES 6 & 7: MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL ISO-HYETAL AND ISO-PERCENTILE MAPS OF FATA

Source: CHF and Sardar & Sardar (2009) using data collected by PMD and other sources

SURFACE FLOWS
Bajaur Agency is drained by Natalai River and its tributaries, which is a source of Jandool River a
tributary of Panjkora River7. Panjkora River emerges from mountain between Dir district and
Afghanistan and flows as Boundary River between Dir and Bajaur. Water is mainly contributed from
snowmelt. Balambat irrigation scheme is under construction to irrigate 4,500 ha. Panjkora River flows
into Swat River near Chakdara. Other large streams of Bajaur Agency are Babakara, Mullah Syed,
Watalai, Chaharmang, Khato, Bajaur, Arang, Barang, Dandmar and Jandool feeding the Swat River
(Figure 8).

In this study, internally generated rainwater was estimated as 494 million m3 in the Bajaur Agency.
Runoff is largely from rocky mountain. Runoff coefficient of 50% was used for estimation of runoff
due to steep slopes, poor vegetation and climatic stations largely located in the valley having less
rainfall than high mountains8. Internally generated surface water is 247 million m3 per annum.
Mountain precipitation is not measured, which is considerably higher than valley.

In another study, surface runoff from various watersheds of the Bajaur Agency was estimated using
hydrologic models. Surface runoff and perennial water estimated are 76.1 and 128 million m3,
respectively. Around 204.1 million m3 of surface water are available in the Agency. Current use is

7
Hydrology and Groundwater Report, WAPDA, 1998.
8
The climatic stations are located in the valley having much less rainfall than the mountains. Three fourth area of the agency is steep
slopes and mountainous, therefore runoff coefficient of 50% is justified. This estimation is also in line with the research findings of PARC
during 1987 and on-ward.
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124.613 million m3. Around 79.487 million m3 are available for further development, and 14 small
dams are recommended (ADB-FRDP 2010).

For the Bajaur Agency, three small dams have been proposed by FDA for construction and 12 dams
are under construction. Even after the completion of these 15 small dams, there is large number of
potential sites available where dams could be constructed, but are not included in various reports
(NESPAK & BAK; CHF and Sardar & Sardar 2009) due to inaccessibility to the sites and socio-
political conditions. Even after the construction of three dams, around 123.4 million m3 of additional
runoff would be available for developing new irrigation schemes (Figure 8). There are two existing
dams in the Bajaur Agency (Talai and Kharoshah Dams); whereas three dams are identified by FDA
(Tarkho, Churak and Raghagan Dams) and two dams are identified by FRDP (Takht and Kuhi Dams).
This clarified the confusion for potential dam sites identified by different studies (ADB-FRDP 2010).
FIGURE 8: MAJOR STREAMS NETWORK AND POTENTIAL DAM SITES OF BAJAUR AGENCY

Source: Map prepared by FATA Capacity Building Programme, 2010 using data of FDA.

Mohmand Agency’s area is drained by tributaries of Kabul and Swat Rivers9. Swat River enters into
Mohmand Agency at upper Prang Ghar from Swat and after traversing few kms in the Agency re-
enters settled area at Munda Headworks near Shabqadar. KPK is the major beneficiary of Swat River
and number of small inundated civil canals maintained by the community and five large canals
managed by IPD (Irrigation and Power Department) of KPK. There is a need to define water
entitlements so that Mohmand Agency can also get benefit from water of the Swat River (Figure 9).

Precipitation falling on mountains enters to streams as runoff along with its significant portion over
the plain area, which infiltrates to the aquifer. Water table varies from few meters to 100 m. Aquifers
are also recharged in wet years while there is partial depletion during dry period. In this study,
average annual rainwater was estimated as 803 million m3. Using rainfall-runoff coefficient of 50%,
401 million m3 of runoff is generated. Higher rainfall-runoff coefficient is taken considering steep

9
Hydrology and Groundwater Report, WAPDA, 1998.
slopes of rocky-mountains, poor vegetal cover and under-predicted rainfall as climatic stations are
largely located in valleys. Area is drained by major streams outfall in Swat and Kabul rivers (Figure
9).

FIGURE 9: MAJOR STREAMS NETWORK AND POTENTIAL DAM SITES OF MOHMAND AGENCY

Source: Map prepared by FATA Capacity Building Programme, 2010 using data of FDA.

Surface runoff from various watersheds of Mohmand Agency has been estimated. Surface runoff and
perennial water available are 99.9 and 111.5 million m3, respectively. Total available surface water in
an average year is 211.4 million m3. Current water use is estimated as 79.46 million m3. Thus 131.94
million m3 of surface water is available for further development in the Mohmand Agency. For further
development of available surface water resources, 19 small dams are recommended (ADB-FRDP
2010).

Thirty-seven dam sites were identified by the FDA of which six dams are recommended for detailed
study. Drainage system and location of potential sites for small dams are presented in Figure 9.

Average annual flows for dam sites are required to be authenticated by carrying out in-depth analysis
of flow conditions. ADB-FRDP (2010) indicated that there is one existing dam in Mohmand Agency
(Pandial Dam), whereas seven dams are identified by the FDA (Motoshah, Munda, Gandao, Nawagai,

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Morgai, Shamshah and Shaikhan) and one dam is identified by FRDP (Aqrab Dag). Stream network is
well defined in the Mohmand Agency.

HILL TORRENTS
There are seven major streams (Khato, Charharmung, Watalai, Baru Kara, Baranz, Dandmar and
Bajaur) and 71 hill-torrents in the Bajaur Agency (Figure 8). Major water resource available is
internally generated floodwater. Surface water estimated for an average year is 204.07 million m3 and
it increases to 364.45 million m3 in a wet year (ADB-FRDP 2010). Spate irrigation should be planned
for the wet years to harness potential floodwater and reduce the hazards of floods.

There are 10 major streams of Mohmand Agency (Figure 9). Out of these, 7 streams are feeding Swat
River, whereas three streams are feeding Kabul River. There are major hill-torrents in the Agency but
their details are not available. Surface water is the major source of water. Surface water estimated for
an average year is 211.4 million m3 and it increases to 533.26 million m3 in a wet year (ADB-FRDP
2010). Floodwater is partially used for Spate irrigation and rest is available for further development.

GROUNDWATER RESOURCES
Annual recharge in the Bajaur Agency is 98.647, 116.321 and 191.992 million m3 for dry, average
and wet years, respectively. Average annual groundwater abstractions are 127.921 million m3. Net
over-drawn is 11.601 million m3 in an average year (ADB-FRDP 2010). There is no scope for further
abstraction of groundwater due to lowering of water table of 0.226 m per year in an average year.
In the Bajaur Agency, most of the precipitation falling on mountains enters to streams as runoff along
with significant portion of precipitation over the plain area, which infiltrates to groundwater. Water
table varies from few meters to 100 m. Aquifers are also recharged during high flows while there is
partial depletion during dry period. Some of the small aquifers’ basins are closed while flows from
major groundwater basins move along the direction of surface water flows. There are 119 tubewells10
in the Agency reported by CHF and Sardar & Sardar 2009. ADB-FRDP (2010) indicated that there
are 301 tubewells, 744 dugwells and 25198 open wells in the Bajaur Agency. The data presented
seems more logical and comprehensive.

In the Bajaur Agency, most of tubewells are over 100 m deep. There is wide variability in specific
capacity. Discharge of wells varies from 97 to 584 gpm, while average of 300 gpm. Water table depth
was estimated during 80s and distribution is: a) 13% tubewells with water table of <15 m; b) 25%
tubewells with water table ranging 15 to 30 m; c) 26% tubewells with water table ranging 30 to 45 m;
and d) 36% tubewells with water table of over 45 m. There has been lowering of water table at most
of the places in last 30 years ranging from 27 to 37 m.

