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Inline Supplementary Figure 1: Program Logic - Family Wellbeing Empowerment (FWB) Program
Assumption: FWB is an educational program that empowers participants through developing the knowledge and skills needed to take responsibility for and control of their
own lives. The benefits of FWB extend beyond the participant where supporting the individual’s participation in their own lives, results in benefits through the associated
ripple effects to family members, organisations, communities, and ultimately the wider Australian society.
Inputs / Program Level Beyond Program
Identified Need Activities Outputs
Resources Outcomes Level Outcomes
The FWB program was Funding (research program) Introduction to FWB gives Phased approach to the Self-awareness, Agents of FWB builds optimism for the
developed by a group of -engaging with community organisations/communities building of evidence for the change. future beyond program level
Aboriginal people to build and industry partners an opportunity to decide if intervention’s impact. outcomes.
capacity in communities by -planning, developing, FWB is what they need, and FWB empowers people,
helping individuals face their implementing and how to deliver it before Trained FWB Facilitators building their capacity to As the demand for FWB
difficulties and problems, evaluating the intervention committing significant (community members). transform and take greater most frequently arises from
and to help each other -follow-up, ongoing support resources. control of their own grass roots needs identified
through the healing process. networks Participants trained in FWB processes for change. by industry and community
FWB program delivery has (variety of groups, locations, members it is not imposed
The FWB program focuses Funding (to support two sub-categories: contexts). Capacity develops through from the top down by
on change from a human sustainable change)  stage 1 non-accredited; and each stage, with stage 1 researchers or governments.
level. This basic human -FWB facilitator support and  stage 1-4 accredited; FWB community, common (foundation skills), leading As a result FWB has spread
needs approach focussing refresher training language, shared experience to self-awareness, personal across Australia and
on the physical, emotional, -continued research and Facilitator training focuses changes and, in some cases, overseas.
mental and spiritual needs evaluation on: Participatory Action community level changes.
makes FWB universally -resources to report findings  stage 1 only, and Research (engaging and Research evidence is used to
relevant to other population and inform decision-makers  stage 1-4 working with community). The FWB beliefs, attitudes, affect practice.
groups. skills and knowledge
People – participants, The FWB training, regardless Research and evaluations: develop the potential to Research evidence informs
While the FWB program was facilitators, change agents, of stage or category, Tools (e.g. Surveys; change and flourish even decision-makers, and
developed for the unique key informants, community provides opportunities for Questionnaires; GEM) where social and political influences policy changes.
problems of Indigenous members, researchers. participants to implement Publications; Reports; changes have not been FWB has been included in
Australians, the program and monitor individual Newsletters; 2 x PhDs; achieved. several reviews seeking
meets the needs of all Community support for FWB and/or group activities in Presentations; Building evidence of impact and
humans who face challenges program. response to priority issues research capacity. Capacity to maintain change interventions that work.
in their lives when their arising from the FWB even when the social
basic human needs are not University, community and sessions. Employment of local environment is resistant to Empowerment has been
being met; and supports the individual in-kind support. Indigenous community change. associated with reducing
healing process. FWB facilitator online researchers. health disparities, improving
Industry partnerships and communities of support and social and emotional
support (financial/in-kind). refresher training. FWB value adds to what wellbeing, alleviating
participants and poverty and reducing social
Time, facilities for training. communities are doing. exclusion.

Inline Supplementary Table 1: Evidence of Engagement, Usage and Impact
Empirical Research

Indigenous author ( %)

