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and H that have uniform properties at all points

across an infinite plane perpendicular to the

direction of propagation.

7.3 Plane Wave in Lossy Media

7.4 Group Velocity

7.6 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector

7.6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

If the medium is noconducting (s = 0 ), then the wave doesn’t suffer any attenuation

as it travels through the medium, and hence the medium is said to be lossless.

(Source-free medium)

Phase velocity:

Wavenumber:

1

7-2 Plane Wave In Lossless Media

Simplified equation:

Possible solutions:

Phasor E: using

Phasor H:

2

7-2 Plane Wave In Lossless Media

o Phase velocity:

A constant phase

A uniform plane wave with E = ax Ex propagates in a lossless simple medium (er =

4, mr = 1, s = 0) in the +z-direction. Assume that Ex is sinusoidal with a frequency

100 MHz and has a maximum value of +10-4 (V/m) at t = 0 and z = 1/8 m.

(b) Write the instantaneous expression for H

(c) Determine the locations where Ex is a positive maximum when t = +10-8 (s)

3

7-2.1 Doppler Effect

Doppler effect is a shift in the frequency of a wave caused

by the motion of the transmitting source, or the receiving

system

the direct line to a stationary receiver, then the frequency

perceived by the observer is:

u

T q

R

(lower) than that emitted by a transmitter if the transmitter

moves toward (away from) the receiver

4

7-2.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves

So far, we’ve seen: E along x-direction, and H along y-direction, and both

transverse to the direction of propagation (z-direction). TEM wave

then H along y-direction. What if k along any arbitrary direction, how about

the general relation between E, and H ?

Using Eqs.

m = mo and er = 9. Find (a) the phase velocity, (b) the wavenumber, (c) the

wavelength in the medium, and (d) the intrinsic impedance of the medium.

5

7-2.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves

The electric field phasor of a uniform plane wave traveling in a lossless medium

with an intrinsic impedance of 188.5 W is given by (mV/m)

Determine:

(a) the associated magnetic field phasor

(b) the instantaneous expression for E(y,t) the medium is nonmagnetic (m = mo)

Linearly polarized

Elliptically polarized (pls ignore)

Circular polarized (pls ignore)

such a wave is said to be linearly polarized.

For example:

x-polarized uniform plane wave: E = axEx

y-polarized uniform plane wave: E = ayEy

6

7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

where k is wavenumber.

Attenuation Constant a :

Phase Constant b :

Question: Can we find attenuation constant and phase constant (a, b) in terms of

e’, e”, where e’ = e, e”= s/w ?

7

7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Low-loss medium:

Phase constant:

(rad/m)

Phase velocity:

(m/s)

Wavelength: (m)

Good conductor:

Phase constant: (rad/m)

(H lags behind E by 45o)

Phase velocity: (m/s)

Wavelength: (m)

Skin depth:

(m)

8

7-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

P = E X H (W/m2)

P

H Poynting vector represents the density and the direction

E of the power flow.

(m)

Skin Effect :

of the current flows through a thin outer layer

of the wire.

1. Attenuation constant and phase constant are numerically equal:

2. The intrinsic impedance of a good conductor has a phase angle of 45

3. Skin depth is a measure of how far the wave penetrates into the conductor:

The electric field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating

in the +z-direction in seawater is: (V/m) at z = 0. The

constitutive parameters of seawater are and (S/m).

(a) Determine the attenuation constant, phase constant, intrinsic impedance, phase

velocity, wavelength, and skin depth.

(b) Find the distance at which the amplitude of E is 1% of its value at z=0.

(c) Write the expressions for E(z,t) and H(z,t) at z = 0.8 (m) as functions of t.

9

Example 7-4: p293

The electric field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating

in the +z-direction in seawater is: (V/m) at z = 0. The

constitutive parameters of seawater are and (S/m).

(a) Determine the attenuation constant, phase constant, intrinsic impedance, phase

velocity, wavelength, and skin depth.

(b) Find the distance at which the amplitude of E is 1% of its value at z=0.

(c) Write the expressions for E(z,t) and H(z,t) at z = 0.8 (m) as functions of t.

Sum of two time-harmonic traveling waves of

equal amplitude and slightly different

frequencies at a given time t

propagation of an equiphase wavefront propagation of the envelope (of a group

(of a single frequency) of frequencies)

waves with different frequencies will propagate with different up, which will cause a

signal distortion.

The phenomenon of signal distortion caused by a dependency of up on frequency is

called dispersion. A lossy dielectric is a dispersive medium.

10

Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell Eqs.

Energy density u:

P (W/m2) (J/m3)

Electric Magnetic

Poynting Theorem:

The net power flowing into a closed surface S, is equal to the sum of the rates of

increase of the stored electric and magnetic energies and the ohmic power

dissipated within the enclosed volume V

Poynting Vector: P (W/m2)

11

7-5 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector

Poynting Theorem:

Find the Poynting vector on the surface of a long, straight conducting wire (of

radius b and conductivity s ) that carriers a direct current I. Verify Poynting’s

theorem.

Special case: lossless medium:

Pav P Pav

Pav

12

7-5.1 Instantaneous and Average Power Densities

The phasor expression of the far field at a distance R from a short vertical current

element Idl located in free space at the origin of a spherical coordinate system are

and

a) Write the expression for instantaneous Poynting vector.

b) Find the total average power radiated by the current element.

The phasor expression of the far field at a distance R from a short vertical current

element Idl located in free space at the origin of a spherical coordinate system are

and

a) Write the expression for instantaneous Poynting vector.

b) Find the total average power radiated by the current element.

13

Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

x

Ei Et Incident wave

ki kt

Hi Ht

Er

y z

kr

Hr

Boundary conditions for electrostatics and magnetostatics remain valid for

time-varying field as well.

14

7-6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

Reflection coefficient G :

(Normal incidence)

Transmission coefficient t :

E, and H in medium 1

SWR in dB :

15

7-6 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries

Given in air that impinges

normally on a lossless medium with er2 = 2.25, mr2 = 1 in the z >= 0 region. Find

(a) b, G, S, t;

(b) Er (z,t);

(c) E2 (z,t);

(d) H2 (z,t)

may use perfect approximation (s )

16

7-6.1 Normal incidence on a good conductor

A y-polarized uniform plane wave (Ei, Hi) with a frequency 100 MHz propagates

in air in the +x direction and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at

x=0. Assuming the amplitude of Ei, to be 6 (mV/m), write the phasor and

instantaneous expressions for

(b) Er, Hr of the reflected wave

(c) E1, H1 of the total wave in air.

17

Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Problems 7-20: p333

A uniform sinusoidal plane wave in air with the following phasor expression for

electric intensity is incident on a perfectly

conducting plane at z = 0

b) Write the instantaneous expressions for Ei (x,z;t) and Hi (x,z;t).

c) Determine the angle of incidence.

d) Find Er (x,z) and Hr (x,z) of the reflected wave.

e) Find E1 (x,z) and H1 (x,z) of the total field in air.

18

Chapter 7 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Summary:

Examined the behavior of uniform plane waves in both lossless and

lossy media

Explained Doppler effect when there is relative motion between a

time-harmonic source and a receiver

Explained the significant of a complex wavenumber and a complex

propagation constant in lossy medium

Studied the skin effect in conductors and obtained the formula for skin

depth

Introduced the concept of signal dispersion and explained the

difference between phase and group velocities

Discussed the flow of electromagnetic power and Poynting’s theorem

Studied the reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at

plane boundaries for normal incidence

19

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