Annual recharge in the Mohmand Agency is estimated by ADB-FRDP (2010), which is 41.621,
65.468 and 132.598 million m3 for dry, average and wet years, respectively. Average annual
groundwater abstractions are 80.779 million m3. There is net over-drawn of 15.311 million m3 in an
average year. The recharge is almost half of the Bajaur Agency in an average year and net overdrawn
is 32% more than the Bajaur Agency.

There are 148 tubewells, 494 dugwells and 23047 open wells in the Mohmand Agency. Lowering of
water table is 0.345 m/year in an average year. Depth of tubewells varies from 45 to 168 m. Depth to
static water level varies from 21 to 96 m. Screen length varies from 6 to 40 m. Potential for further
development of groundwater is low (ADB-FRDP 2010).
The approach suggested in various studies is based on managing floodwater through dams or flood
control measures and leaving watersheds and Spate irrigation to farmers. Construction of delay action

10
In the Bajaur Agency, 150 boreholes were drilled most of which were converted into tubewells. Strata and location charts of all the
tubewells are available with FDA.
dams in Balochistan hardly contributed in recharging regional groundwater and their contribution was
limited to localized shallow groundwater.

WATER BALANCE
A model was used to predict water balance under dry, average and wet years of precipitation for
various watersheds of Bajaur Agency (ADB-FRDP 2010). Model takes into account inflows
comprising rainfall and perennial flows, and outflow like runoff from rainfall, evapotranspiration and
infiltration for estimating surface water. For groundwater, it equates recharge and discharge to
estimate change in storage.

For the Bajaur Agency, estimated volumes of rainwater during dry, average and wet years are 756.55,
930.65 and 1626.06 million m3, respectively. Net available surface water during dry, average and wet
years is 130.55, 204.07 and 364.45 million m3, respectively. Estimated groundwater recharge during
dry, average and wet years is 98.65, 116.62 and 196.01 million m3. Estimated groundwater use during
average year is estimated as 127.92 million m3. The data of groundwater abstractions during dry and
wet years is not available. Change in groundwater storage during dry, average and wet years is -29.27,
-11.3 and 68.09 million m3, respectively using the average abstractions (Table 1).

TABLE 1: WATER BALANCE OF BAJAUR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES OF FATA

Agency Parameter Volume of Water at three Probability Levels


(million m3)

Dry Year Average Year Wet Year

Bajaur Rainwater 756.55 930.65 1626.06

Net Surface Water 130.55 204.07 364.45

Groundwater Recharge 98.65 116.62 196.01

Groundwater Abstractions - 127.92 -

Change in Groundwater -29.27 -11.3 +68.09

Mohmand Rainwater 533.34 905.83 1906.98

Net Surface Water 114.21 211.44 533.26

Groundwater Recharge 41.612 65.468 132.598

Groundwater Abstractions - 80.78 -

Change in Groundwater 39.16 -15.31 +51.82


Source: ADB-RDP. 2010. Water assessment study and management plan for Bajaur, Khyber and Mohmand Agencies. Volume I Main
Report. FATA Rural Development Project (FRDP), FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan.

For Mohmand Agency, the estimated volumes of rainwater during dry, average and wet years are
533.34, 905.83 and 1906.98 million m3, respectively. Net available surface water during dry, average
and wet years estimated are 114.21, 211.44 and 533.26 million m3, respectively. Annual recharge is
41.612, 65.468 and 132.598 million m3 during dry, average and wet years, respectively. Estimated
groundwater use during average year is 80.78 million m3. Data of groundwater abstractions during dry
and wet years is not available. Change in groundwater storage during dry, average and wet years is -
39.16, -15.31 and +51.82 million m3, respectively using abstractions in an average year (Table 1).

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WATER CONSUMPTION AND DEMAND PROJECTIONS
Water consumption estimated for Bajaur Agency for 2008 is 19.064, 0.942 and 104.617 million m3
for domestic, livestock and agriculture sub-sectors of water use, respectively. Water consumption by
livestock is less than 0.8% - an insignificant amount. This would increase to 25.641, 1.325 and
109.095 million m3 for 2015; 39.188, 2.158 and 115.832 million m3 for 2025; and 74.006, 4.486 and
126.73 million m3 for 2040 for domestic, livestock and agriculture sub-sectors, respectively (Table 2).
Agriculture is and will be the largest user of water (over 84% in 2008; 80% in 2015; 74% in 2025 and
62% in 2040).

TABLE 2: CURRENT AND PROJECTED WATER CONSUMPTION OF BAJAUR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES

Agency Water Consumption Volume of Water Consumption (million m3)

Domestic Livestock Agriculture Total

Bajaur 2008 19.064 0.942 104.617 124.623

2015 25.641 1.325 109.095 136.061

2025 39.188 2.158 115.832 157.178

2040 74.006 4.486 126.73 205.222

Mohmand 2008 10.661 1.029 67.77 79.460

2015 14.295 1.447 70.671 86.413

2025 21.737 2.358 75.035 99.130

2040 40.758 4.902 82.094 127.754


Source: ADB-RDP. 2010. Water assessment study and management plan for Bajaur, Khyber and Mohmand Agencies. Volume I Main
Report. FATA Rural Development Project (FRDP), FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan.

Water consumption estimated for Mohmand Agency for 2008 is 10.661, 1.029 and 67.77 million m3
for domestic, livestock and agriculture sub-sectors of water use, respectively. This would increase to
14.295, 1.447 and 70.671 million m3 for 2015; 21.737, 2.358 and 75.035 million m3 for 2025; and
40.758, 4.902 and 82.094 million m3 for 2040 for domestic, livestock and agriculture sub-sectors,
respectively (Table 2). Agriculture sub-sector is the largest user of water and will continue uptil 2040
even its relative percentage will decrease (85% in 2008; 82% in 2015; 76% in 2025 and 64% in 2040)
in the Mohmand Agency.

There are 65 and 61% increase in water demand over a period of 32 years in Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies, respectively. Demand of water for Bajaur Agency in 2040 will be 61% higher than
Mohmand Agency largely due to higher population density.

LAND USE – POTENTIAL AND CURRENT STATE


Potential land use map of Bajaur Agency has been prepared by Soil Survey of Pakistan and were
digitized by the FRCP (Figures 10). In the Bajaur Agency there is a potential for developing
agriculture, forestry and rangelands. Area under agriculture and forestry are 74,700 and 21515 ha,
respectively11. Potential of irrigated agriculture, forestry and rangelands is relatively higher compared
to Mohmand Agency. Current land use map of the Bajaur Agency was developed using satellite
images available with PARC. Forest area has been classified in to conifer, broad leave and scrub.
Rangelands and forestry is more dominant (Figure 11).

11
FATA RDP. 2008. Baseline surveys. FATA Rural development Programme. FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan.
FIGURE 10: POTENTIAL LAND USE OF BAJAUR AGENCY

Source of Data: Map prepared by Soil Survey of Pakistan and digitized by FRC)

FIGURE 11: CURRENT LAND USE OF BAJAUR AGENCY

Source of Data: Map prepared by PARC using current satellite data)

10
Cropping intensity in Bajaur Agency is 120% (ADB-FRDP 2010). Most of agriculture is dependent
on groundwater. Groundwater is over-drawn in both the agencies therefore policy and regulatory
framework are needed. Future development should be focused on floodwater. Livestock population in
2008 was 0.574 million, which is projected to 0.808, 1.316 and 2.736 million for 2015, 2025 and
2040, respectively representing an increase of 230% in 2040.

Potential land use map of Mohmand Agency (Figure 12) indicated that there is a potential for
developing irrigated agriculture, forestry and rangelands. Currently, there are 20,600 and 14,905 ha
under agriculture and forestry, respectively. Potential of irrigated agriculture and forestry in
Mohmand Agency is less compared to the Bajaur Agency – 28 and 69% area under agriculture and
forestry from that of the Bajaur Agency. Current land use map was also developed using satellite
images. Major land use is rangelands and rocky mountain followed by forests, irrigated agriculture
and water bodies. Forestry is less dominant compared to Bajaur Agency. Rocky Mountain and
rangelands are major dominant land use (Figure 13). Satellite maps prepared are not validated in the
field.

