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# Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

## A uniform plane wave is characterized by E

and H that have uniform properties at all points
across an infinite plane perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.

## 7.2 Plane Wave in Lossless Media

7.3 Plane Wave in Lossy Media
7.4 Group Velocity
7.6 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector
7.6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

## What does “Lossless” mean?

If the medium is noconducting (s = 0 ), then the wave doesn’t suffer any attenuation
as it travels through the medium, and hence the medium is said to be lossless.

##  Homogeneous vector Wave equations for E, H:

(Source-free medium)

Phase velocity:

##  Homogeneous vector Helmholtz’ equations for phasor Es, Hs:

 Wavenumber:

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7-2 Plane Wave In Lossless Media

## Uniform plane wave:

Simplified equation:

##  Solution of scalar Helmholtz’ equations:

Possible solutions:

Phasor E: using

Phasor H:

##  Instantaneous expression for E, H:

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7-2 Plane Wave In Lossless Media

##  Characteristics of a traveling wave:

o Phase velocity:

A constant phase

## Example 7-1: p277

A uniform plane wave with E = ax Ex propagates in a lossless simple medium (er =
4, mr = 1, s = 0) in the +z-direction. Assume that Ex is sinusoidal with a frequency
100 MHz and has a maximum value of +10-4 (V/m) at t = 0 and z = 1/8 m.

## (a) Write the instantaneous expression for E for any t and z.

(b) Write the instantaneous expression for H
(c) Determine the locations where Ex is a positive maximum when t = +10-8 (s)

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7-2.1 Doppler Effect
 Doppler effect is a shift in the frequency of a wave caused
by the motion of the transmitting source, or the receiving
system

##  If the transmitter with a velocity u at an angle q relative to

the direct line to a stationary receiver, then the frequency
perceived by the observer is:

u
T q
R

##  The frequency of a wave detected by a receiver is higher

(lower) than that emitted by a transmitter if the transmitter
moves toward (away from) the receiver

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7-2.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves

So far, we’ve seen: E along x-direction, and H along y-direction, and both
transverse to the direction of propagation (z-direction). TEM wave

## We discussed the case with k along z-direction, if E along x-direction,

then H along y-direction. What if k along any arbitrary direction, how about
the general relation between E, and H ?

Using Eqs.

## A 10-MHz uniform plane wave is traveling in a nonmagnetic medium with

m = mo and er = 9. Find (a) the phase velocity, (b) the wavenumber, (c) the
wavelength in the medium, and (d) the intrinsic impedance of the medium.

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7-2.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves

## Example (not from our textbook)

The electric field phasor of a uniform plane wave traveling in a lossless medium
with an intrinsic impedance of 188.5 W is given by (mV/m)
Determine:
(a) the associated magnetic field phasor
(b) the instantaneous expression for E(y,t) the medium is nonmagnetic (m = mo)

## 7-2.3 Polarization of Plane wave

 Linearly polarized
 Elliptically polarized (pls ignore)
 Circular polarized (pls ignore)

## Linearly polarized: The E vector of a plane wave is fixed in one direction,

such a wave is said to be linearly polarized.

For example:
x-polarized uniform plane wave: E = axEx
y-polarized uniform plane wave: E = ayEy

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7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

## Note: in lossless medium, we have:

where k is wavenumber.

##  Introduce Propagation Constant g :

Attenuation Constant a :
Phase Constant b :

## 7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Question: Can we find attenuation constant and phase constant (a, b) in terms of
e’, e”, where e’ = e, e”= s/w ?

## Low-loss medium: Good conductor:

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7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Low-loss medium:

Phase constant:

Phase velocity:
(m/s)

Wavelength: (m)

Good conductor:

## Intrinsic impedance: (W)

(H lags behind E by 45o)
Phase velocity: (m/s)

Wavelength: (m)

Skin depth:
(m)

## (The distance d through which wave magnitude decreases by a factor of e-1.)

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7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

##  Flow of electromagnetic power and the Poynting vector (p298):

P = E X H (W/m2)
P
H Poynting vector represents the density and the direction
E of the power flow.

(m)
 Skin Effect :

## When AC-case, at very high frequencies most

of the current flows through a thin outer layer
of the wire.

## For good conductor:

1. Attenuation constant and phase constant are numerically equal:
2. The intrinsic impedance of a good conductor has a phase angle of 45
3. Skin depth is a measure of how far the wave penetrates into the conductor:

## Example 7-4: p293

The electric field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating
in the +z-direction in seawater is: (V/m) at z = 0. The
constitutive parameters of seawater are and (S/m).

(a) Determine the attenuation constant, phase constant, intrinsic impedance, phase
velocity, wavelength, and skin depth.
(b) Find the distance at which the amplitude of E is 1% of its value at z=0.
(c) Write the expressions for E(z,t) and H(z,t) at z = 0.8 (m) as functions of t.

