Sei sulla pagina 1di 155

Limited internal

3G Network
tuning and optimization
for Network Consulting in
Kuala Lumpur January 15-16,
2004 (part 1)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 1 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Experience from earlier roll-outs of new systems


System performance
The graph shown here is based (call drop rate)
on information taken from the
introduction of GSM. It is based
on system performance 6% Performance Evolution for other Technologies.
surveys, which have been Based on information from GSM,
performed during Q2 and Q3
5% excluding dropped calls due to coverage
1992, Q2 1993, Q2 1994 and
Q3 1994 in one GSM network
for the same area. The dotted 4%
line represents the time where
the network was not yet in
commercial operation. Year 1 3%
corresponds to 1991, year 2 to
1992, Year 3 to 1993, etc. The
information shown, is based on 2%
data from test drives as well as
from network statistics with the
measurements being performed 1%
in a sub-urban area. The graph
starts 1991 with 6 % with a very
steep slope. The first confirmed
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
performance measurement for
The graph shows the dropped call performance by excluding all dropped calls due to lack of coverage.
1991 is a dropped call rate of It is based on areas with high focus, meaning correct SW packages, reviewed installations and
100%! parameter settings, clean spectrum and verified frequency plan. All data was retrieved under normal
operating conditions, i.e. without generating additional artificial load in any of the cells in the system. During the
first years of operation the traffic in the systems was very low.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 2 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Experience from earlier roll-outs of new systems

Contributing Factors

The reason for the performance improvement over the years is related to a maturing technology in general
and also the development of experience in applying the new technology. Factors that impact system
performance for networks, rolling out a new technology, are:

•Terminal Maturity

•System Maturity

•Methodology Maturity

•Technology Improvements

•Standard Maturity and Improvements

•Roll-Out Status

All described factors contributing to system performance will show an inverse exponential like function over time, as shown
in the figure. This means that initially, when the first network is rolled out, all factors will have a big impact on the system
performance, but will also show fast improvements. Later on, e.g. after three years, all factors will have lower impact on the
system performance and it will take more time and resources for these comparable smaller gains. It should also be note that
most improvements usually come in steps, e.g. with the introduction of a new SW correction for the system or for a certain
terminal, or through the introduction of a new feature.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 3 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Just as in the start of 2G, we have to depend fully on


drive test data due to no and/or insufficient traffic to
use network counters

Therefore, it can be very labour intensive with repeated


of drive tests and analysis

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 4 Limited Internal


Typical optimization process flow Limited internal

Part 1: TEAM
INITIAL TUNING
Design
Changes
ROUND 1

preparations Drive Post Change


Analysis reporting
testing Processing Verification
Parameter

SPECIAL PARAMETER INVESTIGATION


Changes

Data Collection Change proposals


Measurement part Consulting part

RANT-Cell Level
Task Force
Design
ROUND 2

Changes
Drive Post Change
Analysis reporting
testing Processing Verification
Parameter

Part 2: SERVICES TUNING


Changes

Data Collection Change proposals


Measurement part Consulting part
ROUND 3

Design
Changes
Drive Post reporting
Analysis
testing Processing Parameter
Changes

Data Collection Change proposals


Measurement part Consulting part

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 5 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Tools overview

Collection of
Drive Test Data Post-Processing

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 6 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Tools for collection of drive test data

• Tems Investigation (TIW) software


• TEMS Scanner
• User Equipment (UE)
• UE Traffic Recording - UETR
• Cell Traffic Recording – CTR

Tool for post-processing

• TEMS DeskCat 5.1


• Home made macros/Excel spreadsheets
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 7 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Drive test tools (TIW, UE, Scanner) configuration


Very useful for DL performance analysis
Drive Test (one car) for Voice, CS64 & PS call
Short call Long Call
CS64 PS

USB1 USB2
USB1 USB1

GPS
GPS GPS

Com 1
Special Requirements to have the above in one car.
1. Connect power supply directly to Car battery(not cigarette lighter)
scanner 2. Scanner already has built in GPS but only for WGS84, therefore,external
GPS is still required for Taiwan maps
3. Do not combine voice,CS64,PS into one log file as Deskcat needs them to be in
different log files

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 8 Limited Internal


Limited internal

User Equipment Traffic Recording (UETR)

• Uplink measurements (including downlink power)


• Downlink measurements
• Runs through RANOS
• Up to 16 UETRs per RNC
• Protocol events
– RRC (UE – RBS)
– NBAP (RBS – RNC)
– RANAP (RNC – core network)
– RNSAP (RNC – RNC)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 9 Limited Internal


Limited internal

UL UETR and CTR measurements


• Transport Channel BER, measured on DCH after RL combination (ordered for
all DCHs relating to the UE connections being recorded). Measurement period
= 1 x TTIs, reported period = 5 x TTIs.

• Transport Channel BLER - Uplink DCH (ordered for all DCHs relating to the UE
connections being recorded). Measurement period = 10 s, reported period = 10
s.

• Uplink SIR per radio link set, measured on DPCCH after RL combination in
RBS. All values recorded within a 960 ms period are averaged and reported
(ordered for all RLSs relating to the UE connections being recorded)

• Transmitted Code Power, measured on the pilot bits of one channelization


code for a DPCH. One average value is reported every 800 ms (ordered for all
DPCHs relating to the UE connections being recorded)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 10 Limited Internal


Limited internal

DL UETR and CTR measurements


• Transport channel BLER - Downlink DCH is reported
periodically each 8s (ordered for all DCHs relating to the UE
connections being recorded).

• UE Transmitted Power, reported periodically every 1s.

• RLC Buffer information, Number of discarded DCCH SDUs,


Number of discarded DTCH SDUs, Number of retransmitted
DCCH PDUs, Number of retransmitted DTCH SDUs (ordered for
each downlink logical channel (i.e. per DCCH, per DTCH)
associated with the UE being recorded). Reported period = 10s.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 11 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Performance Statistics, UETR, CTR and GPEH


• General Performance Event Handling (GPEH):
– The GPEH function handles the management and collection of
predefined events in the WCDMA RAN.

– It records activities (e.g. Layer 3 messages) for a number of


functions such as handover, admission control, congestion
control and power control.

– It provides detailed information which allows the user to


analyze the performance of the radio network.

– It helps to analyze and optimize the function performance

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 12 Limited Internal


Limited internal

General Performance Event Handling (GPEH)


There are GPEH functions for recording the activities of the
• channel switching algorithms
• power control algorithms
• radio connection supervision algorithms
• capacity management algorithms
• handover algorithms
• code control algorithms
including
• recording (a selection of one or more) messages from any of
the protocol groups RNSAP, RANAP, RRC and/or NBAP

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 13 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Why do we need UETR?

•Trouble shooting:
Very powerful as we are able to see UL and DL !!
Can be used to complement TIW drive test

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 14 Limited Internal


Limited internal
New

Cell Traffic Recording (CTR)

• Runs through RANOS


• Up to 2 CTRs per RNC
• Up to 16 simultaneous UEs per CTR
• Same measurements and events as UETR

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 15 Limited Internal


Post processing of drive test data (DESKCAT & MAPINFO) Limited internal

TIW log files


1. Voice,CS drive tests should not be combined in one logfile TIW cell file
2. Scanner can be used with any service (voice,CS64)

RUN DESKCAT
(Separately for CS,Voice)

REPORT Plots
(Word) (MIF Files)

Drop call Accessibility Neighbour Services Scanner


analysis analysis analysis

BLER Drop RSCP Ec/No RSCP Ec/No

Access Best SC Pollution Best SC


UE TX Pollution
Power Failure
Individual Individual
SC SC
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 16 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Scanner field
measurements
Experiences from Ericsson field trial
(based on a report by Patrik Persson (ERA))

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 17 Limited Internal


Limited internal

What can be achieved with a scanner?

• SCH offset problems


• Crossed feeder issues (DL) – 10-20% of sites
• Code plan verification
• Coverage verification
– Reasonable CPICH setting (is there a signal?)
– Correct antenna direction
– Pathloss margin
– Load margin
• Interference problems (cell overlap, pilot pollution)
• Theoretical handover areas
– Can also help find missing neighbour relation

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 18 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Field measurements
• Test terminal (e.g. TEMS Investigation for WCDMA)
• Pilot scanner (e.g. TEMS scanner tool (from DTI), Anritsu ML8720B
or Agilent test equipment)
• Spectrum analyser (e.g. FSIQ 26) SCANNER

The basic measurements of a test terminal is


CPICH_RSCP (received signal code power)
CPICH_Ec/N0 (received energy per chip divided by the power density in
the band)
RSSI (received signal strength indicator)
UE_TX_PWR (the total UE transmit power on one carrier)
TrCh_BLER (transport channel block error rate)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 19 Limited Internal


Limited internal

SCANNER field measurements


Terminology
• RSCP = Received Signal Code Power (W)
• RSSI = Received Signal Strength Indicator (W)
• ISCP = Interference Signal Code Power (W) (non-orthogonal part of RSSI)
• Ec = chip energy (J/chip)
• N0 = noise density (W/Hz)
RSSI = N0*bandwidth = N0*3.84*106
• I0 = noise density (W/Hz)
ISCP = I0*bandwidth = I0* 3.84*106
Ec/N0 = RSCP/RSSI, Ec/I0 = RSCP/ISCP (compare however UE vs Scanner)
• SIR = Signal-to-Interference Ratio (measurements done on the DPCCH)
SIR = (RSCP/ISCP)*SF/2 (DL) (3GPP)
SIR = (RSCP/ISCP)*SF (UL) (3GPP)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 20 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Measurements

• Aggregate measurements
– Sum of all energy over measurement period
– Can be seen as an optimal rake receiver
• Peak measurements
– Peak signal levels over the measurement period

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 21 Limited Internal


Limited internal

TEMS Investigation WCDMA - scanner edition


Peak - Aggregated Power

Ec/Io (peak)

Aggregated Ec/Io

PN Threshold

Delay Spread (Chips)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 22 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Agilent/TEMS scanner comparison


Aggregate vs Peak Ec/Io

25%

• Aggregate vs
peak 20%

measurements
15%
Agilent Aggregate
Agilent Peak
TEMS Aggregate
TEMS Peak
10%

5%

0%
5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20
Ec/Io [dB]

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 23 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Aggregate, peak and UE log


Agilent Ag Ec/Io Agilent Peak Uelog Ec/Io CDF - Ag Ec/Io CDF - Peak Ec/Io CDF - UE log

20% 100,0%

18% 90,0%

16% 80,0%

14% 70,0%

12% 60,0%

10% 50,0%

8% 40,0%

6% 30,0%

4% 20,0%

2% 10,0%

0% 0,0%
5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23
Ec/Io [dB]

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 24 Limited Internal


Limited internal

COVERAGE VERIFICATION - Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH)

Verify P-CPICH detection to minimize coverage holes

• P-CPICH RSCP
• P-CPICH Ec/No

Verify coverage predictions

Use threshold events and/or coverage maps to detect coverage holes.