Livestock population during 2008 was 0.884 million, which is projected as 1.244, 2.027 and 4.213
million for 2015, 2025 and 2040, respectively. This large population of livestock is an indicator that in
future both natural vegetation and water have to be managed to have sustainable livestock production.

FIGURE 12. POTENTIAL LAND USE SYSTEMS OF MOHMAND AGENCY

(Source of Data: Maps prepared by Soil Survey of Pakistan and digitized by FRCP)

DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
Domestic water supply schemes are small in size and isolated. If designed and constructed properly
can be managed effectively by the Water Users’ Associations. Most of the water supply schemes are
based on abstraction of groundwater from closed wells and tubewells. Distribution network is
established and managed by the PHED. Some of the schemes have community collection points and
water users collect water from these points.
Major part of water used in both the Agencies (around 85%) is for agriculture and rest is used for
domestic and livestock sub-sectors. Irrigation schemes are also isolated and largely managed by the
communities with the support from IPD. FDA provides the support from the ADP for rehabilitation of
these schemes. Distribution network are provided for participatory surface irrigation schemes.
Tubewell irrigation schemes are individually owned. There is no separate system of stockwater and
demand is largely met from water supply and irrigation schemes. Distribution networks are inefficient
due to operational losses during delivery of water. Availability of free electricity for pumping of
groundwater has resulted in wasteful use of water and/or deferred maintenance of distribution
networks, even water resources are scarce, finite and at premium in both the agencies.

FIGURE 15. CURRENT LAND USE SYSTEMS OF MOHMAND AGENCY

Source of Data: Maps prepared by PARC using current satellite data)

MONITORING OF WATER RESOURCES


Currently, there is no system of monitoring of water and even if some data are collected hardly used
for planning. Concept of river basin management has to be adopted for effective management of
scarce resources. Assessment of resource availability for major river basins is essential. Ultimately,
water balance has to be updated after every three years. Current data generated by ADB-FRDP (2010)
is based on broad estimations made by using computing techniques. Water entitlements have to be
considered while developing potential for further development of water. Lower riparian should not be
deprived in the process of water development. Water monitoring system proposed in the ADB Water
Resources Management Plan (2010) is as under:
• Installation of rain gauge stations is already in hand by FDA and PMD. There is a need to
develop a plan to fill the gaps especially for the high mountains and for snow gauges.
• ADB Water Management Plan 2010 has identified locations for the installation of 50 stream
gauging stations, which will be installed by the FRDP.
12
• FRDP is planning to install 44 electronic data loggers, 15 water level indicators and 15
peizometers for the monitoring of groundwater in Bajaur, Khyber and Mohmand Agencies.

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS
In 2006 structure of FDA was expanded under the FATA Civil Secretariat and now responsible for
the development work. Still, there is certain ambiguity in the O&M of the public-sector schemes as
well defined structure does not exist. There is merit of assigning this responsibility to communities
but it will not happen automatically. Stakeholders’ institutions must be strengthened. Institutional
framework of FDA is not well developed for water. General Manager (Technical) has overall
responsibility of managing development sectors. There is a PD (Small Dams) to implement ADP
Project. The O&M and extension activities are handled by the line Departments.

MINISTRY OF WATER AND POWER


Ministry of Water and Power is responsible for water sector projects financed under the PSDP. It is
also responsible for the formulation and implementation of water sector policy and strategy.

MINISTRY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE


Ministry of Food and Agriculture is responsible for water management at the farm level and provides
support to FATA under “National Watercourse Improvement Programme” and “High Efficiency
Irrigation Systems”. The High Efficiency Irrigation Systems Project is still in infancy.

WAPDA
WAPDA is responsible for the development of medium and large dams and hydro-power projects i.e.
Munda Dam located at the periphery of the Mohmand Agency is being constructed by WAPDA.

FATA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY


FATA Development Authority is supposed to construct small scale water and irrigation schemes and
handover either to communities or to the IPD or PHED.

PHED
Public Health Engineering Department is responsible for development and O&M of water supply
schemes largely in urban areas in the two Agencies.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT


LGRDD sometime is involved in water supply schemes largely in rural areas, which are smaller in
size and investment. Role of PHED and LGRDD in water supply sector has been clearly defined.

AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT
Agriculture Department is responsible for On-Farm Water Management including the High Efficiency
Irrigation System in KPK. But in FATA this activity is largely handled by Director Irrigation.
Agriculture Department is largely involved in routine activities of agriculture extension.

STAKEHOLDERS’ INSTITUTIONS
Stakeholders’ institutions are Water Users’ Associations and Farmers’ Organizations under the Water
Users’ Association Act of 1982 and the Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authorities Act of 1997 for
the formerly NWFP, respectively. These institutions are almost non-existent in the Agencies and even
if they exist are not effective. These institutions in KPK are quite effective.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS
DRAFT NATIONAL WATER POLICY
Draft National Water Policy was formulated during 2005 and it is still in the approval process. The
extracts of Draft National Water Policy relevant to FATA are reproduced as under:

The policy options for domestic water supply related to the Agencies are:

• Provision of safe drinking water be respected as a fundamental right and reduce number of
people without access to safe drinking water progressively (halve by the year 2015);

• Ensure provision of adequate water to meet the needs for rural and urban population and
separate arrangements for supply of potable water should be encouraged wherever feasible;

• Improve maintenance of infrastructure to reduce wastage of water through leaky pipes;

• Improve water quality in accordance with national standards through testing of water;

• Promote water metering and demand based affordable water charges.

The Policy options for surface water related to the Agencies are:
• Construction of new multipurpose storage dams (i.e. Munda) and integration with rainwater
harvesting and conservation measures including Rod-Kohi and Barani farming systems;
• Promote efficient irrigation practices at the farm level such as furrow, border, sprinkler and
drip irrigation systems on Laser leveled fields;
• Discourage high delta crops and promote practices to achieve higher water productivity; and

• Ensure sustainability of infrastructure through adequate funding for O&M and beneficiaries
participation;

The policy options for watershed management and Barani irrigation related to Agencies are:

• Promote efficient use of water through drip irrigation and other water use technologies;
• Continue development of small dams, ponds with rainwater harvesting; and

• Continue watershed management and soil conservation measures.

The policy options for groundwater related to Agencies are:

• Develop Groundwater Regulatory Framework to control and optimize groundwater


exploitation in conjunction with surface water and promote rational pumping of water;
• Encourage provinces to formulate and promulgate Groundwater Management Act;

• Promote groundwater recharge wherever technically and economically feasible; and

• Prohibit mining of groundwater.


The policy options for water quality related to Agencies are:

• All users of water, public or private, shall have the right to receive water of specified quality
at their premises; and they shall concurrently have the obligation not to degrade quality of
water more than what is acceptable; and
• Maintenance of water quality in rivers, reservoirs, lakes and canals including groundwater.

The policy options for integrated planning related to Agencies are:

14
• Adopt principles of Integrated and Unified River Basin Development to ensure that all aspects
are taken care of in decision making for water resources development on holistic basis;

• Ensure that water resource plans take a balanced approach to integrated development.

The policy options for stakeholders’ participation related to Agencies are:


• An enabling environment shall be created for stakeholders’ consultation and participation at
all levels and for all sub-sectors;
• Focus on water users’ involvement in: a) water distribution to ensure that water reaches all
members as per their due share; b) periodic maintenance; c) assessment and collection of
water charges; d) monitoring water and soil quality; e) controlling pollution and wastages;
and f) resolution of local disputes among members;

• Participatory programmes shall be effectively coordinated with policies and programmes of


all other public and private bodies to encourage partnership and to avoid conflicts.