Industry contribution
How need Identified

Funding source
Identified by

# Reason for evaluation Purpose for delivering FWB Purpose for the research Reported Outcomes

P1 Yes Yes Determining effectiveness - - INV I Social, health and political Relevance and adaptability of Capacity to improve their own IK
challenges FWB wellbeing and help others
P2 No No 22 Yes INV I Resilience, suicide prevention Improving resilience ACG IK
P3 Yes Yes Examining effectiveness 29 Yes INV I Social participation, education, Relevance and adaptability of Capacity to improve their own IK
employment FWB mental and physical health
P4 Yes Yes Evidence - Innovative - - - - - FWB transfer & implementation Supports empowerment OPS -
P5 No No - - - - - Offering FWB for wider scrutiny Promotes pathways to -
P6 Yes Yes Determining effectiveness - - INV P Social, health and political Relevance and adaptability of FWB is a process, 'bringing us OPS -
challenges FWB back to our origin'
P7 Yes Yes 100 - - - - Evidence - personal experience Must be accessible; supported -
DE and community-driven
P8 No No 33 - - - Team building Developing a framework Useful tool for engagement -
P9 Yes Yes Evidence for impact - - - I Empowering Indigenous people Examining empowerment Enables effective life changes, ACG -
regardless of constraints
P10 Yes Yes 100 - - - - Evidence - personal experience Empowerment needs courage -
DE and a supportive environment
P11 No OT 25 - - - - Validating a measurement tool Promising for use within an ACG -
Indigenous context
P12 No Yes Synthesis of evaluations 40 Yes INV I Social sustainability Using FWB for social Improved capacity for tackling OPS -
sustainability issues
P13 No Yes Synthesis of papers 29 Yes INV C Empowering Indigenous people Meta-synthesis for new insights With hope and confidence, ACG IK
change is possible
P14 Yes Yes Evidence for impact - - INV I Organisational change Building upon existing Improved morale and IK
strategies confidence
P15 Yes Yes Evidence for impact 17 - INV R Preparing future workforces Integrated university curriculum Highly relevant for wellbeing -
P16 No No - - INV C Social, health and political Narrative to build social Strengths-based approaches ACG -
challenges cohesion make social research relevant
P17 Yes Yes 38 - INV P - University and community Recognising community -
DE research relationship priorities, time, and trust
P18 Yes Yes 33 Yes INV P - Quality of research Identified challenges and -
DE relationships positive strategies for success
P19 Yes Yes Evidence for impact 50 Yes INV C Social and health challenges Investigating how men’s groups Key opportunities and ACG -
-suicide prevention, violence empower young people challenges were identified
P20 Yes Yes Synthesis of evaluations 25 Yes INV P - Analysing strategies for Confirms evidence; empower- ACG -
empowerment and change ment is a lengthy process
P21 No Yes Synthesis of evaluations 33 - - - - Understanding the impact Behaviour modification ACG IK
beyond micro-evaluations programs are beneficial
P22 Yes Yes Evidence for impact - - P C Social, health and spiritual Examining attitude and Empowerment and spirituality OPS IK
challenges behavioural changes substantially overlap
P23 Yes Yes Evidence for impact and - - - - Social, health and political Describes a community initiative For successful policy reform ACG -
sustainability challenges – substance abuse empowering people recognise local initiatives
P24 No No 29 Yes - - SEWB issues - family violence, Describes empowerment-based Enhanced personal ACG IK
suicide prevention, incarceration research to improve SEWB. empowerment
P25 Yes Yes Examining effectiveness 20 - INV I Building capacity to better Examining effectiveness as an Demonstrated the effectiveness ACG -
support clients. empowerment tool for change. of FWB
P26 Yes Yes Examining effectiveness 25 - - P Engaging Aboriginal people - Assessing effectiveness - build Effectiveness improves where ACG IK
greater control of their SEWB primary healthcare systems locals trained/supported
P27 Yes Yes Evidence for adaptability, 33 Yes INV C Life skills to make better decisions Relevance and adaptability of Participation led to social and ACG IK
impact and sustainability (e.g. suicide prevention) FWB emotional growth
P28 Yes Yes 100 - - - - Evidence - personal experience Individuals empowered to take -
DE responsibility for their health
P29 Yes Yes Evidence for impact 33 Yes IND C Empowerment, improved Evaluating whether FWB FWB increased participants' ACG IK
Indigenous health status - family increased empowerment and confidence and aspiration for
violence improved individual and SEWB broader social change
P30 No OT 50 Yes - C Supporting men’s group members Analysing key challenges and Several important issues and OPS IK
to take greater control for their opportunities of PAR with lessons emerged
health and wellbeing Aboriginal men’s groups
P31 Yes Yes Evidence for impact 50 Yes INV C Supporting men’s group members Examining how participants Modest but significant change ACG IK
to take greater control for their monitor and reinforce the small in personal development
health and wellbeing improvements they are making
P32 Yes Yes Evidence for impact 100 - INV I Autonomy and empowerment for Exploring the transference of FWB was well received and PAR OPS -
individual self-determination. skills, knowledge and processes is appropriate for FWB
P33 No OT 50 Yes - - Addressing priorities - parenting, Examining the value of the PAR PAR is providing evidence that OPS IK
personal growth, education, process in addressing men’s groups can lead to social
employment, tradition and culture. challenges and behavioural change
P34 No No 50 Yes - - - ‘Control’ as a factor for the social FWB enables Indigenous people ACG IK
determinants of health. to take greater control
P35 No No - - INV I - Evidence - personal experience Safe environment with open, OPS -
trusting relationships is best
P36 Yes Yes Examining effectiveness - Yes INV I Increased suicides by young Evaluating effectiveness of FWB Participation resulted in modest OPS -
Aboriginal people improvements in SEWB
P37 No No 25 - - - Understanding the benefits of Model resonates with Empowerment starts with the ACG -
empowerment understanding of SEWB efforts for improvement
P38 No No 50 Yes P P - Empowerment requires long- A concerted effort needed to ACG -
term commitment strengthen grassroots groups
P39 No No - - P C Spirituality within the context of How changes in attitudes and Empathy, communication and ACG IK
SEWB initiatives behaviour relate to spirituality. hope improve wellbeing
P40 No No 50 - INV C - Using model that works, and Better support needed for -
has been sustained for a decade initiatives that enhance SEWB
P41 Yes EE - Yes INV I Empowerment and workplace Assess the value of The GEM appeared to be the IK
engagement - child protection measurement tools for future most tangible measure for
staff impact evaluations detecting positive changes
P42 No OT 17 Yes - I - Estimating the cost of delivering The total cost of FWB delivery -
FWB in remote areas was $2,766 per participant
P43 No No 33 - INV I - Engage with international Relevance is seen as people -
research integrate it into local services
P44 Yes Yes Evidence for adaptability, - - INV P Social, health and political Opportunities, adaptability and FWB was relevant, adaptable IOR C
impact and sustainability challenges - corruption, violence, sustainability in the PNG and could enhance existing
conflict. context. initiatives
P45 Yes Yes Evaluating effectiveness 50 Yes INV R Social and health challenges - Evaluating effectiveness to take Supports people/communities OPS IK
alcohol, violence, unemployment responsibility for own affairs to improve their situation.
P46 Yes Yes Feasibility assessment - - INV I University students and mental Assesses the feasibility of FWB The training is relevant and -
illness - depression and anxiety for Chinese university students acceptable
P47 Yes Yes Feasibility assessment - - INV I Place wellbeing at the core of Assesses the feasibility of FWB Improvements in wellbeing and IK
leadership training for leaders in Timor-Leste leadership attributes
P48 Yes Yes Feasibility assessment - - INV C Addressing endemic Assesses the feasibility of FWB The FWB has much to offer to IOR -
interpersonal violence. for the broader community interpersonal violence issues
ᵃ Indigenous first author, (u) = unpublished; SEWB = Social and Emotional Wellbeing; DE =Demonstrated Experience; EE =Economic Evaluation; OT=Other
Funding: ACG - Australian Competitive Grants; OPS - Other public sector research income; IOR - Industry and other research income; IK=In-kind; C=cash
Need: INV=Invitation; IND= Indicators; C=Community; I=Industry; P=Partnership; R=Researcher

