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1. Construct a table for last digits of nk where n and k are positive integers.

7 7
2. Find last digit of the following numbers: 250 ; 777777 ; 19891989 ; 77 ; 99 ; (⋯ (77 ) ⋯)
7 9

7
7⋰
written with 1001 sevens; 12 + 22 + ⋯ + 992 ; 1414 .
14
written with 1001 sevens; 77

3. Find possible remainders in the following cases: a perfect square is divided by 3; a perfect
square is divided by 4; a perfect square is divided by 5; a perfect square is divided by 7; a
perfect square is divided by 8; a perfect cube is divided by 7; a perfect cube is divided by 9;
a perfect fourth power is divided by 16; a perfect square is divided by 10.

4. Show that the sum of the squares of two odd integers cannot be a perfect square.

5. Show that without using Fermat’s Theorem 2∣n2 − n; 5∣n5 − n; 7∣n7 − n; 13∣n13 − n.

6. Prove the following for all integers n: 3∣n(2n2 + 7); 5 ∣ n5 + 4n; 3 ∤ n2 + 1; 6∣n(n + 1)(2n + 1);
9 ∤ n3 + 2; 24 ∣ (2n + 1)3 − 2n − 1; 504 ∣ n9 − n3 .

7. Find number of positive integers n lees than 1991 such that 6∣n2 + 3n + 2.

8. Show that there does not exist integers n1 , . . . , n8 , not necessarily distinct, such that
n41 + ⋯ + n48 = 1993.

9. Prove that no integer in the sequence 11, 111, 1111, . . . is a perfect square.

10. Prove that if n > 4 then the number 1! + 2! + 3! + ⋯ + n! is not a perfect square.

11. Prove that a number has odd number of divisors iff it is a perfect square.

12. Can a number written with one hundred 0’s, one hundred 1’s, and one hundred 2’s be a
perfect square?

13. Show that for n = 2, 3, 4, 5, product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!.

14. Find the gcd of the numbers 2n + 13 and n + 7.

15. Find the g.c.d of the numbers n3 + 2n and n4 + 3n2 + 1.

16. Prove that for n ≥ 4, n, n + 2, n + 4 can not be all prime.

17. Prove that if p and 8p − 1 are prime numbers then 8p + 1 is a composite number.

18. Find all prime p such that 8p2 + 1 is a prime also.

19. Find all prime p such that 4p2 + 1 and 6p2 + 1 are also prime numbers.

20. Suppose p is a prime number such that (p − 1)/4 and (p + 1)/2 are also primes. Show that
p = 13.

21. Let p be a prime number greater than 3. Then show that 24∣p2 − 1.

22. Suppose m, n are integers and m = n2 − n. Then show that m2 − 2m is divisible by 24.

23. Find the smallest natural number n such that 990∣n!.

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24. For some n, can n! have exactly 5 zeroes at the end?

25. The numbers a and b satisfy the equation 56a = 65b. Prove that a + b is composite.

26. Show that second last digit of 3n is always even where n ∈ N.

27. If n ∈ N, n > 1, is such that 3n + 1 is a perfect square. Then prove that n + 1 is the sum
of three perfect squares.

28. Find all n such that n + 1∣n2 + 1.

29. Find all n such that n − 3∣n3 − 3.

30. Find the largest positive integer n such that n + 10∣n3 + 100.

31. Prove that there exists infinitely many positive integers n such that 4n2 + 1 is divisible
both by 5 and 13.

32. Find all solutions in natural numbers of the following equations: x2 −y 2 = 31; x2 −y 2 = 303.

33. Show the following: 7 ∣ 22225555 +55552222 ; 39 ∣ 53103 +10353 ; 13∣270 +570 ; 11×31×61∣2015 −1;
100 ∣ 1110 − 1.

34. Prove that when square of any prime number different from 2 and 3 is divided by 12 we
obtain 1 in the remainder.

35. Prove that if a prime number is divided by 30 the remainder is either a prime or 1.

36. Let N be a number of the form 131313 . . . 131 with any number of repetition of ‘13’ and
with the first and last digit 1. Show that 31 is not a divisor of N .

37. If 72 is a number that divides a679b written in decimal, what are the digits a and b.

38. State and prove rule of divisibility by the following numbers: 2, 4, 8, 5, 3, 9, 11, 101, 111,
37, 27.

39. Prove that any 3n digit number with equal digits is divisible by 3n .

40. Prove that every number of the sequence 49, 4489, 444889, 44448889, . . . is a perfect square
(in every number containing 2n digits there are n fours, n − 1 eights and 1 nine).

41. Prove the following for all positive integer n: 16 ∣ 32n+2 + 8n − 9; 7∣32n+1 + 2n+2 ; 9∣4n −
3n − 1; 169∣3n+3 − 26n − 27; 19∣22 + 3; 16∣(2n + 1)4 + 4(2n + 1)2 + 11; 6∣n(7n2 + 5); 8∣52n + 7;
6n+2

15∣24n − 1; 5∣33n+1 + 2n+1 ; 21∣4n+1 + 52n−1 ; 24∣2 × 7n + 3 × 5n − 5; 7 ∤ 2n + 1; 133∣11n+2 + 122n+1 ;


44∣53n−1 + 19 × 34(n−1) ; 80∣(2n + 1)5 − (2n + 1).