The policy options for sustainable water infrastructure related to Agencies are:

• Water-related infrastructures must have physical and functional sustainability;


• Infrastructures shall be so engineered, constructed and operated that each component thereof
serves its designed purpose without undue wastage of water.
The policy options for financing water sector related to Agencies are:

• Enhance PSDP allocation and other fiscal measures;

• Induct private sector on pilot scale in development of water infrastructure; and


• Promote partnership between public and private sectors.

BAJAUR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES REGULATORY FRAMEWORK


There is no regulatory framework available in the Agencies. Canal and Drainage Act 1873, Irrigation
and Drainage Authority Act 1997 and Water Users’ Association Act 1982 are basically the provincial
regulatory frameworks. Acts and Ordinances of KPK can be adopted in FATA.

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR FATA


GOP DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
FATA-SDP (Sustainable Development Plan) 12 2007-15 aims to steer development planning in a new
direction, focusing on people at the grass-root level instead of the focus on the elites. The key
objective is to foster social and economic development based on principles of equity and participation.
It addresses the basic needs that underline existing socio-economic disparities. It outlines measures to
improve services, upgrade infrastructure and promotes sustainable use of natural resources. Elements
of strategic framework relevant to water sector are reviewed and reproduced as under:

• Develop capacity of local people to enable them to provide services in various sectors;

• Rationalize balance between infrastructure and human resources development;


• Strengthen participation through social organization and involvement of local beneficiaries;

• Bolster institutional and human capacities of local service providers to enable them to
implement and monitor the ADPs;

12
FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2006-15. Government of Pakistan. Planning and Development Department, Civil Secretariat
(FATA), Peshawar. 2006.  
• Improve working and living facilities for service providers to ensure better service delivery;

• Develop and update sector- and Agency-specific baseline data and indicators;
• Provide regulatory framework for investment, O&M and environmental management of water
sector schemes;
• Ensure availability of financial services for enterprise development;

• Ensure that development activities are ecologically sustainable, environment-friendly and


socially acceptable for restoration and sustainable use of natural resources.

FDA DEVELOPMENT PLANS


DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES
Most of the domestic water supply schemes are financed from ADP. Over Rs. 1.0 billion has been
provided during pre-FSDP period (1999-05) for completion of 1058 water supply schemes in FATA.
Other federal and donors’ financed projects have domestic water supply components. DERA (Drought
Emergency Rehabilitation Assistance) Programme is a federally funded project with a domestic water
supply component for FATA amounting to Rs. 170 million. The “Clean Drinking Water for All”
initiative funded by the federal government provides close to Rs. 69 million over a period of 5 years.
FRDP (FATA Rural Development Programme) is an ADB financed initiative covering Bajaur,
Khyber and Mohmand Agencies. The domestic water supply component had an allocation of Rs. 632
million for 2005-10. The lessons learned during the implementation of the domestic water supply
schemes in the FRDP are:

• FATA operates majority of domestic water supply schemes and over one-third of annual non-
development budget is used to pay for O&M. With the increase in number of water supply
schemes the cost of O&M will increase. A phased mechanism needs to be developed to hand
over O&M of schemes to beneficiaries to avoid additional burden of O&M on FATA
Secretariat.

• Capitalize opportunities to improve service delivery, as terrain may be difficult in some


respects but it also allows gravity-fed systems to be used for water supply and sewage
disposal. Available surface water resources can be used to construct small and cost-effective
domestic water supply schemes with O&M responsibility with the users’ institutions.

• Floodwater can be used to recharge groundwater or to generate new aquifers in area where
micro-climatic advantages are available.

• Due to lowering of water table and mining of groundwater, it is necessary to accord priority
for surface water resources for future development of water supply schemes.

• Quality of domestic water supply can be managed only by blocking the entry of sewage and
other effluents to the freshwater resources.

The funding provided for domestic water supply and sanitation schemes under the F-SDP during the
period of 2006-15 is presented in Table 3.

Review of PHED-ADP for 2010-11 indicated that total cost of on-going and new domestic water
supply schemes is Rs. 174.816 and 291.999 millions for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively.
Budget allocations for 2010-11 are Rs.54.444 and 140.029 million, for Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies, respectively. The throw forward beyond 2011-12 is Rs. 36.231 and 84.209 million for
Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively (Annexure I and II).

16
TABLE 3: DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES AND BUDGET FOR FATA-SDP 2006-15

Activity Budget (Rs. in millions)

Years 1-5 Years 6-9 Total

Public awareness 20.0 10.0 30.0

Water resources mapping for four Agencies. Identification 15.0 5.0 20.0
of mechanisms to hand over schemes to beneficiaries

Improvement of existing water supply schemes 500.0 300.0 800.0

Gravity-fed domestic water supply schemes 300.0 200.0 500.0

Water harvesting and surface storage reservoirs 300.0 200.0 500.0

Additional groundwater water supply schemes 800.0 650.0 1450.0

Sanitation services in major cities 400.0 250.0 650.0

Institutional strengthening and capacity building 50.0 40.0 90.0

Total 2385.0 1655.0 4040.0

Review of ADP 2010-11 for the Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies for the Rural Development Sector
indicated that total cost of on-going and new water supply schemes are Rs. 45.109 and 30.796 million,
respectively. Budget allocations for 2010-11 are Rs.16.445 and 8.763 million, for Bajaur and
Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Throw forward beyond 2011-12 is Rs. 22.364 and 15.531 million
for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively (Annexure III and IV).

WATER FOR AGRICULTURE – IRRIGATION


ADP financed 404 irrigation schemes during 2001-05. In the F-SDP existing and new irrigation
schemes have been financed. Federal government financed NDP (National Drainage Programme)
aimed to improve surface irrigation and provided to FATA Rs. 70 million. But due to problems
associated with the implementation of the NDP the planned work could not be completed. National
Watercourse Improvement Programme provided Rs. 837 million to FATA for the improvement of
watercourses. Major work under this project has been completed. Other government sponsored
initiatives include DERA Project with a provision of Rs. 400.0 million for irrigation.

In addition to the federal funding, donors-supported irrigation projects were also completed or are
currently in operation. World Bank assisted On-Farm Water Management Project for the
improvement of watercourses and irrigation channels has been completed with funding support of Rs.
107 million. Farmers contributed Rs. 23 million for sharing of the cost. Major part of this project has
been completed during 2007-08 but later on it faced funding problems from the federal government.
The FRDP provided budget of Rs. 742 million for irrigation.
The lessons learned under the completed and on-going irrigation schemes are:

• Lowering of water table at a rapid rate has dried wells and tubewells.

• There is a need to develop Spate irrigation systems using floodwater as a source of livelihood.
• Encourage use of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems for fruits and vegetables.

• Harnessing of surface water resources through an integrated strategy.

• River basin concept should be adopted for sustainable management of the resource.
The funding provided for “Water for Agriculture” under F-SDP during the period of 2006-15 is
presented in Table 4.

TABLE 4: WATER FOR AGRICULTURE – IRRIGATION SCHEMES AND BUDGET FOR FATA-SDP 2006-15

Activity Budget (Rs. in millions)

Years 1-5 Years 6-9 Total

Rehabilitation of irrigation schemes 700.0 100.0 800.0

River training and flood protection 800.0 250.0 1050.0

High efficiency irrigation systems 800.0 550.0 1350.0

Feasibility study and construction of 20 small dams 2160.0 2165.0 4325.0

Rehabilitation and installation of tubewells 40.0 30.0 70.0

Institutional strengthening and capacity building 250.0 100.0 350.0

Total 4750.0 3195 7945

Review of ADP 2010-11 for the Irrigation Sector indicated that total cost of on-going and new
schemes are Rs. 196.118 and 92.131 million for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Budget
allocations for 2010-11 are Rs.73.721 and 35.788 million for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies,
respectively. The throw forward beyond 2011-12 is Rs. 53.611 and 42.095 million for Bajaur and
Mohmand Agencies, respectively (Appendix V and VI).

