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SEMESTER 2 2014 / 2015 (SOLUTION)



SUBJECT : Introduction to Nuclear Engineering

DATE : February 2015

TIME : (3 Hours)


1. This paper contains FOUR (4) questions in FOUR (4) pages.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write ALL answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Write answer to each question on a new page.



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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

QUESTION 1 [25 marks]

(a) (i) Discuss the roles of the Nuclear Energy Program Implementing
Organization (NEPIO) of a country. [5 marks]
NEPIO is the executable for the IAEA NG-G-3.1 Phase 1, “Ready for
Commitment to Nuclear Power”:
• Planning for effective, safe, secure, safeguarded nuclear power that
involves many Government Ministries, Regulatory Bodies, owner,
organization, grid operator, industries, educational and research
• Building sufficient national infrastructures to prepare the country for
nuclear power
• For establishing the organizations and institutions that will continue to
develop in phase 3 such as the regulatory body etc.
• For issuing a bid for the first nuclear power plant

(ii) If Malaysia has decided to build a nuclear power plant with capacity
of 2,000 MWe, propose the technological aspects that NEPIO of
Malaysia should assess to ensure the right choice of reactor
technology. [10 marks]
1. The national grid has the required capacity to support additional
power generated by the nuclear reactors
2. The economy-of-scale calls for large capacity NPP’s with power
rating greater than 500 MWe and the technology is proven
3. The same design is in operation or under construction and certified
by the regulatory authority of the country of origin
4. Advanced reactor technologies are employed with better safety and
high performance

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

(b) Radioactive traces are detected around the wreckage of a nuclear-powered

submarine that met an accident about 10 km away from a population centre.
Plan an emergency contingency measures to mitigate the situation for
protection of the population and the surrounding environment. [10 marks]
To secure safety of population against a nuclear disaster, suitable action and
measures must be taken quickly and smoothly by thorough cooperation among
government, prefecture, city, town and village. Mitigation actions should start
with the mitigating of core damage and protecting the fission products from
spreading around the wreckage site. Zoning boundaries should be established
surrounding the site. A typical zoning boundary:

Exclusion zone (1.5 km radius)

Sterilization zone (2 – 5 km radius)

Emergency planning zone

QUESTION 2 [25 marks]

(a) The following fission process is a typical nuclear fission reaction that released
energy during the process.

Table 1 shows the mass of reactants and products in the fission reaction.

Table 1
Mass of the reactants (amu) Mass of the products (amu)

: 235.043924 : 92.91699

: 1.008665 : 139.90910

: 3.02599

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

(i) Calculate the fission energy from the reaction. [5 marks]

(ii) Analyse the released energy after the fission reaction. [5 marks]

Majority of the energy liberated in the fission process is released

immediately after fission, e.g. KE of FP, KE of fission n and
instantaneous g-rays. The remaining energy is released over a period
of time after the fission occurs and appears as KE of β, neutrino, and
decay γ- rays.

(b) The number of atoms of a radioactive material disintegrating per unit time is
referred to as the activity of the material. The radionuclide 140Ba has a half-life
T½ of 12.75 days, and if there are 120,000 atoms of Ba at time t= 0,
(i) the decay constant,  for 140Ba; [3 marks]
(ii) the number of atoms present after 30 days; and [3 marks]
(iii) the number of half-life if 75% of the atoms decayed away. [9 marks]

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

QUESTION 3 [25 marks]

(a) Uranium fuel is irradiated by neutron with flux,  = 4.00 × 1017 /m2s. Given
that the number density of nuclei of uranium, N = 5.00 × 1027 /m3, the
microscopic cross section, f = 3.60 × 10-26 m2, and the released energy per
fission reaction, E = 3.20 × 10-11 J, respectively. Calculate the average power
density in MW/m3. [10 marks]

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

(b) From the Fourier’s law of conduction for a long cylindrical fuel rod with
uniform heat generation, the amount of heat produced within a region of
radius r can be expressed as
𝑘 𝑑 𝑑𝑇
(𝑟 ) + 𝑞 ′′′ = 0
𝑟 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑟
where k is the thermal conductivity, and q is the power density of the fuel.
Write down the solutions of temperature profile and surface heat flux of the
fuel. [5 marks]

(c) The inside of a long cylindrical fuel is heated uniformly with a power density
of 300 MW/m3, and its surface is cooled under steady state condition. The
radius of the fuel rod, rf = 5.00 mm and the thermal conductivity of the fuel,
k = 3.00 W/mK. Calculate
(i) the surface heat flux in W/m2; and [5 marks]
(ii) the temperature difference, T between the center of the fuel and its
surface. [5 marks]

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

QUESTION 4 [25 marks]

(a) Sketch the core configuration of the TRIGA PUSPATI Research Reactor and
label the different type of control rods. [10 marks]

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MENB403, Semester 2 2014/2015

(b) Describe the movement of the reactor core rods for fast control and safe
control. Consequently analyse the relationship between reactor power and the
control rods movements. [8 marks]
For the reactor, 2 safety rods must always up and operator must control only
two rods: Course Rod (CR) and Fine Rod (FR).
 To increase power, move up CR first, then FR to get the
accurate power demand.
 To decrease power, move down CR first, then move FR to get
the accurate power demand.

(c) Examine the after power level change in relation to reactivity of fission and
explain the reasons. [7 marks]
The positions of control rods will return back to the same position after power
level change to a different level. This is due to the fact that the fission reaction
has achieved criticality in which k = 0. Consequently at this point its
reactivity,  = 0. As such power demand can be achieved by controlling the
control rods reactivity condition is changing depending on power demand.


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