Inline Supplementary Table 2: Analysis of the reported evidence of effectiveness using Bloom’s Taxonomy

Hierarchy of Bloom’s Taxomomy

comprehension Leadership Basic Relation- Life Conflict Emotions Crises Beliefs &
human ships journey Resolution Attitudes
Create P4 P7 P10 P10 P4 P10 P10 P7 P10
P28 P12 P28
Evaluate P4 P10 P10 P4 P10 P10 P10
Analyse P10 P10 P10 P10 P10
Apply P1 P6 P9 P7 P9 P7 P9 P19 P1 P6 P7 P7 P19 P36 P1 P9 P10 P32 P1 P6 P9
P10 P18 P10 P18 P23 P45 P9 P10 P45 P19 P36 P10 P18
P19 P28 P19 P36 P19 P23 P19 P25
P45 P25 P28 P36 P45
Understand P1 P3 P4 P4 P6 P7 P1 P4 P6 P4 P6 P1 P6 P12 P6 P7 P9 P7 P19 P4 P6 P9
P6 P9 P13 P9 P13 P9 P13 P12 P13 P13 P14 P13 P14 P23 P13 P14
P14 P15 P15 P17 P15 P17 P14 P15 P17 P18 P15 P17 P25 P15 P17
P18 P19 P18 P19 P18 P19 P18 P19 P19 P20 P18 P19 P26 P18 P19
P20 P23 P20 P22 P22 P23 P20 P22 P23 P25 P20 P22 P28 P20 P22
P25 P26 P23 P25 P25 P26 P23 P25 P26 P28 P25 P26 P29 P23 P25
P29 P34 P26 P28 P28 P29 P26 P29 P29 P23 P28 P29 P34 P26 P29
P45 P47 P29 P34 P34 P36 P34 P36 P34 P45 P34 P36 P36 P34 P36
P48 P45 P47 P45 P48 P45 P45 P45
Remember P1 P9 P12 P1 P3 P9 P1 P3 P9 P1 P9 P1 P3 P9 P7 P9 P12 P12 P9 P12
P13 P14 P12 P13 P12 P13 P12 P13 P12 P13 P13 P14 P45 P13 P14
P15 P32 P15 P22 P15 P22 P14 P15 P14 P45 P15 P22 P46 P15 P22
P44 P45 P31 P32 P31 P45 P22 P31 P46 P48 P32 P45 P32 P27 P31
P46 P47 P44 P45 P46 P47 P45 P46 P46 P32 P45
P48 P46 P47 P48 P47 P48 P46