Use “Best Server Indication” to identify interferer
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 25 Limited Internal
Limited internal
TThh
mee 6741
aam
ss

Pilot Ec/No
measurements
B4009

25003 Museum of
Museum of
Museum of Reading
of Reading
Reading
Reading

Reading
Reading Station
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading Station
Station
Station
Station
Station

1408
A329

Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading West
Reading
Reading West
West
West Station
West
West Station
Station
Station
Station
Station
23405
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
234

1685 A33

Ec/Io distribution A4155

100% 350

90% A4
300 B3031
80%

70% 250

60%
200

50%

150 A327
40%

30% 100
TC_composite_cellid by Ag_Ec_Io
20%
-8 to -4 (538)
50
10% -12 to -8 (16) 6734
-16 to -12 (8)
0% 0 -20,1 to -16 (9)
0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -16
>-4 (927)
Ec/Io [dB]

Kenn
Ke nnet
et

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 27 Limited Internal


Limited internal

DL load margin

 Ec  Ppilot ⋅ g k
  = ≥ γ pilot
 N 0  pilot ,k PTOT ⋅ g k + ( I other + N th )
k

95% of the samples are –6 dB or higher. This means that the DL load
margin is –6 – (-16) = 10 dB, that is we can increase the DL power
consumption with approximately A=10 on average since (here
assuming thermal noise insignificant)

 Ec  Ppilot ⋅ g k
  = ≈ −6 − A ≥ γ pilot
 N 0  pilot ,k , A A ⋅ PTOT ⋅ g k + ( A ⋅ I other + N th )
k

Of course in practice we are limited by the power supply and the


congestion control algorithms

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 28 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Simplified way of expressing load margin


• All cells are increased with
same power
• Assuming that the cell/network
is interference limited i.e. that
the thermal noise is insignificant

Ec
A (in dB) = measured − γ pilot
No Best

Ec
= measured + 16
No Best

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 29 Limited Internal


Limited internal

RSCP distribution
%RSCP all %RSCP urban %RSCP suburban %RSCP rural

10%

9%

8%

7%

6%

5%

4%

3%

2%

1%

0%

02

06

10

14

18
0

8
-3

-3

-3

-4

-4

-5

-5

-5

-6

-6

-7

-7

-7

-8

-8

-9

-9

-9

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 30 Limited Internal
Limited internal

RSCP distribution
CDF RSCP all CDF RSCP urban CDF RSCP suburban CDF RSCP rural

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%
Any comments?

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

02

06

10

14

18
0

8
-3

-3

-3

-4

-4

-5

-5

-5

-6

-6

-7

-7

-7

-8

-8

-9

-9

-9

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 31 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Pathloss margin
So, 90% of the samples have an RSCP of –85 dBm or more.
The pathloss margin can then be said to be –85 – (-114) = 29 dB

The DL link budget for the pilot looks something like


CPICH_RSCP = Ppilot – Lf+j+ Ga - Lpath >= SSdesign
where
SSdesign = UEsens + BPL+CPL+ BL (pilot must be detected even during voice calls) +
LNFmargin (this margin does not include the effect of soft handover since it does not apply
for the pilot)
UEsens = -174 dBm/Hz + Nf + (C/I)pilot +10log(Rchip) = -101 + (C/I)pilot = -101 +(-16)
(approximately) = -117 dBm
This yields SSdesign = -117 + 3 + 8 (X% assume X=90) = -106 dBm. However, for field
measurement we exclude the log-normal fading margin and obtain –106 - 8 = - 114 dBm as
a reasonable minimum criterion for RSCP of the pilot i.e. the value of CPICH_RSCP that
(for this particular example) must be obtained in X% of the samples (if the log-normal fading
margin of 8 dB is chosen for X% coverage probability).

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 32 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Load and pathloss margin

• RSCP requirement
RSCP ( X %) ≥ SS design − LNFm arg =
– Independent of load
UEsens + ( BL) + (CPL) + ( BPL) =
• Ec/Io requirement
– Dependent on load
UEsens + M pathloss
– Must be fulfilled
• LNF is included in Ec / Ioreq ≥ Ec / Iodesign =
measured value = γ pilot + M load = −16 + M load
• UE sensitivity= -117
dBm for CPICH

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 33 Limited Internal


Limited internal

RSCP + Ec/No
100%
R S C P d is trib u tio n

160

90%
140 Both
BothRSCP
RSCPand and
Ec/Io
Ec/Iorequirement
80%

70%
120
requirement
60%
100
has
hasto
tobe
befulfilled!!
fulfilled!!
50% 80

40%
60

30%
40
20%

20
10%

0% 0
-3 0 -3 2 -3 4 -3 6 -3 8 -4 0 -4 2 -4 4 -4 6 -4 8 -5 0 -5 2 -5 4 -5 6 -5 8 -6 0 -6 2 -6 4 -6 6 -6 8 -7 0 -7 2 -7 4 -7 6 -7 8 -8 0 -8 2 -8 4 -8 6 -8 8 -9 0
Ec/Io distribution
R S C P [d B m ]

100% 350

90%
300
80%

RSCP(90%): -74 dBm or better 70% 250

60%
200
50%

Ec/No(90%): -5 dB or better 40%

30%
150

100

20%
50
10%

0% 0
0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -16
Ec/Io [dB]

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 34 Limited Internal


Limited internal

RSCP vs Ec/No 90% of cases


EcIo_RSCP_CDF
Ec/Io > -5 dB
90%-100%
And
6

80%-90% RSCP > -85


4
dBm
2
70%-80%
0
60%-70%
-2

50%-60% -4

40%-50%
-6 Ec/Io req.=-5 dB
Ec/io [dBm]
-8
30%-40%
-10

20%-30% -12

-14
10%-20%
-16
0%-10%
-18

CDF -20
-40 -42 -44 -46 -48 -50 -55 -60 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 -110 -115 -120
RSCP [dBm]
SS_req=-85 dB
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 35 Limited Internal
Limited internal
TThh
aam
meess 6741

Finding
interference B4009

25003 Museum of
Museum of
Museum of Reading
of Reading
Reading
Reading

By correlating low Ec/N0 Reading


Reading Station
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading Station
Station
Station
Station
Station

1408

with high RSCP, areas A329

West
West
West
West Station
Station
Station

with high interference


West
West Station
Station
Station
23405
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
23400 234

can be detected 1685

-30 A4155

-40

A4
B3031
-50

-60
RSCP [dBm]

High interference
-70

The
The
The
The University
The University
University
University of
University of
of
of
of
-80

RSCP [dBm]
-90
-50 to -41,6 (100)
-60 to -50 (357)
6734 -70 to -60 (598)
-100
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 -80 to -70 (376) A32
Ec/Io [dB] -90 to -80 (70)

KKeennnneett

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 36 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – OVERLAPPING COVERAGE

Make cell border seamless • P-CPICH RSCP


• P-CPICH Ec/No

Use “Possible No of AS (Active Set) Members” IE (Information Element) to


verify overlapping coverage
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 37 Limited Internal
Limited internal

haam
meess
Detected pilots B4009

25003 Museum
Museum of
Museum
Museum
Museum
Museum of Reading
of
of
of Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading

Reading
Reading Station
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading Station
Station
Station
Station

This is not the same as A329


1408

pilot pollution – why? West


West
West
West Station
West
West Station
Station
Station
Station
Station
23405
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
234

1685 A33

Ke
Kenn
A4155

nnet
et
A4
B3031

A327

Detected pilots
6 to 8 (35)
5 to 6 (91)
4 to 5 (177)
3 to 4 (373) 6734
1 to 3 (825)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 38 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) – PILOT POLLUTION

• P-CPICH RSCP
High CPICH reception levels from many • P-CPICH Ec/No
Cells, (more than MAX_ACTIVE_SET)

Use pre-defined/threshold events and/or “Possible No of AS Members” IE


to detect CPICH (Pilot) Pollution
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 39 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Active set size distribution

The active set size can be calculated using the


following formula

Ec Ec
AS size = count ( ≥ − threshold )
N 0 N 0 serving

The threshold can be given different values to


account for both the add and remove thresholds
used in the system

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 40 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Active set size distribution (pilot pollution)


Ec Ec
AS size = count ( ≥ − threshold )
N 0 N 0 serving

Threshold
AS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 90% 81% 73% 66% 59% 53% 48% 43% 39% 35%
2 9% 16% 21% 25% 28% 29% 31% 31% 32% 32%
3 1% 2% 5% 7% 10% 12% 14% 16% 17% 18%
4 0% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 7% 8% 9%
5 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 2% 3% 4%
6 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1%
7 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
8 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
9 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
10 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 41 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Other to own cell DL interference


In order to check the cellplan it is possible to “translate” the
pilot pollution measurements into an F-factor defined as
#other _ servers #other _ servers
1
I k
other
k
I other K
∑ CPICH _ RSCP i ∑ RSCP i
Fk = = = i =1
= i =1
k
I own 1
PTOT ⋅ g k RSCPown
⋅ CPICH _ RSCPown
K
This is rather straightforward to do since during tuning (with
no traffic) it is possible to assume that ALL interference
come from the common control channels of all other
servers and since the pilot power has fixed relationship (K)
to the power on all other common control channels we
obtain the expression above
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 42 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Fcch distribution
Fcch vs area type
25%
Fcch-Urban

Fcch-Suburban

20% Fcch-Rural
%measurement points

15%

10%

5%

0%
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5
Fcch

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 43 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Other to own cell DL interference


#other _ servers

I k
other
∑ RSCP i
Fk = k
= i =1
I own RSCPown

All network Urban Suburban Rural


Average 0,49 0,56 0,57 0,48
Max 5,00 3,26 4,54 5,00
90th 1,27 1,36 1,43 1,26
Percentile