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN FORMULATED UNDER FRDP


ADB-FRDP (2010) Water Resources Management Plan for FATA is focused on four priority thrust
areas: a) water conservation schemes by lining of irrigation channels and provision of pipe-flow
network for well/tubewell irrigation; b) construction of small storage ponds for multiple purposes; c)
construction of small recharge and delay action dams; and d) Domestic water supply schemes.

The Watershed Management Plan includes two priority thrust areas: a) plantation of forest trees,
shrubs and grasses for the production of fuel wood and forages; and b) check dams to control erosion
and provision of clean water for inflow to the reservoir and reduce siltation in the lake.

Water Productivity Plan highlighted two priority areas: a) cropping patterns to support high value
agriculture at the farm level; and b) on-farm water management to improve water productivity at the
farm level.

Water Monitoring Plan has been prepared in collaboration with the FDA and details have already
been elaborated in Sub-section under “Monitoring of Water Resources”.

DONORS’ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY


Donors’ development strategies have also been outlined in various reports13,14. The Joint strategy of
the ADB, World Bank and Government of Pakistan for the DNA (Damage Need Assessment) was

13
ADB, World Bank and Government of Pakistan. 2009. Preliminary Damage and Need Assessment. Immediate Restoration and Medium
Term Reconstruction in Crisis Affected Areas of KPK and FATA. November 2009. Islamabad.
14
ADB-RDP. 2010. Water assessment study and management plan for Bajaur, Khyber and Mohmand Agencies. Volume I Main Report.
FATA Rural Development Project (FRDP), FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan.

18
reviewed. Strategic objective of carrying out and implementing the DNA is to help create conducive
conditions for immediate recovery and rehabilitation in FATA. The Key Strategic Actions suggested
by the donors jointly with the Government of Pakistan are:
Quick recovery of farm production systems:  Highest priority should be given to help
farmers and other partners reliant on agriculture to restart production, input availability and
marketing of the produce. This would require help for repair of irrigation and flood control
infrastructure.
 
Targeting the most affected communities and households: Given the background of the
crisis, reconstruction has to be seen as quick, rapid and fair. Support has to be targeted to the most
affected areas. The strong involvement of water users’ associations will be essential. 
 
Introduction of appropriate new technologies: There is plenty of experience in Pakistan of
introducing appropriate new technologies in water use for revitalizing income generation.

Improvement of support services:  Private and public support services will be essential for
water users to resume their activities. Role of private sector be encouraged in provision of services
and public sector focus more on research and extension.

Supporting water users’ associations and farmers’ organizations:  Water users’


associations and farmers’ organizations will play a central role in the recovery process. The
planning and implementation of key activities must be done in close collaboration with them.
 
Informing the local people:  The active involvement of local population in implementing and
monitoring reconstruction work will require a well defined communications strategy.

Early Recovery and Reconstruction Strategy of donors is comprised of two components:


Component 1: Rebuilding Water Supply, Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods, which comprises of
those activities relating to domestic water supply and irrigation sub-sectors; and

Component 2: Rehabilitation and Improvement of Support Services aim at reconstructing the


damaged government infrastructures in water and agriculture sectors.
CHAPTER II:
OPPORTUNITY ASSESMENT

SUB-SECTOR SELECTION15
Domestic and agriculture are the major sub-sectors of water use in FATA. Agriculture is the largest
sub-sector and currently it consumes 85% of total water use and rest is largely utilized for domestic
purposes. Domestic and agriculture sub-sectors are included in SWOT analysis.

MARKET POTENTIAL OF SUB-SECTORS


Water is not considered as an economic good and the market potential is thus limited. There is higher
demand for domestic water. It is difficult to assess economic or market value of water because it is not
priced. According to the indigenous understanding of the religion, it is a local norm that water can’t
be priced and therefore water for domestic and stockwater is considered a free commodity. In reality,
there is a need to assign value to water and then in a gradual process one can lead towards pricing the
commodity. For agriculture, there exists groundwater markets, where farmers can sell water to
compensate O&M cost of tubewell. Concept of groundwater markets can be further built to value
water, if electricity is priced. There is no market for surface water for agriculture. .

DETAILED SWOT ASSESSMENT OF SUB-SECTORS


SWOT ANALYSIS FOR DOMESTIC WATER USE – WATER FOR PEOPLE
SWOT analysis was conducted for domestic water supply schemes for Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies and salient are provided in Box 1. The details are given in Annexure VII.

BOX 1. SWOT ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES IN BAJAUR AND MOHMAND

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

• Knowledge and experiences for • Water consumption from open sources is one of the
developing and managing improved reasons for spread of water born diseases.
domestic water supply schemes are • Two-third of population does not have access to clean
available locally. water.
• One-third of population is having • Quality of pond water is affected due to entry of
access to fairly clean and relatively safe wastewater from livestock and washing of clothes.
water. • Ponds dried during droughts and availability of water
• Public sector domestic water supply is a major challenge. Local population has to travel
schemes are largely based on longer distances in search of water.
groundwater and water is fairly clean • Free electricity is provided for pumping of water.
and relatively safe at source.
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
• Technology for sand filter and hand • Lack of ownership among communities to take over
pump is available for providing clean O&M of domestic water supply schemes.
water from ponds. • O&M cost will increase with increased coverage of
• Fencing pond area, provision of facility water supply resulting in more burden on PHED.
for stockwater and washing of clothes • Lack of enforcement for charging electricity and
can help to manage quality of water. water.
• Two-third population still requires • Areas are not fully recovered from militancy and any
facility for clean drinking water. future military action would affect investment.
15
Sub-sector selection was finalized after the joining of the subject matter expert of the Study.
20
SWOT ANALYSIS FOR IRRIGATION SCHEMES – WATER FOR
AGRICULTURE
Agriculture sub-sector of water use includes minor perennial (surface and groundwater) and Spate
irrigation schemes through diversion of floodwater. Minor perennial irrigation schemes (surface and
groundwater) are sustainable in terms of water availability. Water of perennial streams is diverted for
year round farming including fruits and vegetables. Similarly, groundwater is also used for perennial
irrigation schemes, where it is much more reliable than surface waters. These are schemes which are
very effective for generating profitable farming if high value cropping pattern is adopted.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF PERENNIAL SURFACE IRRIGATION


SCHEMES
SWOT analysis was conducted for the perennial surface irrigation schemes for Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies and salient are provided in Box 2. The details are presented in Annexure VIII.

BOX 2. SWOT ANALYSIS OF PERENNIAL SURFACE IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN BAJAUR AND MOHMAND

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

• Potential for further development of perennial • Current designing procedures are having in-built
surface irrigation as balance water is available. weaknesses where rights of downstream users’ are
• Adequate and relevant experience in not considered while developing surface irrigation
participatory irrigation management is schemes
available in KPK and GB. • Schemes are designed to distribute perennial water
• Cost-effective both in capital and O&M if thinly rather than enhancing productivity – low
effectively constructed and managed. designed cropping intensity
• No energy requirement as these can be • Farm water productivity is not the design objective.
operated as gravity-flow schemes. • No consideration for storage of excess water.
• Storage of excess water in small ponds. • Low value assigned to perennial surface waters
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
• Perennial surface irrigation schemes can be • Resistance from engineers of public sector
designed effectively with higher irrigation institutions for adopting integrated strategy
efficiency and productivity • Lack of awareness and motivation of public-sector
• Pipe-flow water conveyance irrigation system institutions in integrating irrigation with livelihood
using PE/PVC pipes can eliminate losses and • Lack of ownership among communities to take over
reduce O&M cost. O&M of schemes
• Drip and sprinkler irrigation systems can • Lack of enforcement for recovery of capital and
improve cropping intensity and productivity operational cost for irrigation water
by eliminating losses and improving water • Areas are not fully recovered from militancy and
uniformity. any future military action would affect investment.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF PERENNIAL GROUNDWATER IRRIGATION


SCHEMES
SWOT analysis was conducted for perennial groundwater irrigation schemes for Bajaur and
Mohmand Agencies and salient are provided in Box 3. The details are presented in Annexure IX.