Inline Supplementary Table 3: Analysis of the reported evidence of effectiveness using Bloom’s Taxonomy using Prochaska and DiClemente’s Stages of

Cycle of Relation- Life Conflict Beliefs &
Leadership human Emotions Crises
Change ships journey Resolution Attitudes

Maintenance P4 P7 P7 P4 P7 P7 P28
Action P1 P3 P4 P3 P4 P7 P3 P4 P19 P1 P3 P4 P3 P14 P1 P3 P7 P32 P41 P1 P4 P7
P7 P9 P10 P10 P12 P31 P41 P9 P12 P19 P41 P10 P14 P9 P10
P14 P20 P31 P32 P45 P19 P20 P45 P32 P41 P19 P20
P23 P36
P28 P36 P41 P45 P28 P36 P45
P41 P45
P41 P45 P48 P41 P45
Preparation P3 P25 P47 P3 P32 P46 P47 P3 P46 P46 P46 P25 P3 P12
P46 P47 P46
Contemplation P4 P9 P15 P4 P6 P4 P15 P4 P6 P9 P45 P6 P15 P45 P4 P6 P14
P44 P45 P47 P48 P47 P14 P15 P45 44 P45
P46 P47 P45 P48
Pre- P1 P31

Inline Supplementary Table 4: Characteristics of the studies reported in the publications

Post Research
ID First author (year) Location Participants Gender Age Scope Method Eval Classification Pilot
P1 Kitau9,2,5,4 (2016) PNG n=30 University students M 57%, F 43% Adults NON21-40 MM 2-5M OR (Intervention) Yes
P2 McCalman2,4 (2016) Cape York - Young people - - NON>40 MM 6M PD (Intervention) No
P3 Whiteside5,3,4 (2016) NSW n=30 Young men at risk M 100% Adults, <25yrs NON>40 MM 3M OR (Intervention) Yes
P4 McCalman4 (2013) AUS n=18 FWB Researchers Male / female Adults - QUAL >1Y OR (Intervention) No
P5 Laliberté7,8,4 (2012) AUS - - - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P6 McCalman4 (2012) PNG n=30 Public health leaders M 53%, F 47% Adults NON21-40 QUAL 7M OR (Intervention) Yes
P7 Brown4 (2011) FNQ n=1 FWB Facilitator Female Adult - QUAL >1Y OR (Intervention) No
P8 Whiteside5,4 (2011a) AUS - - - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) Yes
P9 Whiteside5,4 (2011b) AUS n=47 Frontline service workers M 34%, F 66% Adults - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P10 Brown4 (2010) FNQ n=1 FWB Facilitator Female Adult ACC QUAL >1Y OR (Intervention) No
P11 Haswell8,10,4 (2010) Qld, NT & n=184 Frontline service M 64%, F 36% Adults - QUANT - OR (Measurement) No
NSW, AUS workers; service users
P12 McCalman4 (2010a) Alice Springs n=28 Men’s groups M 89%, F 11% Adults - QUAL >1Y CS (Intervention) No
P13 McCalman4,10,5 (2010b) North Qld, - Men’s groups - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P14 McEwan4,10 (2010) Cape York n=15 Frontline service workers - Adults NON S1 QUAL - CS (Intervention) No
P15 Whiteside5,4,1 (2017) Victoria n=64 Frontline service workers; M 15%, F 85% Adults INT UNI MM END OR (Intervention) Yes
university students
P16 Tsey4 (2010) Ghana & AUS - - - - - QUAL - CS (Intervention) No
P17 Mayo4 (2009a) Yarrabah n=5 Community; Facilitators - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P18 Mayo4 (2009b) Yarrabah n=5 Community; Facilitators - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P19 McCalman4 (2009) Yarrabah, n=6, 26, Community members - Adults; students NON AD QUAL CS (Intervention) No
P20 Tsey4 (2009a) Cape York, n=158 Adults; school children - Adults; students NON S1 QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P21 Tsey4,10 (2009b) Alice Springs n=292* Adults; school children - Adults; students NON AD QUAL OR (Intervention) No
P22 4
McEwan (2008) Yarrabah, n=38 Community; Facilitators M 47%, F 53% Adults NON>40 QUAL OR (Intervention) No
P23 Tsey4,10 (2008) Alice Springs n=24 Community; Facilitators M 13%, F 87% Adults NON>40 QUAL - CS (Intervention) No
P24 Tsey4 (2007) AUS - - - - - QUAL - CS (Intervention) No
P25 Whiteside4,10 (2006) Cairns, AUS n=26 Frontline service workers M50%, F 50% Adults NON21-40 QUAL - OR (Intervention) Yes
P26 Tsey4,10 (2005a) Cape York n=17 Community members M 29%, F 71% Adults NON21-40 QUAL - OR (Intervention) Yes
P27 Tsey10,4 (2005b) Cape York, n=30 Education employees - Adults; students NON21-40 QUAL - OR (Intervention) Yes