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 44 Limited Internal


Limited internal
TThha
ammee 6741
ss

Soft handover
regions
B4009

25003 Museum of
Museum
Museum
Museum of Reading
of
of Reading
Reading
Reading

Reading
Reading Station
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading Station
Station
Station
Station

1408
A329

Reading
Reading
Reading West
Reading
Reading
Reading West
West Station
West
West Station
Station
Station
Station
23405
234

1685 A33

A4155

A4
B3031

A327

Soft handover (cells within 3dB)


1 (275) 6734
2 (41)
3 (4)
4 (1)
Kenn
Ke nnet
et

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 46 Limited Internal


Limited internal
TThha
ammee 6741
ss

Softer handover
regions
B4009

25003 Museum of
Museum
Museum
Museum of Reading
of
of Reading
Reading
Reading

Reading
Reading Station
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading Station
Station
Station
Station

1408
A329

Reading
Reading
Reading West
Reading
Reading
Reading West
West Station
West
West Station
Station
Station
Station
23405
234

1685 A33

A4155

A4
B3031

A327

6734
Softer HO (cells within 3dB)
1 (71)
Kenn
Ke nnet
et

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 47 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Handover distribution

Definitions
A UE is in softer handover with two
RL 1 RLS
RLs but only one RLS. A UE is in
RL 1
soft handover if two RLSs.
A three-way softer handover has
RBS RNC
three RLs but only one RLS. A
RL 2 three-way soft handover has three
RLSs (and of course three RLs).
RL 3 RL 2
RLS
RL 3 A softer-soft handover means that
the two RLs in the first RLS is
stronger than the RL in the other
RBS RLS. A soft-softer handover means
that the two strongest RLs belong
to different RLSs.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 48 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Handover distribution

Hardware consumption
For hardware consumption
RL 1 RLS
estimates ONLY soft handover is
RL 1
important (remember that softer
handover implies that both RLs are
RBS RNC
fed through the same channel
RL 2 elements).
Hence, from the percentage of
RL 3 RL 2
RLS
RL 3 measurement points in various
combinations of soft handover it is
possible to calculate a “weigthed”
RBS average indicating the hardware
consumption increase due to soft
handover

Weighted_soft = %soft + %soft_softer + %softer_soft+ 2*(%3-way_soft)


Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 49 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Handover distribution
Threshold
HO type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
no handover 90% 81% 73% 66% 59% 53% 48% 43% 39% 35%
soft 7% 13% 16% 19% 21% 21% 22% 22% 21% 21%
softer 2% 3% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 10% 11%
soft-softer 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2%
softer-soft 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 3% 3%
3-way soft 1% 2% 4% 6% 7% 9% 10% 12% 12% 13%
3-way softer 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
soft-softer+P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1%
softer-soft+P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1%
3-way soft+P 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7%
3-way softer+P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
soft-softer+2P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
softer-soft+2P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
3-way soft+2P 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
3-way softer+2P 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Threshold
HO type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
no handover 90% 81% 73% 66% 59% 53% 48% 43% 39% 35%
any soft 8% 15% 22% 28% 34% 39% 43% 47% 51% 53%
any softer 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 19%
weighed soft 8% 17% 26% 35% 43% 51% 59% 65% 71% 76%

Weighted_soft = %soft + %soft_softer + %softer_soft+ 2*(%3-way_soft)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 50 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FINDING MISSING NEIGHBOUR RELATIONS

Verify and optimize the neighbours/monitored set relation

• P-CPICH RSCP
• P-CPICH Ec/No

Use pre-defined events to detect “missing neighbours”

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 51 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Primary and Secondary Synchronization Channel (SCH) - DETECTION

Verify SCH coverage and timing to ensure detectability

• P-SCH Ec
• P-SCH Ec/No
• S-SCH Ec
• S-SCH Ec/No
• (P-)SCH Time slot scan
• Time offset (slot position)

Use threshold events and/or coverage maps to identify coverage holes.


Use “Time Offset Slot Pos” to check timing collision – SCH Timeslot Scan to
“trouble shoot”.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 52 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Downlink Transmission Timing 10 ms Frame


3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.0
3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.0

Primary SCH SCH (PSC+SSC)


P-CCPCH
Secondary SCH S-CCPCH
PICH
AICH
PDSCH
Common Pilot CPICH (Common Pilot Channel)
Channel
DPCH

P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2 = 0) P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2 = 1)


Primary CCPCH
(Broadcast Data)

Secondary CCPCH
τ S-CCPCH,k
k:th S-CCPCH
(Paging, Signaling) τ PICH

Paging Indicator Channel PICH for n:th S-CCPCH

Dedicated Physical τ DPCH,n


Control/Data Channel n:th DPCCH/DCDPH

Downlink Shared Channel Any PDSCH

AICH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14


τ S-CCPCH,k = N x 256 chips

τ DPCH,n = N x 256 chips

τ PICH = 7680 chips (3 slots)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 53 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Downlink Scrambling Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2


3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2

¾ Used to distinguish Base Station transmissions on Downlink


• Each Cell is assigned one and only one Primary Scrambling Code
• The Cell always uses the assigned Primary Scrambling Code for the Primary and
Secondary CCPCH’s
• Secondary Scrambling Codes may be used over part of a cell, or for other data
channels
8192 Downlink Scrambling Codes
Each code is 38,400 chips of a 218 - 1 (262,143 chip) Gold Sequence

Code Group #1 Code Group #64

Primary SC0 Primary SC7 Primary SC504 Primary SC511

Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary


Scrambling Scrambling Scrambling Scrambling
Codes Codes Codes Codes

(15) (15) (15) (15)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 54 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Downlink Scrambling Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2


3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2

• Downlink Scrambling Code Generation


10 mSec Gold Code formed by Modulo-2 Addition of 38,400 chips from two m-sequences

Primary Scrambling code i (where i = 0,...,511) is generated


Primary Scrambling code i (where i = 0,...,511) is generated
by offsetting the X sequence by (16*i) clock cycles from the Y sequence
by offsetting the X sequence by (16*i) clock cycles from the Y sequence

X 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Q
Y 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Initial Conditions:

x(0) =1; X(1)... X(17) = 0


y(0) ... Y(17) = 1

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 55 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Synchronization Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3


3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

P-CCPCH

256 Chips 2304 Chips


(PSC + SSC + BCH)

PSC
Broadcast Data (18 bits)
SSCi

¾ Broadcast by BS
• First 256 chips of every SCH time slot
¾ Allows UE to achieve fast synchronization in an asynchronous
system
¾ Primary Synchronization Code (PSC)
• Fixed 256-chip sequence with base period of 16 chips
• Provides fast positive indication of a WCDMA system
• Allows fast asynchronous slot synchronization
¾ Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC)
• A set of 16 codes, each 256 bits long
• Codes are arranged into one of 64 unique permutations
• Specific arrangement of SSC codes provide UE with frame
timing, BS “code group”
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 56 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Primary Synchronization Code 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3


3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

let a = <1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, -1, 1>


PSC(1...256) = < a, a, a, -a, -a, a, -a, -a, a, a, a, -a, a, -a, a, a >

Note: PSC is transmitted “Clear” (Without scrambling)

SCH BCH
256 Chips 2304 Chips

PSC
Broadcast Data (18 bits)
SSCi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 57 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Secondary Synchronization Code Group 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3


3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

• 16 Fixed 256-bit Codes; Codes arranged into one of 64 patterns


SSCi
Scrambling slot number
SSC1 Code Group
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15
SSC2 Group 1 1 1 2 8 9 10 15 8 10 16 2 7 15 7 16
SSC3 Group 2 1 1 5 16 7 3 14 16 3 10 5 12 14 12 10
SSC4 Group 3 1 2 1 15 5 5 12 16 6 11 2 16 11 15 12
SSC5 • • •
SSC6 •
SSC1 SSC15
• •
SSC7 • • •
SSC8 Group 62 9 10 13 10 11 15 15 9 16 12 14 13 16 14 11

SSC9 Group 63 9 11 12 15 12 9 13 13 11 14 10 16 15 14 16

SSC10 Group 64 9 12 10 15 13 14 9 14 15 11 11 13 12 16 10

SSC11
SSC12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
SSC13
SSC14 1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec
SSC15 Note:

SSC16 The SSC patterns positively identify one and only one of the 64 Scrambling Code Groups.

This is possible because no cyclic shift of any SSC is equivalent to any cyclic shift of any other SSC.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 58 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Slot Synchronization 3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C


3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C

• Slot Synchronization using Primary Synchronization Code


10 mSec Frame (15 slots x 666.666 uSec)

PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH Matched Filter
[1] Data [2] Data [3] Data [4] Data [15] Data (Matched to PSC)

P-CCPCH

(PSC)

Matched
Filter
Output

time

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 59 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Frame Synchronization, SCG ID 3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C


3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C

• Frame Synchronization using Secondary Synchronization Code

10 mSec Frame (15 slots x 666.666 uSec)

SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH
[1] Data [2] Data [3] Data [4] Data [15] Data

Matched Filter
SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Matched to SSC
group pattern
SSC Code Group Pattern provides

Matched • Frame Synchronization


Filter
• Positive ID of Scrambling Code Group
Output
Remember, no cyclic shift of any SSC is equal to any other SSC

time

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 60 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Acquisition and Synchronization


• Physical Layer Procedures P-CCPCH

(PSC + SSC + BCH)


1) UE Acquisition and Synchronization
Initiate Cell Synchronization

UE Monitors Primary SCH code, detects peak in matched filter output

Slot Synchronization Determined ------>

UE Monitors Secondary SCH code, detects SCG and frame start time offset

Frame Synchronization and Code Group Determined ------>

UE Determines Scrambling Code by correlating all possible codes in group

Scrambling Code Determined ------>

UE Monitors and decodes BCH data

BCH data, Super-frame synchronization determined ------>


UE adjusts transmit timing to match timing of BS + 1.5 Chips

Cell Synchronization Complete

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 61 Limited Internal


Limited internal

The WCDMA synchronisation code timing


problem... WCDMA base stations have asynchronous
timing references (IS-95/cdma2000 BSs are synchro-
nised to GPS!) 0.666 msec P-CCPCH slot
PSC
Broadcast Data (18 bits)
SSCi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

10 msec P-CCPCH frame

BS 2
CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2
BS 1
10 msec
frame

CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1

Toffset
OK here, but what happens
if there is a collision?

