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Lecture 07 Design for Manufacturing Dr. J. Ramkumar Professor Dept of Mechanical Engg. & Design
Lecture 07 Design for Manufacturing Dr. J. Ramkumar Professor Dept of Mechanical Engg. & Design
Lecture 07 Design for Manufacturing Dr. J. Ramkumar Professor Dept of Mechanical Engg. & Design

Lecture 07

Design for Manufacturing

Dr. J. Ramkumar Professor Dept of Mechanical Engg. & Design Program

IIT Kanpur, India.

Contents • Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM) • Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition •
Contents • Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM) • Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition •
Contents • Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM) • Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition •

Contents

Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition

Purpose of DFM

Design flow of DFM

DFM Implementation techniques

Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability

Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)  The defect or quality problem in the product
Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)  The defect or quality problem in the product
Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)  The defect or quality problem in the product

Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Need for Design For Manufacturing (DFM)  The defect or quality problem in the product is

The defect or quality problem in the product is caused by three things: bad design, bad material, and wrong manufacturing process.

bad design, bad material, and wrong manufacturing process.  An incorrectly designed product will also result

An incorrectly designed product will also result in quality problems despite having chosen the right materials and good manufacturing

methods.

The occurrence of these defects is caused by several factors inherent in the design.

It not only increases the cost of the product, but also decreases product quality.

Common design problems include loose parts, rattling, parts not aligned, tight parts, missing parts, labor-intensive assembly etc.

tight parts, missing parts, labor-intensive assembly etc.  Product quality depends on how the product is

Product quality depends on how the product is designed.

tight parts, missing parts, labor-intensive assembly etc.  Product quality depends on how the product is
Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition  DFM (design for manufacturing) can be defined as a
Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition  DFM (design for manufacturing) can be defined as a
Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition  DFM (design for manufacturing) can be defined as a

Design For Manufacturing (DFM), definition

DFM (design for manufacturing) can be defined as a practice for designing products, keeping manufacturing in mind.

for designing products, keeping manufacturing in mind.  DFM starts by identifying a product’s functional,
for designing products, keeping manufacturing in mind.  DFM starts by identifying a product’s functional,

DFM starts by identifying a product’s functional, performance, and

by identifying a product’s functional, performance, and other requirements.  It utilizes rules of thumb, best

other requirements.

product’s functional, performance, and other requirements.  It utilizes rules of thumb, best practices, and

It utilizes rules of thumb, best practices, and heuristics to design the part.

of thumb, best practices, and heuristics to design the part.  Best practices for a high-quality
of thumb, best practices, and heuristics to design the part.  Best practices for a high-quality
of thumb, best practices, and heuristics to design the part.  Best practices for a high-quality

Best practices for a high-quality product design are to minimize the

for a high-quality product design are to minimize the number of parts, create multifunctionality in the
for a high-quality product design are to minimize the number of parts, create multifunctionality in the

number of parts, create multifunctionality in the part, minimize part

parts, create multifunctionality in the part, minimize part variations, and create ease of handling.  DFM

variations, and create ease of handling.

part, minimize part variations, and create ease of handling.  DFM involves meeting the end-use requirements

DFM involves meeting the end-use requirements with the lowest-

 DFM involves meeting the end-use requirements with the lowest- cost design, material, and process combinations.

cost design, material, and process combinations.

 DFM involves meeting the end-use requirements with the lowest- cost design, material, and process combinations.
 DFM involves meeting the end-use requirements with the lowest- cost design, material, and process combinations.
Purpose of DFM The purpose of DFM is to:      
Purpose of DFM The purpose of DFM is to:      
Purpose of DFM The purpose of DFM is to:      

Purpose of DFM

Purpose of DFM The purpose of DFM is to:       

The purpose of DFM is to:

Narrow design choices to optimum design

     Narrow design choices to optimum design Perform concept generation, concept selection,