P28 Gibson (2004) Qld, AUS n=1 Facilitators Female Adult - QUAL >1Y OR (Intervention) No
P29 Rees2,4 (2004) Alice Springs n=52 Frontline service workers M 8%, F 92% Adults NON21-40 QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P30 Tsey10 (2004a) Yarrabah n=9 Aboriginal men’s group M 100% Adults - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P31 Tsey10,4 (2004b) Yarrabah n=34 Aboriginal men’s group M 100% Adults - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P32 Con Goo10 (2003) Alice Springs n=40 Frontline service workers; M 25%, F 75% Adults NON S1 QUAL OR (Intervention) Yes
& FNQ, AUS n=22 students; community
P33 Tsey10 (2003a) Yarrabah - Aboriginal men’s group - Adults - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P34 Tsey10 (2003b) North Qld - Frontline service workers - - NON S1 QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P35 Tsey10 (2000a) Alice - - - - - QUAL OR (Intervention) No
Springs, AUS
P36 Tsey10 (2000b) Alice Springs n < 31 - Mainly female Adults ACC QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P37 Whiteside5,4 (2014) AUS - - - - - QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P38 Haswell-Elkins10,4 Yarrabah & - - - - NON>40 QUAL CS (Intervention) No
(2009) Hope Vale
P39 McEwan4 (2009) Yarrabah, - Community members - - NON21-40 QUAL - OR (Intervention) No
P40 Bainbridge4 (2011) AUS - - - - - QUAL - CS (Intervention) No
P41 Kinchin4 (2015) FNQ n=66 Frontline service workers - Adults NON21-40 QUANT 3M OR (Measurement) No
P42 Kinchin4,2 (2017) Cape York n=66 Frontline service workers - Adults NON>40 QUANT 3M OR (Measurement) No
P43 Whiteside5,4 (2009) FNQ & n=400A Synthesis - Adults (A), - MM CS (Intervention) No
Central AUS n=150C Children (C)
P44 Kitau9,4,5 (2011) PNG n=37 University students - Adults INT UNI QUAL NS OR (Intervention) No
P45 Tsey10 (2003c) Cape York, n = 18 Community; school M11%, F 89% Adults; students NON AD QUAL OR (Intervention) Yes
AUS students
P46 Lui4,12 (u) China n = 29 University students M 7%, F 93% Adults NON21-40 MM - OR (Intervention) Yes
P47 Tsey4,12,11 (u) Timor Leste n = 20 Health Managers M 55%, F 45% Adults NON21-40 MM - OR (Intervention) Yes
P48 Kitau9,5,2,4 (2017) PNG n = 100 Health facility workers, M 54%, F 46% Adults NON<20 MM OR (Intervention) Yes
(u) = unpublished; MM = Mixed methods, QUAL = Qualitative, QUANT = Quantitative
AUS = Australia, FNQ = Far North Queensland, NSW = New South Wales, NT = Northern Territory, PNG = Papua New Guinea, Qld = Queensland.
*Sample size calculated by combing the reported samples, it is possible that participants may be included in more than one sample
Australian Catholic University; 2CQUniversity; 3Griffith University; 4James Cook University; 5La Trobe University; 6Queensland University of Technology; 7Université de Montréal;
University of New South Wales; 9University of Papua New Guinea; 10University of Queensland; 11Shenyang University of Chemical Technology; 12The University of Hong Kong.
ACC = Accredited (Certificate II and II), INT UNI = Integrated into university curriculum (1-2 hours per week for a semester), NON S1 = Non-accredited (Stage 1), NON AD = Non-
accredited (adapted), NON < 20 hours, NON21-40 HRS, NON>40 hours.
M = Month; Y = Year; END = at the end of the intervention; NS = Not stated
OR=Original Research; CS=Case Study; PD=Program Description.


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