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 62 Limited Internal


Limited internal

SCH chip offset variation


It may well be UE vendor dependent. Synchronisation measurements
are made primarily to ensure detectability and to trouble shoot e.g.
base station timing drifts (if too fast drift the UE will have problems)

BS 2
CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2
BS 1 10 msec
frame

CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1

Toffset

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 63 Limited Internal


Limited internal

SCH time offset


measurements (example)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 64 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA SURVEY

Original presentation prepared by Edas


Wong (mainly notation changes to be
consistent with previous parts)
EAB/RNR/DO

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 65 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Presentation outline
• NRJ radio access network tuning and preparation
• FOMA (NTT DoCoMO 3G) network pilot survey
- setup
- results
- analysis
• Other FOMA (NTT DoCoMo 3G) network test results
- long and short voice call
- IP-throughput

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 66 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Activity in NRJ radio planning department


• Radio Access Network Tuning - RANT

- FOA sub-project
- three phases
1 RF tuning = pilot survey
2 Voice and circuit switch tuning
3 Packet switch tuning
- ~ 60 clusters in Tokyo, ~ 10 sites per
cluster
- ~ 32 clusters in Nagoya, ~ 7 - 17
sites per cluster

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 67 Limited Internal


Limited internal

NTT DoCoMo FOMA WCDMA network survey


(preparatory activity for the RANT)
• Purposes
- estimate time consumption and required resources to tune a cluster
- assess the FOMA network (competitor) performance in high level
- use the results to verify the J-phone requirements
• Tests
- pilot scanning
Pilot scanning is very important in WCDMA. It is because pilot channel is important for DL
channel estimation, cell reselection and handover event detection. Furthermore, unlike other
channels, pilot channel is not under power control. It means it might “drop” when high DL
interference or no coverage.
- long and short voice tests
- IP throughput test

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 68 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning - general


• Successive three days
• non busy hour 09:00 - 17:30
- busy hour in Japan is 23:00
• residential area
- Yokohama suburban area
- average 10-15 m building height
- low population density
• sunshine weather
• average 32km/hour
- 395km in 12.41hours
Test route

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 69 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning - setup and procedures


• Agilent scanners
- two scanners in daisy chained
• scanned FOMA carriers
- 2136.7MHz
- 2142.4MHz
• logged top 7 pilots
- Ec/No, i.e. pilot quality
- RSCP, i.e. received pilot power
- scrambling code
- DL RSSI, i.e. received power in the band
• used ACTIX as post-processing tool
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 70 Limited Internal
Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-107.5 to -110
FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving RSCP (1)

-105 to -107.5
-102.5 to -105
-100 to -102.5
-97.5 to -100
-95 to -97.5
-92.5 to -95
-90 to -92.5
-87.5 to -90
-85 to -87.5
Best serving RSCP - Carrier 2137.6MHz

-82.5 to -85

CDF DL RSCP
-80 to -82.5
-77.5 to -80
-75 to -77.5

RSCP Range, dBm


-72.5 to -75

71
-70 to -72.5

PDF DL RSCP
-67.5 to -70

12 Jan 2004
-65 to -67.5
-62.5 to -65
-60 to -62.5
-57.5 to -60
-55 to -57.5
-52.5 to -55
-50 to -52.5
-47.5 to -50
-45 to -47.5
-42.5 to -45
-40 to -42.5
-37.5 to -40
-35 to -37.5
-32.5 to -35

Rev PA1
-30 to -32.5

12.00%

10.80%

9.60%

8.40%

7.20%

6.00%

4.80%

3.60%

2.40%

1.20%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-107.5 to -110
FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving RSCP (2)

-105 to -107.5
-102.5 to -105
-100 to -102.5
-97.5 to -100
-95 to -97.5
-92.5 to -95
-90 to -92.5
-87.5 to -90
-85 to -87.5
Best serving RSCP - Carrier 2142.4MHz

-82.5 to -85
CDF DL RSCP
-80 to -82.5
-77.5 to -80
-75 to -77.5

RSCP Range, dBm


-72.5 to -75

72
-70 to -72.5

PDF DL RSCP
-67.5 to -70

12 Jan 2004
-65 to -67.5
-62.5 to -65
-60 to -62.5
-57.5 to -60
-55 to -57.5
-52.5 to -55
-50 to -52.5
-47.5 to -50
-45 to -47.5
-42.5 to -45
-40 to -42.5
-37.5 to -40
-35 to -37.5
-32.5 to -35
-30 to -32.5

Rev PA1
11.00%

9.90%

8.80%

7.70%

6.60%

5.50%

4.40%

3.30%

2.20%

1.10%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving RSCP (3)

RSCP (in dBm) Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Average -74.77 -74.25

> 90% -86.0 -86.0

Maximum -42.8 -41.77

Minimum -107.5 -108.09

90% of the samples were larger than -86dBm RSCP.


It was quite good coverage. Remark: Minimum
required RSCP in P2 UTRAN is set to -111dBm
(based on what assumptions?)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 73 Limited Internal


Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-19.5 to -20
FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving Ec/No (1)

-19 to -19.5
0.03% of samples have no pilot coverage.
-18.5 to -19
-18 to -18.5
-17.5 to -18
0.07% of samples have channel estimation problem. -17 to -17.5
-16.5 to -17
-16 to -16.5
-15.5 to -16
-15 to -15.5
-14.5 to -15
-14 to -14.5 CDF Best Serving Ec/No
-13.5 to -14
Best serving Ec/No - Carrier 2137.6MHz

-13 to -13.5
-12.5 to -13
-12 to -12.5
-11.5 to -12
-11 to -11.5

Ec/No Range, dB
-10.5 to -11

74
-10 to -10.5

PDF Best Serving Ec/No


-9.5 to -10

12 Jan 2004
-9 to -9.5
-8.5 to -9
-8 to -8.5
-7.5 to -8
-7 to -7.5
-6.5 to -7
-6 to -6.5
-5.5 to -6
-5 to -5.5
-4.5 to -5
-4 to -4.5
-3.5 to -4
-3 to -3.5
-2.5 to -3
-2 to -2.5
-1.5 to -2
-1 to -1.5
-0.5 to -1

Rev PA1
0 to -0.5

10.00%

9.00%

8.00%

7.00%

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-19.5 to -20
FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving Ec/No (2)

-19 to -19.5
0.02% of samples have no pilot coverage.
-18.5 to -19
-18 to -18.5
-17.5 to -18
0.07% of samples have channel estimation problem. -17 to -17.5
-16.5 to -17
-16 to -16.5
-15.5 to -16
-15 to -15.5
-14.5 to -15
-14 to -14.5 CDF Best Serving Ec/No
-13.5 to -14
Best serving Ec/No - Carrier 2142.4MHz

-13 to -13.5
-12.5 to -13
-12 to -12.5
-11.5 to -12
-11 to -11.5

Ec/No Range, dB
-10.5 to -11

75
-10 to -10.5

PDF Best Serving Ec/No


-9.5 to -10

12 Jan 2004
-9 to -9.5
-8.5 to -9
-8 to -8.5
-7.5 to -8
-7 to -7.5
-6.5 to -7
-6 to -6.5
-5.5 to -6
-5 to -5.5
-4.5 to -5
-4 to -4.5
-3.5 to -4
-3 to -3.5
-2.5 to -3
-2 to -2.5
-1.5 to -2
-1 to -1.5
-0.5 to -1

Rev PA1
0 to -0.5

10.00%

9.00%

8.00%

7.00%

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving Ec/No (3)


Note (*): 54 samples (out of total 44683 samples) had a positive Ec/N0, i.e., 0 to 2.6dB.
Note (**): 91 samples (out of total 44703 samples) had a positive Ec/N0, i.e., 0 to 2.0dB.

Ec/No (in dB) Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Average -5.77 -5.47

> 90% -8.25 -8.05

Maximum 2.6* 2.0**

Minimum -19.90 -19.90

90% of the samples were larger than -8dB Ec/No. It was


quite good Ec/No under load situation. Remark: Minimum
required Ec/No in P2 UTRAN is set to –16 dB.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 76 Limited Internal


Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-107.5 to -110
-105 to -107.5
-102.5 to -105
-100 to -102.5
-97.5 to -100
-95 to -97.5
-92.5 to -95
-90 to -92.5
-87.5 to -90
FOMA pilot scanning result - DL RSSI (1)

-85 to -87.5
-82.5 to -85
-80 to -82.5

CDF DL RSSI
DL RSSI - Carrier 2137.6MHz

-77.5 to -80
-75 to -77.5

DL RSSI Range, dBm


-72.5 to -75

77
-70 to -72.5

PDF DL RSSI
-67.5 to -70

12 Jan 2004
-65 to -67.5
-62.5 to -65
-60 to -62.5
-57.5 to -60
-55 to -57.5
-52.5 to -55
-50 to -52.5
-47.5 to -50
-45 to -47.5
-42.5 to -45
-40 to -42.5
-37.5 to -40
-35 to -37.5
-32.5 to -35
-30 to -32.5

Rev PA1
12.00%

10.80%

9.60%

8.40%

7.20%

6.00%

4.80%

3.60%

2.40%

1.20%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited Internal
Limited internal

CDF %
100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-107.5 to -110
-105 to -107.5
-102.5 to -105
-100 to -102.5
-97.5 to -100
-95 to -97.5
-92.5 to -95
-90 to -92.5
-87.5 to -90
FOMA pilot scanning result - DL RSSI (2)

-85 to -87.5
-82.5 to -85
-80 to -82.5

CDF DL RSSI
DL RSSI - Carrier 2142.4MHz

-77.5 to -80
-75 to -77.5

DL RSSI Range, dBm


-72.5 to -75

78
-70 to -72.5

PDF DL RSSI
-67.5 to -70

12 Jan 2004
-65 to -67.5
-62.5 to -65
-60 to -62.5
-57.5 to -60
-55 to -57.5
-52.5 to -55
-50 to -52.5
-47.5 to -50
-45 to -47.5
-42.5 to -45
-40 to -42.5
-37.5 to -40
-35 to -37.5
-32.5 to -35
-30 to -32.5

Rev PA1
12.00%

10.80%

9.60%

8.40%

7.20%

6.00%

4.80%

3.60%

2.40%

1.20%

0.00%
PDF %
Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning result - DL RSSI (3)

DL RSSI (in dBm) Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Average -69.01 -68.79