Perform concept generation, concept selection, and concept

Perform concept generation, concept selection, and concept improvement Minimize product development cycle time and cost

improvement

generation, concept selection, and concept improvement Minimize product development cycle time and cost Achieve
generation, concept selection, and concept improvement Minimize product development cycle time and cost Achieve

Minimize product development cycle time and cost

Achieve high product quality and reliability Simplify production methods Increase the competitiveness of the company
Achieve high product quality and reliability
Simplify production methods
Increase the competitiveness of the company

Have a quick and smooth transition from the design phase to the

production phase Minimize the number of parts and assembly time
production phase
Minimize the number of parts and assembly time

Eliminate, simplify, and standardize whenever possible

Design flow of DFM
Design flow of DFM
Design flow of DFM (with Design For Assembly, DFA) http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/
Design flow of DFM (with Design For Assembly, DFA) http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/
Design flow of DFM (with Design For Assembly, DFA) http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/

Design flow of DFM (with Design For

Assembly, DFA)

Design flow of DFM (with Design For Assembly, DFA) http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/
Design flow of DFM (with Design For Assembly, DFA) http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/

http://photonengr.com/engineering-services/

DFM Implementation techniques • Minimize Part Counts • Eliminate Threaded Fasteners • Minimize Variations •
DFM Implementation techniques • Minimize Part Counts • Eliminate Threaded Fasteners • Minimize Variations •
DFM Implementation techniques • Minimize Part Counts • Eliminate Threaded Fasteners • Minimize Variations •

DFM Implementation techniques

DFM Implementation techniques • Minimize Part Counts • Eliminate Threaded Fasteners • Minimize Variations •

Minimize Part Counts

Eliminate Threaded Fasteners

Minimize Variations

Easy Serviceability and Maintainability

Minimize Assembly Directions

Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment

Consider Ease for Handling

Design for Multifunctionality

Design for Ease of Fabrication

Prefer Modular Design

Ease for Handling • Design for Multifunctionality • Design for Ease of Fabrication • Prefer Modular
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Part Counts To determine if a part is a potential candidate
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Part Counts To determine if a part is a potential candidate

DFM Implementation techniques

DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Part Counts To determine if a part is a potential candidate for

Minimize Part Counts To determine if a part is a potential candidate for elimination, the following questions should be asked:

for elimination, the following questions should be asked:  Do the parts move relative to each
for elimination, the following questions should be asked:  Do the parts move relative to each

Do the parts move relative to each other?

Is there any need to make parts using a different material?

Is there any need to make parts using a different material?  Will the part require

Will the part require removal for servicing or repair?

 Will there be a need for adjustment?
 Will there be a need for adjustment?
a different material?  Will the part require removal for servicing or repair?  Will there
a different material?  Will the part require removal for servicing or repair?  Will there
Eliminate Threaded Fasteners  DFM Implementation techniques   Avoid the use of screws, nuts,
Eliminate Threaded Fasteners  DFM Implementation techniques   Avoid the use of screws, nuts,
Eliminate Threaded Fasteners 
Eliminate Threaded Fasteners

DFM Implementation techniques



Avoid the use of screws, nuts, bolts, and other fasteners in the product.

of screws, nuts, bolts, and other fasteners in the product. It is estimated that driving a
It is estimated that driving a screw into the product costs almost 6 to 10
It is estimated that driving a screw into the product costs almost 6
to 10 times the cost of a screw.
The use of fasteners increases inventory costs and add complexity
in assembly.
increases inventory costs and add complexity in assembly. Fasteners are used to compensate for dimensional variation,

Fasteners are used to compensate for dimensional variation, to join

are used to compensate for dimensional variation, to join two components, or for part disassembly. 

two components, or for part disassembly.

variation, to join two components, or for part disassembly.   Snap-fits are used with plastics

to join two components, or for part disassembly.   Snap-fits are used with plastics or

Snap-fits are used with plastics or short fiber composite parts and provide ease of assembly

DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Variations  Try to use standard parts off-the-shelf and avoid the
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Variations  Try to use standard parts off-the-shelf and avoid the
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Variations  Try to use standard parts off-the-shelf and avoid the

DFM Implementation techniques

Minimize Variations

DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Variations  Try to use standard parts off-the-shelf and avoid the use

Try to use standard parts off-the-shelf and avoid the use of special parts.