21
BOX 3. SWOT ANALYSIS OF PERENNIAL GROUNDWATER IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN BAJAUR AND

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

• Perennial groundwater irrigation schemes provide • Knowledge support is not provided to farmers for
water on demand. design, installation and operation of groundwater
• Provides water during droughts to meet shortfall in schemes.
rainfall and/or surface water. • Provision of free electricity resulted in wasteful
• Managed groundwater schemes individually having use of water
minimal or no conflicts on distribution of water. • Groundwater abstraction in dry and average year is
• Generate new livelihoods for unemployed youths in more than recharge.
areas having balance groundwater. • Inefficient delivery and application of water
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
• Perennial groundwater irrigation schemes can be • Availability of free electricity for further
designed effectively with higher irrigation efficiency development is going to increase burden on FATA
and water productivity and wasteful use of scarce and finite resource
• Pipe-flow water conveyance irrigation system using • Inefficient pumping systems
PE/PVC pipes can eliminate losses and reduce O&M • Further groundwater abstraction would worsen
cost. lowering of water table and mining of groundwater
• Drip and sprinkler irrigation systems can improve • Non-sustainability of groundwater irrigation
cropping intensity and water productivity by schemes until and unless it is considered a trust
eliminating losses and improving water uniformity.

SWOT ANALYSIS FOR SPATE FARMING SYSTEMS


SWOT analysis was conducted for Spate irrigation schemes for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies and
salient are provided in Box 4. The details are presented in Annexure X.

BoX 4. SWOT ANALYSIS OF SPATE IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN BAJAUR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

• Floodwater is the largest resource of water • Current designing procedures are having in-built
available and there is potential for further weaknesses where rights of downstream users’ are
development of Spate irrigation schemes. not considered
• Adequate and relevant experience in participatory • Schemes are designed to control flood and divert it
Spate irrigation is available in KPK and GB. rather than extending benefits to the Spate farmers
• Cost-effective both in capital and O&M if through integrated use of stored and spilled water
effectively managed. • Water conveyance and productivity at farm level
• No energy requirement as these can be operated as are not the design objective.
gravity-flow schemes. • Low priority assigned to Spate irrigation schemes
• Storage of excess water in small reservoirs and livelihood
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
• Spate irrigation schemes can be designed with • Resistance from engineers of public sector
higher irrigation efficiency, enhanced command institutions for adopting integrated strategy for
area and increased water productivity Spate irrigation, water storage and groundwater
• Local knowledge and practices can be integrated recharge to provide livelihood
with water storage and recharge to distribute • Lack of awareness and motivation of public-sector
benefits to larger population institutions to link irrigation with livelihood
• Ecology suitable for wheat, oilseeds, coarse grains • Lack of ownership among communities to take
and pulses to reduce burden of imports over O&M of Spate irrigation schemes
• Provides opportunity for sustainable livelihood • Lack of enforcement for recovery of capital and
schemes rather than converting to small dams operational cost for irrigation water – water fee
which are going to be silted up in 30-40 years,
whereas Spate irrigation has been in practice since
millenniums

22
CHAPTER III:

AGENCY DEVLOPMENT
PLANS

PRIORITY AREA INVESTMENT OPTIONS

BAJAUR AGENCY
Four Corridors have been selected to have safe entry for initiating reconstruction of water supply,
irrigation and flood control schemes and support infrastructure for livelihood. After reconstruction
and rehabilitation works, investments would be expanded to areas outside the corridor. Basin or
watershed will be used as a hydrological unit for managing resources rather than administrative
boundaries. Concept of river basin management is recommended than Corridors on administrative
boundaries except Corridors will be used as an entry point. Watersheds within each Agency have been
delineated under ADB and FRDP 2010 and can be used as a basin for introduction of interventions.

The four corridors identified for the Bajaur Agency (Figure 10) are:
• Nawegai Tehsil – Charmang Valley Corridor: Watersheds have been planned by the
FRDP during 2009-10. Soils are acidic to neutral to moderately alkaline. Corridor does not
have a well defined stream network but there are number of springs providing groundwater
which oasis out from the ground. No dam currently exists in the corridor and no dam has been
proposed. Rangelands, Barani and Spate irrigation are major land uses.

• Khar Tehsil – Loi Sam Corridor: Loi Sam Corridor is covering area of three watersheds.
Corridor has a well defined stream network. Barani and Spate irrigation are common source
of livelihood with some wells and tubewells supporting for abstracting water relatively from
deeper depths compared to the dugwells. Kharosha dam is located at the boundary of Corridor
and it is currently in operation. No new dam has been proposed. Soils are moderately alkaline.

• Mamund Tehsil – Damadola Corridor: There are two watersheds in the Corridor.
Comprehensive planning is needed for future management of water using basin approach.
Soils are slightly acidic to moderately alkaline. Corridor does not have a well defined stream
network but there are a large number of tubewells abstracting groundwater relatively from
deeper depths. Barani and Spate irrigation are common in the area. Tarlai dam is located
around the periphery and it is currently in operation. Churak dam is proposed for construction
which is also located along the periphery of the Corridor.

• Mamund Tehsil – Kitkot Corridor: Corridor has a well defined stream network and there
is large number of tubewells abstracting groundwater relatively from deeper depths. Land use
is largely Barani and Spate irrigation with wells/tubewells providing perennial source of
irrigation. Tarkho dam proposed for construction is located in the Corridor. Dugwells are used
for multiple purposes.

23
TABLE 5. PRIORITY AREA INVESTMENT OPTIONS FOR THE BAJAUR AGENCY

Estimated
Cluster Investment Option Cost
(million $)
Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061
Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.40

CHARMANG Rehabilitation of domestic water supply schemes 0.10


VALLEY Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10
Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.060
Installation of high efficiency irrigation systems on 50 acres 0.066
Total Corridor Investment 0.787
Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061
Rehabilitation of Damaged Irrigation and Flood Control Schemes 0.40
Rehabilitation of domestic water supply schemes 0.10
LOI SAM
Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10
Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at a unit cost of US$ 6000 0.060
Installation of high efficiency irrigation systems on 100 acres 0.133
Total Corridor Investment 0.854
Construction of Churak small dam at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 2.5
Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061
Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.40
DAMADOLA
Rehabilitation of domestic water supply schemes 0.10
Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10
Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.060
Installation of High Efficiency Irrigation Systems on 100 acres 0.133
Total Corridor Investment 3.354
Construction of Tarkho small dam at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 2.5
Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061

KITKOT - Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.40


INAYAT
KHEL Rehabilitation of domestic water supply schemes 0.10

Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10


Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.060
Installation of High Efficiency Irrigation Systems on 50 acres 0.066

Total Corridor Investment 3.287


Agency Corridors Investment 8.282

24
MOHMAND AGENCY
Three Corridors of Mohmand Agency have been selected, which will be used as an entry point for
initiating reconstruction of water supply, irrigation and flood control schemes and support
infrastructure for livelihood. After reconstruction and rehabilitation works in the corridors,
investments would be expanded to areas outside the corridor. The ADB and FRDP (2010) delineated
watersheds within the Agency and interventions can be implemented considering watershed as a
basin. Three Corridors identified in the Agency are (Figure 12):
• Khwezai Bezai Corridor: Khwezai Bezai Corridor has a partially defined stream network
and it is located in one watershed. Tubewells are limited and major land uses are Barani,
Spate irrigation and rangelands. Dugwells are common in the Corridor. Shamshah and
Shaikhan dams have been proposed for construction and are located along the boundary of the
Corridor. Wells for domestic and agriculture uses are located in the area.

• Safi – Larko Corridor: Larko Corridor has a well defined stream network (both perennial
and non-perennial streams) and its area is distributed among three watersheds.
Comprehensive planning is needed for management of water resources. Morgai and Nawagai
are the two new dams proposed for construction, which are located on the periphery of the
Corridor. There is large number of tubewells abstracting groundwater relatively from deeper
depths compared to the dug wells and provide perennial source of water. Barani farming and
Spate irrigation are the major land uses followed by rangelands.