> 90% -78 -78

Maximum -37.6 -38.3

Minimum -91.9 -91.0

90% of the samples were larger than -78dB DL RSSI. It


means that the noise rise, RSSI/NUE, was about 22dB if NUE
(noise floor of the scanner) was –100 dBm. Thus, the network
can be considered as interference limited, not noise limited.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 79 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning result - best serving pilots

Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Total number of codes found in 123 125


whole test area

Total number of codes for the 107 113


best serving cells
(~ 107/3 = 35.6 sites) (~ 113/3 = 37.7 sites)

Total number of codes for the 81 82


best serving cells, and recorded
for a period of 1 minute or more, (~ 81/3 = 27 sites) (~ 82/3 = 27.3 sites)
i.e., ≥ 60 samples

J-phone plans to have 10


sites only at the same area.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 80 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - downlink load margin


Ptot,1 -> A Ptot,1
Ptot,serving -> A Ptot,serving Definition:
Downlink load margin is defined to be
how much the average total output
serving cell other cell power of the cells can be increased
without causing pilot channel failure,
Ptot,2 -> A Ptot,2
i.e., Ec/No < -16dB
A simplified expression (assuming we
are interference limited (and NOT
noise limited)
other cell
Ptot,n -> A Ptot,n
Ec
A (in dB ) = measured − γ pilot
Average total output power of
No Best
all cells are increased A times. other cell

Ec
Remark: = measured + 16
Ec/No |Best is the Ec/No of the best serving pilot. No Best

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 81 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - downlink load margin

Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Average Ec/No >90% Ec/No Average Ec/No >90% Ec/No

Measured values -5.77 -8.25 -5.47 -8.05

Ec/No value when -16dB


pilot channel fails

Estimated load 10.23 7.75 10.53 7.95


margin (A in dB)

It means FOMA can support 6 times


more DL TX power in each cells

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 82 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - pilot pollution


(no dominant cell in idle mode (or cell_FACH) )
Definition:
Ec/No in dB
A UE, in idle mode or cell_FACH,
Cell A Cell B
cannot camp on a cell at any one
location because too many pilot
QHyst QHyst
channels are received with similar
quality, i.e., Ec/No value.
In order to minimize the occurrence
of the "no dominant cell" situation,
no third pilot should appear in the
Cell re-selection region Location cell re-selection region.

 Ec E 
pilot _ count  − QHyst , c ≤2
Remark:  N o Best
No Best 

Ec/No |Best is the Ec/No of the best serving pilot.
QHyst is the reselection hysteresis (RN parameter).

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 86 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - pilot pollution


(no dominant cells in dedicated mode)
Ec/No in dB
Cell A Ec/No best
Definition:
Cell A Cell B
Cell B
Cell A Cell B
Cell D A UE in connected mode, at any
Cell C
Cell B
Cell C Cell B
Cell A Cell C R1b one location, frequently changes its
Cell D Cell D Cell C Cell A Ec/No best - R1b active cells (high active set update
Active cells:
>H1c/2
Cell C
Cell D
Active cells:
rate, high signaling load) because
Cell A Active cells: Cell B
Active cells: Cell D
too many pilot channels are
Cell B
Cell C
Cell A
Cell B
Active cells:
Cell A
Cell A Cell C received with similar quality.
Cell C Cell B
Cell B
Cell D
Cell C
In order to minimise the occurrence
of this problem, the number of pilots
Soft handover region and AS size = 3 within the R1b range should be less
(Note: Max AS size = 3)
than or equal to AS.
Remark:
 Ec E 
Ec/No |Best is the Ec/No of the best serving pilot. pilot _ count  − R1b , c  ≤ AS
AS is the maximum number of cells in the active set  N o Best
No 
Best 

R1b is the handover threshold for drop window


H1c is the hysteresis for replacement event

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 87 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - pilot pollution

Carrier – 2136.7MHz Carrier – 2142.4MHz

No dominant cell (assumed: Qhyst = 1.09% 0.99%


2dB)

No dominant cells (assumed max AS 0.77% 0.70%


size = 3 and R1b = 5dB)

FOMA network has very


low pilot pollution

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 88 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - CCH interference


Definition:
Fcch is the ratio between the common
channels interference from other cells and
the common channels interference generated
in the own cell.
1 #other _ servers
Fcch can be used to evaluate how good the ⋅ ∑ RSCPi
cell planning design is. It is useful for I k other Ki i =1
comparing different cell plans between Fk = k =
I own 1
clusters (or networks), which will have ⋅ RSCPown
different number of subscribers (or traffic). K own
Remarks:
1. Only the pilot channel, SCHs, BCH and In this special case, K is the ratio of the average total
PICH are considered. CCHs output power to pilot channel power. For all
cells, it is normally the same. It is unusual to set it on
2. Fcch is the value of F derived under a cell based. Note that as usual F is position
a no load situation. dependent.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 89 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - CCH interference

Fcch Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Average 0.39 0.39

> 90% 0.80 0.80

Maximum 2.48 2.83

Minimum 0 0

If all pilot powers are same, Fcch is equal to pathloss ratio and
becomes same as F value in the dimensioning, which is normally
assumed to be 2. Now, the average Fcch in the FOMA was 0.39.
It means the cell size/overlapping was controlled very well.
K = 1.9 (EFT) or K=2 (J-phone) have been used

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 91 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - active set update rate


If the number of detected pilots within the range [Ec/Nobest - XdB, Ec/Nobest] is
equal to 1, and the number of pilots for the next sample within same range is
not equal to 1, the active set is considered to have been "updated" - see below
table for the conditions when the active set will be updated.

E
pilot _ count  c − xdB ,
Ec 

1 pilot for next sample 2 pilots for next sample ≥ 3 pilots for next sample
 N o Best
No Best 

1 pilot for a sample Not update Update Update

2 pilots for a sample Update Not update Update

≥ 3 pilots for a sample Update Update Not update

Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Different thresholds X = 3dB X = 4dB X = 5dB X = 3dB X = 4dB X = 5dB

Active set update rate, s-1 0.29 0.33 0.35 0.30 0.33 0.35

Average speed of the car ~31.9km per hour

Ave. meter per AS change 30.57 26.85 25.31 29.53 26.85 25.31

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 94 Limited Internal


Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning analysis - handover ratio


If the number of detected pilots within the range [Ec/Nobest - XdB, Ec/Nobest] is
equal to 1, the active set size is equal to one, if 2, the active set size equals two,
etc. See below table for the conditions corresponding to soft/softer handover.

E
pilot _ count  c − xdB ,
Ec  Active set size

 N o Best
No Best 

1 pilot for a sample 1

2 pilots for a sample 2

≥ 3 pilots for a sample 3

Carrier 2136.7MHz Carrier 2142.4MHz

Different thresholds X = 3dB X = 4dB X = 5dB X = 3dB X = 4dB X = 5dB

AS = 1, % 70.00 60.36 51.99 69.95 59.82 51.37

AS = 2, % 27.32 34.83 40.73 27.63 35.67 41.65

AS = 3, % 2.69 4.81 7.28 2.42 4.51 6.98

~40% of samples were in handover.


Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 95 Limited Internal
Limited internal

FOMA pilot scanning - conclusions


• time consumption and required resources to tune a cluster
-- 22 engineers
engineers xx 33 days
days for
for drive
drive test
test
-- 1.5
1.5 engineers
engineers xx 11 week
week for
for post
post--processing
processing and
and analysis
analysis
• performance of FOMA network
- high best serving pilot RSCP and Ec/No
- about 30 sites in the tested area
- high DL load margin and indoor margin
- low common channels interference
- no pilot pollution problem
- about 40% of samples in soft handover

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 96 Limited Internal


Post processing of drive test data (DESKCAT & MAPINFO) Limited internal

TIW log files


1. Voice, CS drive tests should not be combined in one logfile TIW Cell File
2. Scanner can be used with any service (voice,CS64)

RUN DESKCAT
(Separately for CS,Voice)

REPORT Plots
(Word) (MIF Files)

Drop call Accessibility Neighour Services Scanner


analysis analysis analysis

BLER Drop RSCP Ec/No RSCP Ec/No

Access Best SC Pollution Best SC


UE TX Pollution
Power Failure
Individual Individual
SC SC
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 121 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Downlink transmission
10 ms Frame 10 ms Frame

Common Channels(CCH)
Primary SCH

Secondary SCH

Common Pilot Ec/No =


CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) CPICH (Common Pilot Channel)
Channel RSCP/RSSI

Primary CCPCH
(Broadcast Data)

Secondary CCPCH
τ S-CCPCH,k
S-CCPCH
(Paging, Signaling) τ PICH

Paging Indication Channel PICH for S-CCPCH

AICH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14

Dedicated Ch (DCH)
Dedicated Physical τ DPCH,n SIR
DPCCH/DCDPH
Control/Data Channel (on DPCCH)

τ S-CCPCH,k = N x 256 chips

τ DPCH,n = N x 256 chips

τ PICH = 7680 chips (3 slots)


Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 122 Limited Internal
Limited internal

DL Total power
(serving cell + other
cells + noise)
Ec/No (DL) is measured on the
CPICH for the active set (serving
RSCP is measured on the CPICH. SIR measured on the Dedicated
cell) as well as the Neighbours
Similar to measurement of Signal channel (DPCCH).
=RSCP-RSSI
strength measurement on BCCH for
GSM
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 123 Limited Internal
Limited internal

Downlink transmission
10 ms Frame 10 ms Frame

Common Channels(CCH)
Primary SCH

Secondary SCH

Common Pilot Ec/No =


CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) CPICH (Common Pilot Channel)
Channel RSCP/RSSI

Primary CCPCH
(Broadcast Data)

Secondary CCPCH
τ S-CCPCH,k
S-CCPCH
(Paging, Signaling) τ PICH

Paging Indication Channel PICH for S-CCPCH

AICH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14

Dedicated Ch (DCH)
Dedicated Physical τ DPCH,n SIR
DPCCH/DCDPH
Control/Data Channel (on DPCCH)

τ S-CCPCH,k = N x 256 chips BLER


τ DPCH,n = N x 256 chips (on DPDCH)
τ PICH = 7680 chips (3 slots)
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 124 Limited Internal
Downlink BLER
Limited internal

BLER% for DL DPDCH-speech

BLER% for DL DPDCH-Signalling

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 125 Limited Internal


MOS vs FER for speech Limited internal

∆ M OS
Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER
0.50
(FR Tests in Clean Speech)

FER 3% still good SQI!!