Eliminate part variations such as types of bushings or O-rings, seals, screws, or nuts used in one application.

The same size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly.

size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design
size would mean the same tool for assembly and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design

Easy Serviceability and Maintainability

and disassembly. Easy Serviceability and Maintainability  Design the product such that it is easy to

Design the product such that it is easy to access for assembly and

disassembly.

The part should be visible for inspection and have sufficient clearance between adjacent members for scheduled maintenance using wrench, spanner, etc.

inspection and have sufficient clearance between adjacent members for scheduled maintenance using wrench, spanner, etc.
inspection and have sufficient clearance between adjacent members for scheduled maintenance using wrench, spanner, etc.
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Assembly Directions  While designing the product, think about the assembly
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Assembly Directions  While designing the product, think about the assembly
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Assembly Directions  While designing the product, think about the assembly

DFM Implementation techniques

Minimize Assembly Directions
Minimize Assembly Directions
DFM Implementation techniques Minimize Assembly Directions  While designing the product, think about the assembly

While designing the product, think about the assembly operations needed for various part attachments.

It is preferable to use one direction; z-direction assembly operation allows gravity to aid in assembly.

A one-direction assembly operation minimizes part movement as well as the need for a separate assembly station.

It is better in terms of an ergonomics point of view as well.

as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
as well as the need for a separate assembly station.  It is better in terms
DFM Implementation techniques Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment  Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii
DFM Implementation techniques Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment  Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii
DFM Implementation techniques Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment  Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii

DFM Implementation techniques

DFM Implementation techniques Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment  Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii for
Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment  Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii for easy insertion
Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment
Provide generous tapers, chamfers, and radii for easy insertion and
assembly.
Provide self-locating and self-aligning features where possible.
Avoid hindrance and obstruction for accessing mating parts.
Avoid excessive force for part alignment.

Design parts to maintain location.

Avoid restricted vision for part insertion or alignment.
Avoid restricted vision for part insertion or alignment.
for part alignment.   Design parts to maintain location. Avoid restricted vision for part insertion
DFM Implementation techniques Consider Ease for Handling  Workers pick up those parts and assemble
DFM Implementation techniques Consider Ease for Handling  Workers pick up those parts and assemble

DFM Implementation techniques

DFM Implementation techniques Consider Ease for Handling  Workers pick up those parts and assemble them
Consider Ease for Handling 
Consider Ease for Handling
DFM Implementation techniques Consider Ease for Handling  Workers pick up those parts and assemble them
DFM Implementation techniques Consider Ease for Handling  Workers pick up those parts and assemble them

Workers pick up those parts and assemble them using adhesive bonding or mechanical fastening or by slip-fit or interference-fit.

or mechanical fastening or by slip-fit or interference-fit.  Avoid using parts such as springs, clips,
or mechanical fastening or by slip-fit or interference-fit.  Avoid using parts such as springs, clips,

Avoid using parts such as springs, clips, etc., which are easy to nest and become interlocked. It disrupts the assembly operation and creates irritation for the worker.

assembly operation and creates irritation for the worker.  Minimize handling of parts that are sticky,
assembly operation and creates irritation for the worker.  Minimize handling of parts that are sticky,
assembly operation and creates irritation for the worker.  Minimize handling of parts that are sticky,

Minimize handling of parts that are sticky, slippery, fragile, or

handling of parts that are sticky, slippery, fragile, or have sharp corners or edges.  Keep

have sharp corners or edges.

sticky, slippery, fragile, or have sharp corners or edges.  Keep parts within operator reach. 

Keep parts within operator reach.