42. a, b be two odd integers such that gcd(a, b) = 1. Then prove that gcd ( a+b a−b
2 , 2
) = 1.

43. Which integers have the following property? If the final digit is deleted, the integer is
divisible by the new number.

44. (a) Find all integers with initial digit 6 which have the following property, that if this
1
initial digit is deleted, the resulting number is reduced to 25 its original value.

2
(b) Prove that there does not exist any integer with the property that if its first digit is
1
deleted, the resulting number is 35 the original number.

45. (a) Find the smallest integer whose first digit is 1 and which has the property that if this
digit is transferred to the end of the number the number is tripled. Find all such integers.

(b) With what digits is it possible to begin a (non-zero) integer such that the integer will be
tripled upon the transfer of the initial digit to the end? Find all such integers.

46. Prove that there does not exist a natural number which, upon transfer of its initial digit
to the end, becomes two, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine times.

, n ∈ N, are called triangular numbers. Prove the following


n(n+1)
47. Numbers of the form 2
facts about triangular numbers:

(a) The integer n is a triangular number iff 8n + 1 is a perfect square.

(b) The sum of any two consecutive triangular numbers is a perfect square.

(c) If n is a triangular number, then so are 9n + 1, 25n + 3 and 49n + 6.

(d) Can you give any other example of positive integers a, b such that if n is a triangular
number, an + b is also a triangular number. Can you see any pattern?

48. (a) If 2n − 1 is a prime then show that n is prime.

(b) If 2n + 1 is a prime then show that n is a perfect power of 2.

49. If positive integers a, b, c satisfy a2 + b2 = c2 then show that 60 ∣ abc.

50. Prove that all the numbers 10001, 100010001, 1000100010001, 10001000100010001, . . .
are composite.(10001 = 73 × 137)

51. Show that product of two consecutive integers can not be a perfect square.

52. Show that product of 4 consecutive integers can not be a perfect square.

53. Take a three digit number such that the difference between the first digit and the last
digit is greater than 1. Reverse the number. Now subtract the smaller from the larger. Add
the result and its reverse. Show that you will always get 1089. [For example take 103. Then
reverse of 103 is 301. Subtract smaller from larger 301 − 103 = 198. Reverse of 198 is 891.
Add them. 198 + 891 = 1089.]

54. Prove that (3, 4, 5) is the only primitive Pythagorean Triplet whose terms are in arithmetic
progression.

55. Prove that product of k consecutive integers is always divisible by k!.

56. Let k be an even number. Is it possible to write 1 as the sum of the reciprocals of k odd
integers?

57. Find the largest n such that 2n ∣31024 − 1.

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58. Prove that 1 + 2 + ⋯ + n∣1k + 2k + ⋯ + nk where n, k ∈ N and k is odd.
59. Prove that if a ≡ b (mod n) then ak ≡ bk (mod nk+1 ) for all k ∈ N.
60. Prove that there exists infinitely many primes.
61. If pk is the kth prime, then prove that pk+1 ≤ p1 ⋯pk − 1.
62. Show that the gap between two consecutive primes can be arbitrarily large.
63. Show that there exist infinitely many primes of the form (a) 4k − 1, (b) 6k − 1.
64. 2n + 1 and 3n + 1 are both perfect squares. Prove that 40∣n.
65. Find all positive integers n such that 3 ∣ n2n + 1.
66. Is the equation 3100 + 7100 = 8100 true or false?
67. Prove that the following equations has no solution in integers: x3 = 2 + 3y 2 ; x2 + y 2 = 1971;
19x3 −17y 3 = 50; 3x2 −y 2 = 5z ; x3 +y 3 +7z = 3; x3 −x+320 = 0; x3 +7y +4 = 0; x4 +66 = 10y 2 +55.
Notation: For a positive integer n, the sum of digits of n when written in the decimal
notation is denoted by S(n).
68. Let n ∈ N satisfy S(n) = S(3n). Prove that 9∣n. Show by an example that the converse
does not hold.
69. Let n ∈ N such that 99∣n. Prove that S(n) ≥ 18.
70. Prove that it is impossible to construct two different seven-digit numbers, one of which
is divisible by the other, out of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. (All seven digits must be used in
some order in each number.)
71. Prove that an integer whose decimal form consists of thirty ones, some number of zeroes,
and some number of nines is not a perfect square?
72. Consider all the six-digit number formed by using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 exactly once.
What is the g.c.d of all these numbers?
73. Prove that for positive integers m and a > 1, ( aa−1
−1
, a − 1) = (m, a − 1).
m

74. Prove that number of people who have hand-shaken odd number of times is even.
75. Let a1 , . . . , an be a sequence of ±1 such that
a1 a2 a3 a4 + a2 a3 a4 a5 + ⋯ + an a1 a2 a3 = 0.
Prove that 4∣n.
76. Find the g.c.d of the elements of the set
{n13 − n∣n ∈ N} .
77. Each of the boys A and B tells the teacher a positive integer but neither of them known
the other’s number. The teacher writes two distinct positive integers on the blackboard and
announces that one of them is the sum of the numbers they told him. Then he asks A, “Can
you guess the sum of the two numbers?” If the answer is “No,” the teacher asks B the same
question, and so on. Suppose that the boys are intelligent and truthful. Prove that one of
their answers eventually will be “Yes”.