0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50
12.2
10.2
7.95 FR
-2.00
7.4 FR
6.7 FR
5.9 FR
-2.50 5.15 FR
4.75 FR Source:3GPP TR 26.975(annex D)
FER
-3.00
0.001% 0.010% 0.100% 1.000% 10.000% 100.000%

Conversational voice
It is has been suggested in studies that acceptable performance is typically obtained
with frame erasure rates (FER) up to 3 %.
SOURCE: 3G TS 22.105 3.10.0 (2001-10)

• We know that speech FER refers to Speech Frame (Similar as in GSM)


•Since one speech frame = 1 speech transport block,
Speech BLER% = speech FER%

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 126 Limited Internal


Speech:MOS vs SQI Limited internal

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 127 Limited Internal


Limited internal

DL TargetSIR computed by the UE.

DL SIR as measure by UE

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 128 Limited Internal


Downlink CS 64 RB mapping Limited internal

RRC UM RRC AM or NAS DT normal priority


64 kbps = 1280 in 20 msec 40 msec
136 128
Amplitude

=>2X640 bit Transport Blocks


136 8 bit RLC 128 16 bit RLC
640 640 144 4 bit MAC 144 4 bit MAC
Frequency
MAC Layer
CRC 16
148
640 640 CRC 16
164 8 tail bits
Coding Turbo Coding 3936 12 Trellis termination bits 516 Rate 1/3 CC
3926 Rate matching 548
Amplitude

3926 1st interleaving 1st interleaving


1963 1963 Frame segmentation 137 137 137 137
Frequency
2nd block

1963 137 1963 137

2nd interleaving 2100 2nd interleaving 2100

140 140 140 140 DPDCH


Spreading 4/8/8 TPC/TFCI/PILOT DPCCH

DPDCH 120ksps => SF=32 DPDCH 120ksps => SF=32 600 600

RF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Modulation
1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 129 Limited Internal


2x 10ms Radio Frame = 2x Video Blocks
DL CS64 BLER computation
Limited internal
Transmission Time Interval (TTI) = 20ms TTI = 20ms TTI = 20ms

1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Video Video Video Video Video Video


Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport
Block-OK Block-OK Block-OK Block-OK Block-OK Block-OK

Number of Nok Blocks * 100% = BLER%


Total number of Blocks
• DL BLER% is only calculated by the TIW tool
•For the DPDCH only (Video data and Signalling)
•One TTI for the video block is 20 ms (2x10 ms) and the signalling block is 40 ms (4x10 ms)
•The TTI is similar to voice calls BUT for each 20 ms TTI, you get two Video
transport blocks.
•The Video Transport block BLER is most relevant during Optimization
• The outer loop is most likely not calculation the BLER% as it only needs to look at the CRC
ok/Nok of the Video Transport Blocks to do what it needs (Power control)
• What is the interval TIW uses to compute the DL BLER%?
This depends on the TIW version and UE used!!
The Motorola UE for TIW2.0 is 50TTIs or every 1 seconds for DPDCH-video
The Motorola UE for TIW2.1 is 200TTIs or every 4 seconds for DPDCH-video
The Qualcomm UE for TIW1 is 200TTIs or every 4 seconds for DPDCH-video
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 130 Limited Internal
UL interference
Limited internal

Uplink interference as noted in


SIB7 (when UE in idle mode!!)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 131 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Exercise 1

Now it is time for the an exercise using TIW


The exercise aims at making you familiar with TIW and
interpretation of some of the reports

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 132 Limited Internal


Limited internal

3G Network
tuning and optimization
for Network Consulting in
Kuala Lumpur January 15-16,
2004 (part 2)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 133 Limited Internal


CS call Origination (only some RBS-RNC-MSC messages shown for simplicity)
Limited internal
RBS RNC MSC
Use 1 of the 16 signatures
Use SC indicated in SIB RACH-preamble #1
Ec/Io > PreambleThreshold = -19
RACH-preamble #2
repeats until pos AI received on AICH or
Preambleretransmax * maxpreamblecycle
AICH
Admission control
CCH

RRC Connection Request Sends DL Ec/No value!!


Dl:RRC Connection Reject (congestion) NOK
OK
NBAP:Radio Link Setup Req.
SRB Resource allocation NBAP: Radio Link Setup
AAL2 Connection setup
RRC Connection Setup

L1 Synchronization
NBAP: Radio Link Restore
Indication
RRC Connection Setup Complete L1 Synchronization OK –
SRB(DPDCH/DPCCH) or is it?
RRC:Measurement Control Handover Algorithm
for UE
NAS: Service Request
NAS:Authentication Request
NAS: Authentication Response

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 134 Limited Internal


CS call Origination (only some RBS-RNC-MSC messages shown for simplicity)
Limited internal
RBS RNC MSC

RRC:Security Mode Command

RRC: Security Mode Complete


NAS: Setup

NAS:Call Proceeding
RANAP:RAB Assignment
Admission control Request
Dl:Disconnect (No resource)
NOK
Radio Link reconfiguration OK
RRC:Radio Bearer Setup
RB L1 Synchronization L1 Sychronization OK –
(DPDCH/DPCCH) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Comp.
or is it?
RRC:Radio Bearer Reconfiguration

RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Comp.


RANAP:RAB Assignment
NAS:Alert Response
Accessibility
(Deskcat) NAS:Connect

NAS: Connect Acknowledge

Retainability
(Deskcat)
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 135 Limited Internal
Normal Call Release Limited internal
RBS RNC MSC

NAS: Disconnect(cause-normal clearing)

NAS: Release

NAS: Release Complete


RRC Connection Release (cause:normal event)

RRC Connection Release Complete

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 136 Limited Internal


Limited internal

L1 synchronisation (more details)


A parameter that is sent in the RRC connection setup message. It is
called SRB delay and 3GPP allowed range is 1..7 frames. Ericsson
default is 7 frames (check RRC connection setup). This timer
determines the time (in frames) the terminal MUST wait after DL
synchronization before it can send the RRC connection complete
message. Indeed, irrespective if UL synchronization is achieved or not
the terminal cannot transmit the RRC connection setup until 70 ms has
gone. Also, there is no requirement on UL synchronization to have
taken place to send this message, so a good guess is that terminals
will all send the RRC connection complete message once the 70 ms
has expired. Note that during this time, the terminal will have received
effectively 9-10 power up commands (why?)
The assumption is therefore that unless we are out-of UL-coverage in
most cases UL synch has been achieved when the message is sent!
Now, if the message for some reason is not acknowledged (it is sent in
ack mode) of course the terminal repeat the message. I expect this to
be rather unusual (unless out-of-UL coverage).
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 137 Limited Internal
Limited internal

L1 synchronisation (even more details)


As for the RB setup it appears to be so that if the delay parameter is not
present (check) the terminal is not allowed to sent the RB setup
complete until DL synchronization has taken place. Most likely
terminals send directly then since there is apparently nothing in the
spec that says the terminal must wait for UL synchronization. The
assumption is that this is also in ack mode so re-transmission takes
place if there is no acknowledgement.

So, bottom line is this (for the “first” L1 synchronization)

* The terminal does NOT send RRC connection complete immediately


after DL synchronization, it waits 70 ms.

* But the terminal does NOT wait for UL synchronization as such, it sends
after 70 ms, regardless. Of course, you expect UL synch to be
achieved in most cases unless you have poor UL coverage which of
course can happen in some areas.
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 138 Limited Internal
Accessibility & Retainability Limited internal

• Ericsson (DeskCat tool) defines Accessibility as follows


• From Call initiation (RACH) until UL:Connect Acknowledge
• Anything abnormal that occurs during this time would be tagged as
Access Failure

• Ericsson (DeskCat tool) defines Retainability (Drop call) as follows


• After UL:Connect Acknowledge
• Anything abnormal that occurs during this time would be tagged as
drop call.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 139 Limited Internal


Access Failure Classification in Deskcat Limited internal
RBS RNC
RACH-preamble #1
Access Failure RACH-preamble #2
Random Access AICH
Failure
RRC Connection Request

RRC Connection Dl:RRC Connection Reject


Reject
NBAP:Radio Link Setup Req.
SRB Resource allocation NBAP: Radio Link Setup
RRC Connection AAL2 Connection setup
Setup Not Received
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection L1 Synchronization


Setup Completed not NBAP: Radio Link Restore
sent Indication
RRC Connection Setup Complete

Measurement Control RRC:Measurement Control


Not received
RRC: Service Request
Service Request Not
Sent
CM Service Reject
Call Proceeding Not RRC:Authentication Request
received
RRC: Authentication Response

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 140 Limited Internal


Limited internal
RBS RNC
RRC:Security Mode Command
RRC: Security Mode Complete
Call Proceeding Not
received RRC: Setup
RRC:Call Proceeding

Admission control
Dl:Disconnect (No resource)
Radio Bearer Setup
Not received Radio Link reconfiguration
RRC:Radio Bearer Setup

RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Comp.

Radio Bearer Setup RRC:Radio Bearer Reconfiguration


Complete Not sent
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Comp.

RRC:Alert
Alert OR Connect Not
received RRC:Connect

Connect Acknowledge RRC: Connect Acknowledge


Not sent

NOTE: there is also the case of access failures noted above but with the notation ‘ next event registration’
This indicates that after a call setup failure, the UE does a registration to cell in a different LAC
- a way to detect possible missing neighbour in a different LAC

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 141 Limited Internal


Access Failure Classification in Deskcat Limited internal

Accessibility% = [1 – (#DL ALERT)/(#RRC_Connection_Request) ]* 100%

Distribution chart of Access Failures

7.4%
7.4% 18.5%

3.7%

22.2%
25.9%

14.8%

Random Access Failure RRC Connection Setup not received


RRC Connection Complete not sent Measurement Control not received
Call Proceeding not received (Next Event:Registration) Radio Bearer Setup not received
Alert or Connect not received

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 142 Limited Internal


Limited internal

• There are 3 stages during call setup whereby the CI required to be achieved in the UL may be
different During CCH, During SRB-DCH & During RB-DCH

RBS RNC MSC


RACH-preamble #1

RACH-preamble #2
Ec/Io > PreambleThreshold = -19

AICH

RRC Connection Request


CCH

NBAP:Radio Link Setup Req.