Avoid situations in which the operator must bend, lift, or walk to get the part.

which the operator must bend, lift, or walk to get the part.  Minimize operator movements
which the operator must bend, lift, or walk to get the part.  Minimize operator movements
which the operator must bend, lift, or walk to get the part.  Minimize operator movements

Minimize operator movements to get the part.

the part.  Minimize operator movements to get the part.  Avoid the need for two
 Avoid the need for two hands or additional help to get the part. 
 Avoid the need for two hands or additional help to get the
part.
 Avoid using parts that are easy to nest or entangle.

Use gravity as an aid for part handling.

DFM Implementation techniques Design for Multifunctionality  Once an overall idea of the product’s functions
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Multifunctionality  Once an overall idea of the product’s functions
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Multifunctionality  Once an overall idea of the product’s functions

DFM Implementation techniques

Design for Multifunctionality



Once an overall idea of the product’s functions is gleaned, design individual components such that they provide maximum functionality.

components such that they provide maximum functionality.  It is preferable to use molding operations that
components such that they provide maximum functionality.  It is preferable to use molding operations that

It is preferable to use molding operations that provide net-shape or near-netshape parts. For example,

an injection molded composite housing part meets the

structural requirement of the product and has built-in features for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.

for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.  This technique helps minimize the number of
for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.  This technique helps minimize the number of
for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.  This technique helps minimize the number of
for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.  This technique helps minimize the number of

This technique helps minimize the number of parts.

for alignment, self-locating, mounting, and a bushing mechanism.  This technique helps minimize the number of
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design

DFM Implementation techniques

DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot

Design for Ease of Fabrication

DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot
DFM Implementation techniques Design for Ease of Fabrication  In composite part fabrication, product design cannot

In composite part fabrication, product design cannot be made effective without knowledge of the manufacturing operations.

effective without knowledge of the manufacturing operations.  Each manufacturing process has its strengths and
effective without knowledge of the manufacturing operations.  Each manufacturing process has its strengths and
effective without knowledge of the manufacturing operations.  Each manufacturing process has its strengths and

Each manufacturing process has its strengths and weaknesses.

Each manufacturing process has its strengths and weaknesses.  The product design should be tailored to
Each manufacturing process has its strengths and weaknesses.  The product design should be tailored to

The product design should be tailored to reap the benefits of the selected manufacturing process. For example,

benefits of the selected manufacturing process. For example, ◦ If close tolerances are required on the
benefits of the selected manufacturing process. For example, ◦ If close tolerances are required on the

If close tolerances are required on the inside diameter of a tube,

tolerances are required on the inside diameter of a tube, then filament winding is preferred compared

then filament winding is preferred compared to a pultrusion process.

The design should be simplified as much as possible because it helps in manufacturing and assembly and thus in cost savings.

design should be simplified as much as possible because it helps in manufacturing and assembly and
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is

DFM Implementation techniques

Prefer Modular Design

DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built
DFM Implementation techniques Prefer Modular Design  A module is a self-contained component that is built

A module is a self-contained component that is built separately and has a standard interface for connection with other product components. For example,

for connection with other product components. For example, ◦ a product that has 100 parts can

a product that has 100 parts can be designed to have four or five modules.

Each module can be independently designed and improved without

module can be independently designed and improved without affecting the design of the other modules. 

affecting the design of the other modules.

improved without affecting the design of the other modules.  Modular design is preferred because it

Modular design is preferred because it helps in the final assembly, as well as in servicing where a defective module can be easily replaced by a new module.

Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,

easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,
easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,

and other products.

easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,
easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,
easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,
easily replaced by a new module.  Modular design can be found in aerospace, automotive, computer,
Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability
Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability

Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability

Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability
Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability
Design For Manufacturing and Maintainability

http://www.stratoinc.com/content/stratos-design-manufacturing-maintainability-process-dfm2

Assignment  Try to look at your Desktop PC CPU, list all sub assemblies and
Assignment  Try to look at your Desktop PC CPU, list all sub assemblies and
Assignment  Try to look at your Desktop PC CPU, list all sub assemblies and

Assignment

Try to look at your Desktop PC CPU, list all sub assemblies and try to understand

how DFM concepts are followed.