• Pandiali – Ambar Corridor: Ambar Corridor has a well defined stream network (both
perennial and non-perennial streams) and its area is shared by four watersheds. This demands
the need for comprehensive planning for management of surface and groundwater. There is
large number of wells and tubewells along the streams abstracting groundwater relatively
from deeper depths compared to dug wells and provide perennial source of water. Pandiali
dam is located in the Corridor. Large dam is being constructed at Munda, which is located
along the periphery of the Corridor. Gandao water supply dam is proposed for construction,
which is also located along the periphery of the Corridor.

The priority area investment options for the three corridors of the Mohmand Agency are presented
in Table 6.

TABLE 6. PRIORITY AREA INVESTMENT OPTIONS FOR THE MOHMAND AGENCY

Cluster Investment Option Estimated


Cost

(million $)

Construction of Shamshah and Shaikhan dams at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 5.0

Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061

Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.60


KHWEZAI Rehabilitation of damaged domestic water supply schemes 0.10
BEZAI
Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10

Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.060

Installation of high efficiency irrigation systems on 100 acres 0.133

Total Corridor Investment 6.054

25
Construction of Morgai and Nawagai dams at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 5.0

Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061

Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.60

Rehabilitation of damaged domestic water supply schemes 0.10


LARKO
Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10

Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.06

Installation of high efficiency irrigation systems on 100 acres 0.133

Total Corridor Investment 6.054

Construction of Gandao dam at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 2.5

Construction of 10 water ponds for multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.061

Rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and flood control schemes 0.60

Rehabilitation of damaged domestic water supply schemes 0.10


AMBAR
Rebuilding of 25 damaged watercourses 0.10

Provision of 10 Laser land levelers to tractor rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.06

Installation of high efficiency irrigation systems on 100 acres 0.133

Total Corridor Investment 3.554

Agency Corridors Investment 15.662

WATER SECTOR
Priority Area Investment Options are outlined for Corridors of Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies and
summary is presented in Tables 5 and 6, respectively (Annexure XI). Eight priority area investment
options have been identified. Total investment requirements for Corridors of Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies are US$ 8.282 and 15.662 million, respectively. Total investment requirement for Corridors
of both the Agencies comes to US$ 23.944 million. Minimum duration of four years for investment
project is recommended, as investment options require a period of three years so another year is added
to take in to account delays expected in the start of the project.

AGENCY INVESTMENT OPTIONS

DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

DAMAGE AND NEED ASSESSMENT


Damage incurred to drinking water supply schemes has been assessed by ADB, World Bank and
Government of Pakistan16 with the help of Agencies responsible for construction and O&M of these
schemes. Damage need assessment was based on data provided by PHED. As this is the most recent
and comprehensive assessment, therefore data provided can be used for developing Agency

16
ADB, World Bank and Government of Pakistan. 2009. Preliminary Damage and Need Assessment. Immediate Restoration and Medium
Term Reconstruction in Crisis Affected Areas of KPK and FATA. November 2009. Islamabad.
26
Investment Options. All PHED schemes are tubewell based with distribution networks and household
and/or street connections. In Bajaur Agency all 189 reported schemes are owned by PHED. Around
40 schemes are damaged in the Bajaur Agency. Mohmand Agency has only 6 partially damaged
schemes out of total of 169. Total population served by 46 damaged schemes is around 49,500. Cost
of damage is estimated to be US$ 0.31 million, with breakup of US$ 0.27 and 0.04 million for Bajaur
and Mohmand Agencies, respectively.
Damage appears to be not substantial in monetary terms, but keeping in view the importance of these
basic facilities and their impact on overall health of affectees and environment, indirect damage may
be significant. Damages caused to water supply schemes developed and managed by communities
using earthen reservoirs, springs and diversion of surface water are not assessed in the report. Half to
two-third of the population is using unsafe water from community operated schemes and nothing has
been done by PHED except converting them to pumped water supply schemes with higher O&M cost.

RECOVERY STRATEGY AND RECONSTRUCTION COST


F-SDP proposed that an early recovery strategy may be prepared in collaboration with Agencies
supporting Water and Sanitation programmes including UN institutions and donors’ financed
programmes. Damaged schemes have already been either partially rehabilitated or made functional
temporarily. Before, implementation of any future projects, an inventory of all damaged and
rehabilitated schemes must be prepared to ascertain precise investment required to fix the remaining
facilities. This can be done at the time of implementation of ADPs as required reconstruction cost will
change at the implementation of ADPs because of the lag time. F-SDP further emphasized that a long-
term strategy could be prepared focusing on extending coverage and enhancing quality of service by
using new technologies, along with building capacity of sectoral institutions. Special emphasis should
be on water hygiene and health education and provision of more sanitation facilities. Moreover, FDA
should also focus towards creating an enabling environment for bilateral donors to fund water and
sanitation projects through community partnerships with the involvement of private sector and NGOs.
In the long-term approach, FDA should plan for increased coverage, in view of the expected
population increase in the next 20 years, which is normal design life of a water supply scheme. PHED
should consider introducing better technological options and improved infrastructure for service
delivery. In the past, water quality has been ignored both at planning and implementation levels, it is
suggested to incorporate means to ensure fairly safe domestic water by providing reasonable water
quality at all times of the year. Community ownership should also be institutionalized where they
should be the owner of the assets and take charge of O&M of the schemes.

Total estimated cost of reconstruction and rehabilitation of water supply schemes in the Bajaur and
Mohmand Agencies of FATA is estimated as US$ 0.782 million.

Damage need assessment report, PHED planning activities and other government institutions all focus
on rehabilitation of water supply schemes. No mention is made for population, which does not have
any access to PHED water supply schemes depending largely on earthen reservoirs, spring and
streams. There is a need to assess exact requirement of this segment of population, which is deprived
from the clean water. This must be given priority to have equity in providing water for domestic use.
Cost of a scheme varies from US$ 6025 to 9038 for rehabilitation and making improvement.

AGENCY INVESTMENT OPTIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES

The Agency investment options in the field of domestic water and sanitation are:
• FIRST INVESTMENT OPTION – EARLY RECOVERY: Total estimated reconstruction
cost of water supply schemes owned by PHED in the Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies is US$
0.782 million. The first option is that USAID invest this amount for rehabilitation and
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reconstruction of damaged water supply schemes without considering requirement for
sanitation, which is a pre-requisite for provision of safe drinking water. This option allows
exclusive investment by USAID. For schemes outside the PHED and largely developed and
managed by communities, an additional amount of US$ 0.422 million would be required.
Total investment thus required is US$ 1.204 million.

• SECOND INVESTMENT OPTION – RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGY: Expected cost


of reconstruction strategy will be US$ 1.93 million by adding sanitation schemes along with
bio-remediation treatment and reuse of treated water for agriculture.

• THIRD INVESTMENT OPTION – LONG TERM STRATEGY: Long-term strategy


focuses on extending coverage and enhancing quality of services by using new and innovative
technologies. Expected cost of options under long-term strategy is US$ 3.01 million covering
enhancement of water supply schemes which are partially or fully damaged.

IRRIGATION SCHEMES FOR AGRICULTURE


DAMAGES AND NEED ASSESSMENT
In Bajaur Agency, out of 25 perennial irrigation schemes 16 have been partially damaged. Out of 12
flood protection schemes, 6 have been partially damaged. Out of total 110 tubewells 4 have been
completely damaged, and 10 partially damaged. Since most channels are owned by the community,
which get their water supply from groundwater, the extensive damages of tubewells and dugwells
pose serious threats to livelihood. Direct damage of irrigation and flood control under the joint
assessment is estimated at US$ 3.037 million. Largest group of damages is tubewells (US$ 1.219
million), followed by canals (US$ 0.709 million) and dugwells (US$ 0.569 million). Direct damages
are estimated at US$ 1.204 million. Largest group of damages is tubewell, followed surface irrigation
and dugwells. Mohmand Agency incurred the larger losses (US$ 1.833 million or 60% of total
irrigation sub-sector losses). Out of total 15 perennial irrigation schemes, three have been completely
damaged and 10 schemes partially damaged. Out of total 6 flood protection schemes, two have been
completely damaged and four partially damaged. Also, out of total 30 tubewells 27 have been
partially damaged and all of the 188 dugwells have been partially damaged.