SRB Resource allocation NBAP: Radio Link Setup
Initial UL power AAL2 Connection setup
(SRB) RRC Connection Setup

L1 Synchronization Initial DL power


/DPCCH)

(SRB)
(DPDCH

RRC Connection Setup Complete


SRB

Initial UL RRC:Radio Bearer Setup Initial DL power


power (RB)
RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Comp.
(RB)
RRC:Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
/DPCCH)
(DPDCH
RB

RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Comp.


RRC:Alert

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 144 Limited Internal


Random Access Failure Limited internal
RBS RNC
ConstantValueCprach RACH-preamble #1
PowerOffsetPo RACH-preamble #2
PreambleRetransMax
MaxPreambleCycle
AICH
AichPower
RRC Connection Request

• The possible reasons for this failure (when tester initiates call, ‘RRC connection
Request’ not sent)
• The RBS did not receive the preamble
• The UE did not receive the AICH
• Can be checked using random access report if available

•If the DL Ec/No and RSCP is OK then it could be parameter

powerOffsetPpm
+ powerOffsetP0
P_PRACH Message
RACH Ch. MaxFach1Pwr Part
AichPower AI The AI is sent when the
AICH Channel
quality of the preamble
exceeds Preamblethreshold
P_PRAC = L_PCPICH + RTWP + ConstantValueCprach (-19dB)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 145 Limited Internal


RRC Connection Setup Not Received Limited internal
RBS RNC
RRC Connection Request
PowerOffsetPpm
RRC Connection Setup MaxFach1Power

• UE sends ‘RRC Connection Request’ but ‘RRC connection Setup’ not received

•The RBS did not receive the RRC connection Request


•The UE did not receive the RRC Connection Setup

In Cases like this the UE sends RRC connection request N300 times (N300 = 5)
(check value of N300)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 146 Limited Internal


RRC Connection Setup Completed not sent Limited internal
Initial DL power
Ctrl(SRB)
RBS RNC
RRC Connection Setup

L1 Synchronization DlInitialSirTarget(SRB)
cBackOff
RRC Connection Setup Complete

• in this case the L1 DL synchronization failed

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 148 Limited Internal


Initial UL power
Limited internal
Ctrl(SRB) RBS RNC
RRC Connection Setup Complete

ULInitialSirTarget(SRB)
cP0
RRC:Measurement Control

• in this case the L1 UL synchronization failed

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 149 Limited Internal


Limited internal
RBS RNC
RRC:Measurement Control
RRC: Service Request
CM Service Reject
RRC:Authentication Request

Call Proceeding Not RRC: Authentication Response


received
RRC: Security Mode Command
RRC: Security Mode Complete
RRC: Setup
RRC:Call Proceeding

•Possible reasons CM Reject Service occurs when


• #4 : IMSI unknown in VLR
• #6 : Illegal ME
• #17 : Network failure
• #22 : Congestion
• #32 : Service option not supported
• #33 : Requested service option not subscribed
• #34 : Service option temporarily out of order

•During this period, the UE is under inner loop power control

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 150 Limited Internal


Radio Bearer Setup Not received
Limited internal
RBS RNC
RRC:Call Proceeding

Admission control
Dl:Disconnect (No resource)

• This Disconnect (cause No Resource) it due to No resources available for RB


and will cause the ‘Radio Setup Not Received to be pegged’

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 151 Limited Internal


Radio Bearer Setup Complete Not sent
Initial DL power Limited internal
(RB)
RBS RNC
RRC:Radio Bearer Setup

DLInitialSirTarget(voice)
L1 Synchronization
DLInitialSirTarget(CS64)
CBackOff
RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Comp.

• in this case the L1 DL synchronization failed

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 152 Limited Internal


Alert OR Connect Not received
Limited internal
RBS RNC
Initial UL power
Ctrl(RB) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Comp.

UlInitialSirTarget (voice) L1 Synchronization


UlInitialSirTarget (CS64)
RRC:Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
cP0

• In this case the L1 UL synchronization failed

• Note, it is really DPCCH_POWER_OFFSET that is sent to terminal but of course


it depends on the parameters above

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 153 Limited Internal


Limited internal
Drop Call Classification (DeskCat)

Drop Class RSCP Ec/No TXPWR BLER

DL Coverage Low Any Any Any


Case A
DL Interference High Low Any Any
Case B
High DL BLER High High Low High
Case E
High UL TX Power High High High Low
Case C
High UL TX Power and High High High High
DL BLER Case F
No Data No Data Any Any Any

No Data High No Data Any Any

No Data High High No Data Any

No Data High High Any No Data

Not Classified Non of above

NOTE: there is also the case of drop calls as above but with the notation ‘ next event registration’
This indicates that after a call is dropped, the UE does a registration to cell in a different LAC
- a way to detect possible missing neighbour in a different LAC

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 154 Limited Internal


Drop Call Classification (DeskCat) Limited internal

Retainabilility (%) = 1- Number of Drops *100% Where, Total Call Attempts = Total long call drive test
Total Call attempts MHT
Estimated value
OR

Call Minutes PerDrop (min) = Total Call Duration


Number of Drops
Dropped Call Classific ation

3.6%
14.3%
14.3%

3.6%
17.9%

10.7%

10.7%
25.0%

DL Interferenc e DL Interferenc e (Regis tration)


High DL B LE R High DL B LE R (Nex t E vent:Regis tration)
High UL TX P ower and DL B LE R High UL TX P ower and DL B LE R (Nex t E vent:Regis tration)
Not Clas s ified Not Clas s ified (Nex t E vent:Regis tration)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 155 Limited Internal


Limited internal

In both the Retainability and Accessibility computation by DeskCat,


there is an event called ‘UE FREEZE’

This is a known problem in many of the UEs, which suddenly stops


sending messages

DeskCat has a way of filtering out drops/access failures due to this


kind of UE problems

However, there are many more UE/Network problems that will call
drops & access failure which is impossible for DeskCat to identify. We
still have to review log files to make some good guesses on what has
gone wrong!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 157 Limited Internal


Limited internal

y y Retainability: DL Coverage
Case A DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low
Accessibility: anything possible

1. DL Coverage problem
2. Missing Neighbour Relation
3. Congestion Release

n y Retainability: DL Interference
Case B DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low Accessibility: anything possible

1. Pilot Pollution
2. Missing Neighbour Relation
3. Congestion Release

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 158 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Case C

n n y Retainability: High Tx Power or


DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low TXpower high
High Tx Power & High BLER
Accessibility: anything possible

1. UL/DL imbalance coverage


2. Missing Neighbour Relation (system release)
3. Congestion release

DL BLER might also be poor here as UL power up commands


possibly not “Heard”
Can verify this:
SIR measured does not track SIR target
& Power Up commands in TIW

(SIR Target and Power up commands not available for all TIW versions)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 159 Limited Internal


Limited internal

n n n
Case E DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low TXpower high DL BLER high

1. Dl power control Retainability: High BLER


2. System or UE problem Accessibility: anything possible
3. Congestion release

DL power control can be verify:


SIR target should be increasing.
The UE will should send ‘power UP’
Commands and SIR measured should train SIR target
(SIR Target and Power up commands not available for all TIW versions)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 162 Limited Internal


Limited internal

n n n
Case F DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low TXpower high DL BLER high

1. Missing Neighbour Relation (system release) Retainability: Unclassified


2. System or UE problem Accessibility: anything possible
3. Congestion release

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 163 Limited Internal


Limited internal

y y Retainability: DL Coverage
Case A DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low
Accessibility: anything possible

DL coverage problem
a. Add new site
b. Antenna tilt or reorientation

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 165 Limited Internal


UL Coverage Problem (Case C) Limited internal
RRC connection Request repeated N300=5 times

1. DL Ec/No good,
RSCP ok
2. TXpower is max (Sanyo UE)
Should be no problem for
Motorola UE as there is more power

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 166 Limited Internal


UL Coverage Problem (Case C) Limited internal

n n y Retainability: High Tx Power or


DL RSCP low DL Ec/No low Txpower high
High Tx Power & High BLER
Accessibility: anything possible

UL/DL imbalance coverage


a. May need to reduce the CPICH power (PrimaryCpichPower)
b. Add new site
c. Down tilt cell

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 168 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Neighbour Relation Discussion

There are a few cases to look at,

• Monitored Neighbour does not includes all defined Neighbour Relations


• Neighbour Relation not defined in system
• Detected Neighbour Relation (can be a defined or undefined Neighbour Relation)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 170 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation Discussion -Neighbour Relation Creation!! Limited internal

• The Network will send a list of SCs for the UE to scan-This list in called the
Monitored Set
MONITORED SET list (in TIW its noted as Monitor Neighbour (MN) )
1
SC_a_1 (1) 2
3
SC_a_2
4
SC_a_3
SC_a_4
(2) 5
6
SC_a_5
UnMonitored Set
SCa SC_a_6
SC_a_7 (3)
7
8
9
1 SC_a_…
10
2 SC_a_…
11
3 SC_a_19
12
4 SC_a_20
13
5 SC_a_21
14
6 SC_c_1 15
7 SC_c_2 16
SC_c_3 17
MAX 32
SCb SC_c_4 18
19
SC_c_5
SC_c_6 20
Creating Monitored set SC_c_7
(28) 21
SC_c_… 22
1. Remove Active set SCs SC_c_… 23
SC_c_19 24
25
2. Remove duplicates SC_b_1
(29) 26
SC_b_2
27
SC_b_3
28
SC_b_4
29
SC_b_5
SC_b_6
SC_b_7 SCc AS
SC_b_…
SC_b_…
SC_a
SC_b_19
SC_b_20
SC_b
SC_b_21 SC_c
SC_b_22

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 178 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation EXERCISE Limited internal
Monitored Set
1
SCa List SCb List SCc List 2
SCb SCa 3
SCa
4
scX SCc SCc SCc 5
SC1 SC1 SC1
SCa 6
SC2 SC2 SC2 7
SC3 SC3 SC3 8
SCb SC4 SC11 9
SC11
SC5 SC12 SC12 10
SCc 11
SC6 SC13 SC13 12
SC7 SC14 SC21 13
SC8 SC15 . SC22 . 14
SC9 SC10 SC23 15
SC10 SC11 SC24 16 MAX 32
New cell: SCX SC12 SC25 17
SC13 18
SC26
19
SC14 SC27 20
SC15 SC28 21
SC16 SC29 22
SC17 23
SC18 24
SC19 25
SC20 26
27
28
29