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Example 7-4: p293
The electric field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating
in the +z-direction in seawater is: (V/m) at z = 0. The
constitutive parameters of seawater are and (S/m).

(a) Determine the attenuation constant, phase constant, intrinsic impedance, phase
velocity, wavelength, and skin depth.
(b) Find the distance at which the amplitude of E is 1% of its value at z=0.
(c) Write the expressions for E(z,t) and H(z,t) at z = 0.8 (m) as functions of t.

## 7-4 Group Velocity

Sum of two time-harmonic traveling waves of
equal amplitude and slightly different
frequencies at a given time t

##  Phase velocity: the velocity of  Group velocity: the velocity of

propagation of an equiphase wavefront propagation of the envelope (of a group
(of a single frequency) of frequencies)

##  For plane waves in a lossless medium, up is a constant; however, in lossy dielectric,

waves with different frequencies will propagate with different up, which will cause a
signal distortion.
 The phenomenon of signal distortion caused by a dependency of up on frequency is
called dispersion. A lossy dielectric is a dispersive medium.

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Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell Eqs.

## Poynting Vector P Ohmic Power density (W/m3)

Energy density u:
P (W/m2) (J/m3)
Electric Magnetic

## 7-5 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector

 Poynting Theorem:

The net power flowing into a closed surface S, is equal to the sum of the rates of
increase of the stored electric and magnetic energies and the ohmic power
dissipated within the enclosed volume V

##  The Poynting vector is in a direction normal to both E and H

Poynting Vector: P (W/m2)

##  Poynting’s theorem is a manifestation of the principle of conservation of energy

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7-5 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector

 Poynting Theorem:

## Example 7-5: P300

Find the Poynting vector on the surface of a long, straight conducting wire (of
radius b and conductivity s ) that carriers a direct current I. Verify Poynting’s
theorem.

##  Average power density transmitted by a uniform plane wave in z-direction:

Special case: lossless medium:
Pav P Pav

##  General expression for Average power density in a propagating wave:

Pav

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7-5.1 Instantaneous and Average Power Densities

## Example 7-6: P303

The phasor expression of the far field at a distance R from a short vertical current
element Idl located in free space at the origin of a spherical coordinate system are

and

## Where l = 2 p/b is the wavelength.

a) Write the expression for instantaneous Poynting vector.
b) Find the total average power radiated by the current element.

## Example 7-6: P303

The phasor expression of the far field at a distance R from a short vertical current
element Idl located in free space at the origin of a spherical coordinate system are

and

## Where l = 2 p/b is the wavelength.

a) Write the expression for instantaneous Poynting vector.
b) Find the total average power radiated by the current element.

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Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

## 7-6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

x
Ei Et Incident wave

ki kt
Hi Ht
Er
y z
kr
Hr

## Step 2: Simplify above equations according to boundary conditions:

Boundary conditions for electrostatics and magnetostatics remain valid for
time-varying field as well.

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7-6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

## Step 3: Solve Equations:

 Reflection coefficient G :
(Normal incidence)

 Transmission coefficient t :

##  Incident wave + reflected wave  Standing wave

E, and H in medium 1

##  Standing-wave ratio (SWR) :

 SWR in dB :

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7-6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

## Exercise 7.11: p309

Given in air that impinges
normally on a lossless medium with er2 = 2.25, mr2 = 1 in the z >= 0 region. Find

(a) b, G, S, t;
(b) Er (z,t);
(c) E2 (z,t);
(d) H2 (z,t)

##  Good conductor s/ we >> 1, such as metallic reflector and waveguide, we

may use perfect approximation (s  )

## E, and H in medium 1 (Instantaneous expression)

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7-6.1 Normal incidence on a good conductor

## Example 7-8: p310

A y-polarized uniform plane wave (Ei, Hi) with a frequency 100 MHz propagates
in air in the +x direction and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at
x=0. Assuming the amplitude of Ei, to be 6 (mV/m), write the phasor and
instantaneous expressions for

## (a) Ei, Hi of the incident wave

(b) Er, Hr of the reflected wave
(c) E1, H1 of the total wave in air.

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Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
Problems 7-20: p333
A uniform sinusoidal plane wave in air with the following phasor expression for
electric intensity is incident on a perfectly
conducting plane at z = 0

## a) Find the frequency and wavelength of the wave

b) Write the instantaneous expressions for Ei (x,z;t) and Hi (x,z;t).
c) Determine the angle of incidence.
d) Find Er (x,z) and Hr (x,z) of the reflected wave.
e) Find E1 (x,z) and H1 (x,z) of the total field in air.

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Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Summary:
 Examined the behavior of uniform plane waves in both lossless and
lossy media
 Explained Doppler effect when there is relative motion between a