RECONSTRUCTION COSTS IN BAJUAR AND MOHMAND AGENCIES


Largest share of reconstruction cost is for rebuilding irrigation. Rehabilitation and Improvement of
Support Services aims at reconstructing damaged infrastructures in irrigation sector. Estimated cost
for reconstruction of irrigation and flood control schemes is US$ 5.4 million. Cost for rehabilitation
and improvement comes to US$ 25,300. Overall reconstruction costs of irrigation rebuilding in Bajaur
and Mohmand are estimated at US$ 13.54 million. The public-sector support services aim at
reconstructing damaged infrastructures in irrigation sector. Rehabilitation cost of irrigation
infrastructure support services is US$ 0.065 million (ADB and World Bank 2009).

AGENCY INVESTMENT OPTIONS IN BAJAUR AND MOHMAND


AGENCIES
Two reconstruction interventions have been identified and approximate costs have been estimated.
Both the interventions are essential and therefore can’t be taken as options. Rebuilding is needed at
two levels: a) firstly at the secondary level addressing major irrigation and flood control schemes; and
b) secondly, the repair and improvement of “On-farm Water Management” schemes.
Option #1: Construction of Small Dams: Feasibility studies have been conducted and in certain
cases tenders have been invited. There are 14 small dams planned for Bajaur Agency (ADB and
FRDP 2010) at an estimated cost of US$ 35.0 million including the cost of watershed management,
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pipeline network and command area development with high efficiency irrigation systems. Similarly,
19 small dams have been planned for Mohmand Agency (ADB and FRDP 2010) and estimated full
package cost is US$ 47.5 million. Total investment requirement for small dams is US$ 82.5 million.
Detailed feasibility would be required for each of the dam to have precise cost estimates.

Option #2: Construction of Water Ponds: There are 127 water ponds planned for the Bajaur
Agency (ADB and World Bank 2010) at an estimated cost of US$ 0.77 million including the cost of
catchment area management, sediment trap, construction of water pond, sand filter and hand pump,
PE water storage tank, stockwater and clothes washing facility, fencing of ponded area using thorny
bushes and plantation of fast growing trees and shrubs as biological fencing. Similarly, 176 water
ponds have been planned for Mohmand Agency (ADB and FRDP 2010) and estimated full package
cost is US$ 1.067 million. Total investment requirement for water ponds is US$ 1.837 million.
Option #3: Rehabilitation of Damaged Irrigation and Flood Control Schemes: Since all
damaged schemes identified under this category are public investments and have key importance for
communities. Rehabilitation process is expected to take two years and total cost is estimated at US$
13.54 million (ADB and World Bank 2009). The rehabilitation works should be properly prioritized
and phased. During the upcoming winter season flood protection structures and diversion bunds
should be rehabilitated on priority to avert further losses and damages and to ensure plantation of
Kharif 2011 crops. High priority irrigation schemes should be restored. The remaining works could be
done during the second phase.
Option #4: Rehabilitation of Damaged Water Supply Schemes: The damaged water supply
infrastructure identified under this category is public investments and have key importance for
communities. Rehabilitation process is expected to take six months and total cost of rehabilitation is
estimated at US$ 1.2 million (ADB and World Bank 2009) – US$ 1.04 million for Bajaur and US$
0.16 million for Mohmand. The rehabilitation works should be properly prioritized and phased.
Option #5: Repair of Damaged Buildings: Repair of damaged offices and buildings belonging
to IPD should be carried out on priority basis. The estimated costs of repair are US$ 0.025 and 0.040
million for Bajaur and Mohmand, respectively (ADB and World Bank 2009).

Option #6: Rebuilding Damaged Watercourses: Watercourses were damaged due to the crisis
will need to be repaired. Maximum possible length of watercourse may be lined. For areas, where
tubewell irrigation channels are earthen, pipe flow systems with outlets be provided. This would
eliminate conveyance losses and both water and energy will be used effectively. This investment is
crucial to rehabilitate livelihoods. There are 500 and 680 watercourses planned for rehabilitation for
the Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Estimated cost of rehabilitation is US$ 2.0 and 2.72
million for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Total investment requirement comes to US$
4.72 million (ADB and World Bank 2009).

Option #7: Laser Land Levelling and Other Land Forming Equipment: Laser land leveling
systems would be provided to the service providers on 50% cost sharing basis. OFWM programme
should not be involved in provision of such services. Private sector service providers may be
established and desired training be provided. Ten units of Laser Levelers are recommended for each
corridor. If Laser land leveling equipment is not required, then land forming and planting equipment
be provided to adjust for local needs. There are 100 and 75 Laser Levelers planned for Bajaur and
Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Estimated cost for provision of Laser Levelers comes to US$ 0.363
and 0.273 million for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Total investment requirement
comes to US$ 0.636 million.

Option #8: High Efficiency Irrigation Systems: Provide services to the water users through
Supply and Services Companies (SSCs) for the installation of high efficiency irrigation systems.
Farmers will provide all the labour cost and upfront cash contribution of Rs. 5000 per acre. These
systems must be made mandatory for the installation of new tubewells and provision of electric
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connection. Otherwise a severe mining of groundwater may be observed. In the beginning enlightened
farmers must be identified by the SSCs for installation of drip irrigation systems. There are 650 and
850 acres planned for these systems for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies, respectively. Estimated cost
of installation of these systems comes to US$ 0.861 and 1.126 million for Bajaur and Mohmand
Agencies, respectively. Total investment requirement comes to US$ 1.987 million.

INVESTMENT REQUIREMENT FOR AGENCY DEVELOPMENT


PLANS
Eight investment options have been identified. The investment requirement for the Bajaur Agency is
US$ 45.696 million, whereas these requirements for the Mohmand Agency are US$ 61.203 million.
Total investment requirement for both the Agencies is US$ 106.899 million. Summary of Investment
for Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies is presented in Table 7 (Annexure XII).
TABLE 7. SUMMARY OF AGENCY INVESTMENT OPTIONS AND REQUIREMENT FOR WATER SECTOR

Agency Investment Options Cost

Est.
(million $)

Construction of 14 mall Dams at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 35.00

Construction of 127 Water Ponds for Multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 0.77

Rehabilitation of 36 Damaged Irrigation and Flood Control Schemes 5.4

Rehabilitation of Domestic Water Supply Schemes 1.04


BAJAUR
Repair of damaged buildings of public sector institutions 0.025

Rebuilding of 500 Damaged Watercourses 2.0

Provision of 100 Laser Levelers to Tractor Rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.600

Installation of High Efficiency Irrigation Systems on 650 acres 0.861

Total Investment for Bajaur Agency 45.696

Construction of 19 Small Dams at unit cost of US$ 2.5 million 47.5

Construction of 176 Water Ponds for Multiple uses at unit cost of US$ 6063 1.067

Rehabilitation of 42 Damaged Irrigation and Flood Control Schemes 8.14

Rehabilitation of Domestic Water Supply Schemes 0.16

Repair of damaged buildings of public sector institutions 0.040


MOHMAND
Rebuilding of 680 Damaged Watercourses 2.72

Provision of 75 Laser Levelers to Tractor Rental at unit cost of US$ 6000 0.450

Installation of High Efficiency Irrigation Systems on 850 acres 1.126

Total Investment for Mohmand Agency 61.203

Total Investment Required for Investment Options for Water Sub-sector 106.899

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