AS

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 179 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation EXERCISE(Answer) Limited internal
Monitored Set
Sca-Sc1 1
SCa List SCb List SCb-SC11 2
SCc List 3
SCb SCa SCc-SC21
SCa Sca-SC2 4
scX SCc SCc SCb SCb-SC12 5
SC1 SC1
SCa SC1 SCc-SC22 6
SC2 SC2 SC2 Sca-SC3 7
SC3 SC3 SC3 SCb-SC13 8
SCb SC4 SCc-SC23 9
SC11 SC11
SC5 Sca-SC4 10
SCc SC12 SC12
SC6 SCb-SC14 11
SC13 SC13 SCc-SC24 12
SC7 SC14 SC21 Sca-SC5 13
SC8 SC15 . SC22 . SCb-SC15 14
SC9 SC16 SC23 SCc-SC25 15
SC10 SC17 Sca-SC6 16 MAX 32
SC24
New cell: SCX SC18 SCb-SC16 17
SC25 SCc-SC26 18
SC19 SC26 Sca-SC7 19
SC20 SC27 SCb-SC17 20
Creating Monitored set SC28 SCc-SC27 21
1. Remove Active set SCs SC29 Sca-SC8 22
SCb-SC18 23
2. Remove duplicates SCc-SC28 24
Sca-SC9 25
SCb-SC19 26
SCx not sent to UE!!!BAD SCc-SC29 27
Sca-SC10 28
SCb-SC20 29
AS
Sca
SCb
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 180 Limited Internal
SCc
Neighbour Relation Discussion Limited internal

• From the Previous we can see that there is a possibility that the Neighbour list sent to the
UE (the Monitored Set) does not include all the Neighbours defined!!
• 3GPP specifies that the UE is supposed to look out of strong SCs although its not
in the monitored Set
• This SC will be noted as Detected Neighbour (DN) in the TIW
• If this DN cell meets the handover criteria set, the UE will sent a
Measurement Report to Add this cell
• THE UE does not know if the DN SC is a defined or undefined NR
- Only the System knows!!
•If the DN is a defined Neighbour Relation (i.e. its part of the UnMonitor
list, the Network will proceed with the Handover

•If the DN is NOT a defined Neighbour Relation, & if this DT cell is 3dB higher
that the serving cell, the network will initiate a RRC-connection Release
Q. WHY IS THIS NECESSARY??
•This can occur at any kind of environment and hence may fall under any
drop call classification(may also be an access Failure-WHY??

(TAKE note that note all UE currently conform to this requirement and hence will
never report a DN cell: hence the call will drag on till you drop the call)

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 181 Limited Internal


Detected Neighbour (DN) Limited internal
3. Missing Neighbour Event
We have to view ‘Event Report’ to
see the SC of missing neighbour.
(note: in this example there is a lot of missing
neighbour generated due to incorrect TIW cell file)

2. 456 is measured by the


Scanner but is not in the
Monitored Set of the UE.
Could be a missing neighbour
1. Detected Neighbour Case or a not monitored Neighbour.
If TIW genererated Missing
Neighbour Event for SC 456
then it’s a missing neighbour
(I.e. not due to truncated list!!!)
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 182 Limited Internal
Detecting Missing Neighbour (using TIW) Limited internal

1. Strongest SC:288

2. SC 48 is defined as Neighbour to 288


BUT SC 0 if >=3dB that SC 48
causing a Missing Neighbour Event

In TIW, when you load in the Cell file (with complete Neighbour Relation information),
And do a drive test with the SCANNER- ‘Missing Neighbour’ Events will be generated if

1. The Scanner detects a SC which is >= 3 dB of any of the measured Neighbours of the Strongest SC.

This ‘Missing Neighbour Event’ may be misleading- WHY?

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 183 Limited Internal


Detecting Missing Neighbour (using TIW) Limited internal

2. The Scanner detects a SC with is within 3 dB of the Strongest SC which is not in its Neighbour list

3dB

Strongest SC SC measured but not in neighbour list of Strongest SC

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 184 Limited Internal


Detecting Missing Neighbour (using TIW) Limited internal

3. If the scanner does not measure any of the strongest SC neighbours ( i.e. defined neighbours are not
found), any other SC measured, regardless of its strength will generate a ‘missing neighbour’ Event

WE cannot switch off any of the conditions noted above! (However, TEMS has listed it as an RFE).
Therefore, when a missing neighbour event is generated, we can do a check to see if we really want to
define the SC as a Neighbour, maybe only look into SCs which are within about 5dB of the strongest Cell!!

A better way is to RUN DESKCAT!! After we completed the drive test!!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 185 Limited Internal


Detecting Missing Neighbour (Using Deskcat) Limited internal

After doing a drive test using the TIW Scanner

Load the log files into DeskCat and Generate after processing, the Table below will be obtained

Shows the SCs and it Samples (in bracket) when its with XdB of the Serving Cell
White: is defined neighbour and has samples
Serving Cell Yellow: is defined neighbour but has 0 samples
& its SC Orange: Not defined neighbour and samples >0
Here we can check if a defined NR need to be deleted or if we should add a cell or
need to Downtilt a cell!!!-
X is configurable-We normally use 5dB i.e a cell within 5dB is a potential neighbour

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 186 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation Strategy Limited internal

• We now know that there is a possibility of Neighbour Relation Truncation

1. We can limit the number of neighbours per cell to approximately


(32- MaxActiveSet)/MaxActiveSet = (32-3)3 ≈ 10
•Not practical in real life as there are bound to be many more

2. We can limit the number to a higher value than the above, to say about 20
• This is just a rough figure as there are bound to be many duplications
in the Active Set Neighbour List-
Hence we may truncate too many neighbours
3. Neighbour List prioritization
• We make sure to key in the Neighbour list (into the system) for each cell
starting from the most important to the least important
• Can be quite cumbersome as when we build new sites we have to delete all the
existing neighbour list and re-key in the sequence.
• In P3, there will be a feature to help us do this!!!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 187 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation Strategy-Cont Limited internal

• Once we have decided on our strategy to on the max number of neighbours or prioritization method
• We need to see what Cells should be added as a neighbour
1. Like in GSM, all cell close by should be defined (distance is subjective
as depends on City or Rural and the site to Site distance)
Can use your GSM experience to do this-use some logic!!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 188 Limited Internal


Neighbour Relation Strategy-Cont Limited internal

2. What about overshooting cells?


going over a few cells with strong RSCP (how strong is relative the
the other cells serving that area!!)

Discussion
a. In 3G it is very important to avoid Spillover as all are in the same frequency
(assume only one Frequency used in this network)- Similar to a 1x1 or 1x3 GSM
network.
A spillover will cause Unnecessary DL interference (pilot Pollution)
and should be downtilted- This interference will get worse as traffic increases!!
b. However, there will always be a special case whereby an operator cannot perform
a downtilt immediately as it may reduce the coverage of other key areas, or even cause a
coverage hole in the spillover region A, for a case like this, I would define the NR to this
cell at the network start to avoid a drop call and than find a longer term solution!!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 189 Limited Internal


Case F (Congestion release) Limited internal

1.Very Good conditions


RSCP & Ec/No good
Tx power low Abnormal release

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 198 Limited Internal


Limited internal

Exercise 2

And now – some more logfile exercises

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 204 Limited Internal


DL coverage Hole ( Case A) CASE 1 Limited internal

4. UE can suddenly go into a coverage hole


causing an Access Failure to occur at any time
during the call setup phase (I.e. cch, SRB,RB!!).

5. The UE goes into idle mode


Due to High BLER DL (high BER
actually!!)

1. DL Ec/No and
RSCP very poor 3. Measure SIR is low.
How do you know if RBS has powered UP?
In TIW2.0, there is the SIR target. Normally
if you see that the SIR target goes up but measured SIR
does not follow, then most likely the RBS is at full power already and
2. High BLER DL
hence the SIRtarget can not be reached!
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 205 Limited Internal
UL Coverage Problem (Case C CASE 2) Limited internal

RRC Connection Release(unspecified) due to 4. MR sent but


High BER in UL causing abnormal release No response

1. DL Ec/No good,
RSCP good

2. Txpower is max (Sanyo UE)


indicating UL problem

3. BLER poor most likely due to power control


commands not cannot be heard by RBS.
if there is a SIR target, it would most likely be high!!
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 206 Limited Internal
Missing Neighbour CASE 3 Limited internal
3. UE goes into idle mode due to high BER
1. After call dropped, UE does
Cell reselection to a strong cell

2. Error in This TIW version


Can be ignored!!!

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 207 Limited Internal


Network/UE problem (possible ‘out of Sync’) CASE 4 Limited internal
mod

2. BLER goes up

1.Very Good conditions Abnormal release


RSCP & Ec/No good
Tx power low

3. Measured SIR does not follow


SIR target.

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 208 Limited Internal


Possible Network ( Suddenly stops transmitting ) CASE 5 Limited internal

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 209 Limited Internal


Network ( Sleeping Cell ) CASE 6 Limited internal

1. Good RSCP and Ec/No 2. UE sends measurement report but


network does not respond.

3. After the call is dropped, cannot


initiate call on the same cell
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 210 Limited Internal
Post Processing of Drive Test Data Limited internal

TIW log files


1. Voice,CS drive tests should not be combined in one logfile TIW Cell File
2. Scanner can be used with any service(voice,CS64)

RUN DESKCAT
(Separately for CS,Voice)

REPORT Plots
(Word) (MIF Files)

Drop call Accessibility Neighour Services Scanner


analysis analysis analysis

BLER Drop RSCP Ec/No RSCP Ec/No

Access Best SC Pollution Best SC


UE TX Pollution
Power Failure
Individual Individual
SC SC
Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 211 Limited Internal
Scanner CPICH RSCP plot Limited internal

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 212 Limited Internal


Scanner CPICH Ec/No Limited internal

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 213 Limited Internal


Scanner Pilot Pollution Limited internal

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 214 Limited Internal


Drive Test Configuration Limited internal

Drive Test(one car) for Voice,CS64 & PS call

Short call Long Call


CS64 PS

USB1 USB2
USB1 USB1

GPS
GPS GPS

Com 1

scanner Special Requirements to have the above in one car.


1. Connect power supply directly to Car battery(not cigarette lighter)
2. Scanner already has built in GPS but only for WGS84, therefore,external
GPS is still required for Taiwan maps
3. Do not combine voice,CS64,PS into one log file as Deskcat needs them to be in
different log files

Rev PA1 12 Jan 2004 215 Limited Internal