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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N
C O N C R E T E D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

 

1.

NOMENCLATURE Notation to be used in the discussion complies with NSCP 2001

 

Ag =

Ac =

As =

A’s =

Av =

A1 =

A2 =

Gross area of section (Ac + As) Area of concrete; gross area – area of reinforcing Area of reinforcing Area of compressive reinforcement in a doubly reinforced section Area of shear reinforcement Loaded area in bearing Gross area of bearing support member

D Dead loads, or related internal moments and forces

=

E Load effects of earthquake, or related internal moments and forces Modulus of Elasticity of concrete Modulus of Elasticity of steel

=

Ec =

Es =

L

=

Live loads, or related internal moments and forces

M

=

Design moment

V

=

Design shear force

a

=

Depth of equivalent rectangular stress block (USD)

 

b

=

bw =

Width of compression face of member Width of stem in a T-beam

c

=

Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis

d

=

Effective depth, from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tensile reinforcement

e

=

Eccentricity of a non-axial load, form the centroid of the section to the point of application of the load

fc

=

Unit compressive stress in concrete

 

f’c

=

Specified compressive strength of concrete

fr

=

Modulus of rupture of concrete

fs

=

Stress in reinforcement

fy

=

Specified yield stress of steel

h

=

jd =

kd =

Overall thickness of member; unbraced height of a wall Length fo internal moment arm (WSD) Distance from extreme compression fiber ot the neutral axis (WSD)

 

n

ρ =

=

Modular ratio of elasticity: Es/Ec Percent of reinforcing with working strength design expressed as a ratio: As/Ag

s

=

t =

φ =

Spacing of stirrups Thickness of solid slab Strength reduction factor (USD)

 

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 2.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

2. MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

2.1 Concrete

CONCRETE CEMENT WATER AGGREGATES ADMIXTURE ASTM TYPE I (gen. purpose) - should be clean and
CONCRETE
CEMENT
WATER
AGGREGATES
ADMIXTURE
ASTM TYPE I
(gen. purpose)
- should be clean and
free form injurous
amounts of oil, acid,
alkali, organic matter
- materials held together by
water-cement paste
ASTM TYPE III
(high-early strength)
- substances added to
concrete to improve its
workability, accelerate
its set, harden its
surface, etc.
ASTM TYPE IV
(low-heat cement)
FINE
COARSE
- smaller than 3/8
in. in diameter,
includes natural
- larger than 3/8” in
diameter, includes
crushed stone, gravel,
slag
Strength of Concrete at 28 th day, f’c
3000
psi
20.685
MPa
4000
psi
27.580
MPa
5000
psi
34.475
MPa

*1 ksi = 6.895 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity for normal weight concrete

2.2 Steel-Reinforcement

E c

= 4,700

' f c
'
f
c

where f’c is in MPa

Common Grades, fy

Grade 40

40

ksi

275.8

MPa

Grade 60

60

ksi

413.7

MPa

Sizes of Deformed Bars

 

Number

 

Bar Diameter

 

English

Metric

3

3/8”

10

mm

4

1/2”

12

mm

5

5/8”

16

mm

6

3/4”

20

mm

8

1”

25

mm

9

9/8”

28

mm

10

1 ¼”

32

mm

***number indicates bar diameter in eights of an inch, 1” = 25 mm

Modulus of Elasticity

Es = 200 GPa = 29,000 ksi

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N
C O N C R E T E D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

 

3.

DESIGN METHODS

3.1 Working Stress Design (WSD)

SERVICE LOAD CONDITIONS – no load factors applied

 

ALLOWABLE STRESSES:

fc = 0.45 f’c fs = 0.5 fy

if not given

3.2 Ultimate Strength Design (USD) REQUIRED STRENGTH – combination of factored forces

 

Load Combinations *extracted from NSCP 2001, p. 4-28

Dead Load and Live load:

U = 1.4D + 1.7L

Dead Load, Live Load & Wind Load

U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L +1.7W)

Dead Load and Wind Load

U = 0.9D + 1.3W

Dead Load, Live Load & Earthquake

U = 1.32D + 1.1(f1)L + 1.1E

 

f1 = 1.0 for floors of public assembly, garage live load and for L > 4.8 kPa

= 0.5 for other live loads

 

Dead Load & Earthquake

U = 0.9D + 1.1E

DESIGN STRENGTH – nominal strength multiplied by strength reduction factor φ

Reduction Factors *extracted from NSCP 2001, p. 4-29

 

Flexure, without axial (Moment in beams) ………………

0.90

Axial compression w/ or w/o Flexure

(Axial load and Moment in Tied columns) ………

0.70

(Axial load and Moment in Spiral columns)………

0.75

Shear and Torsion …………………………………………

0.85

Bearing on concrete ………………………………………

0.70

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 4.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

4. LOAD ANALYSIS

4.1 SLABS 4.1.1 ONE WAY SLAB – when S n 1 m L n
4.1
SLABS
4.1.1 ONE WAY SLAB – when
S n
1 m
L
n

m =

S

n

L

n

< 0.5

AREA LOAD ON SLAB:

DEAD LOAD – slab weight and floor fixed loads

D

D

=

=γ⋅ +

W

+

slab

c

t

W

SDL

W

SDL

LIVE LOAD – depends on type of occupancy

REQUIRED FLOOR LOAD

o

WSD:

W = D + L

 

o

USD:

W u =

1.4D

+

1.7L

UNIFORM TRIBUTARY LOAD

w o WSD: w = W ×1 o USD: w = W × u u
w
o
WSD:
w = W ×1
o
USD:
w
=
W
×
u
u
L
L
1 m
B
w
w
w

1

o WSD: w = W ×1 o USD: w = W × u u L L
o WSD: w = W ×1 o USD: w = W × u u L L
o WSD: w = W ×1 o USD: w = W × u u L L
o WSD: w = W ×1 o USD: w = W × u u L L

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N S
C O N C R E T E
D E S I G N
S
n
4.1.2 TWO WAY SLAB – when
m =
≥ 0.5
L
n
S
PANEL abcd
n
L
n
a
b
L
n
d
c

4.2

BEAMS

 
 

S

1

S

2

 
      45° ω 2 45°
      45° ω 2 45°
 
      45° ω 2 45°
 
45° ω 2
45°
ω
2
45°
45°

WS

1

 

L

   

ω

1

ω

1

 

ω

3

ω

3

 

ω 1 =

2

ω 1 = 2 ω b     ω 2 45° 45°
ω 1 = 2 ω b     ω 2 45° 45°

ω

b

   
ω 2 45°
ω
2
45°
45°
45°
                 
   
                 
             
   

WS 2

h − t t

REMAINING BEAM

h

2 ω b ω b WS 2 ω 2 = 3 ω b ω b
2
ω b
ω
b
WS
2
ω
2 =
3
ω b
ω
b
 

WEIGHT

 

c

b

(

h

)

t

ω

ub

=

1.4

⋅γ

c

b

(h t)

 

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WS 2 2  2 3 − m  ω = ω   3
WS 2
2
2
3 − m
ω
= ω
3
2
2
WS 2
2
ω
ω
b
b
TRIBUTARY LOAD

EQUIVALENT UNIFORM

TRIBUTARY LOAD

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 4.3

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

4.3 COLUMNS

A B C D S1 S2 S3 1 L1 2 L2 3 • REQUIRED LOAD
A
B
C
D
S1
S2
S3
1
L1
2
L2
3
REQUIRED LOAD
o
WSD:
W = D + L
o USD:
W
1.4D
+
1.7L
u =

o

o

TRIBUTARY COLUMN LOAD PER FLOOR

WSD:

USD:

×

P

P

u

= W × × +

ω

+

b

ω

×

ub

×

+

+

(S

L)

L)

(S L)

(S L)

= W ×

u

(S

5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

5.1 MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER, IN SITU *based from NSCP 2001, p. 4-20

Exposed to earth (ex. Foundation slab, tie beams)……….……….

75 mm

Exposed to weather (ex .exterior beams and columns)…

……….

50 mm

Not exposed to weather (ex .interior beams and columns)……….

40 mm

Slabs and walls……………………………………………………

20 mm

5.2 SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT

5.2.1 SLABS

MAXIMUM SPACING = 3t or 450 mm

S S
S
S

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20 mm clear cover

65

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 5.2.2
C O N C R E T E
D E S I G N
5.2.2 BEAMS
b
b
Clear concrete cover
cc ≥ 40 mm
Stirrup or tie
Bars in double layer
Bundled bars
vcs ≥ 25 mm
cs
d
b and 25 mm
cs ≥ d
=
n d
e
b

5.2.3 COLUMNS

≥ d b and 25 mm cs ≥ d = n d e b 5.2.3 COLUMNS

1.5db but not less than 40mm

5.3 HOOKS AND BENDS *NSCP, 407

l ≥ 150 mm db ≥ 8d b Bend diameter: 6d → d is 10
l
≥ 150 mm
db
≥ 8d
b
Bend diameter:
6d
→ d
is 10 - 25mm
b
b
 
6d
b
stirrup / tie
 
12d
b
D =
8d
→ d
is 28 - 32mm
b
b
10d
d
is 32mm
36 mm
b
b
≥ 150 mm
l db
≥ 8d
b
Bend diameter:
6d
d
is 10 - 25mm
b
b
D =
8d
d
is 28 - 32mm
b
b
4d
10d
d
is 32mm
36 mm
b
b
b
(
65mm
)
min

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6. FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF BEAMS

x x R 1 R 2 x b C d jd V N M A
x
x
R 1
R 2
x
b
C
d
jd
V
N M
A
T
x
R
1

6.1 STAGES OF FAILURE

c

F =

h

0

C = T

M

0

R

=

R

(x)

1

x

x

=

0

1

() ()

x

C jd

=

C(jd)

=

T(jd)

6.1.1 UNCRACKED STAGE – concrete resists compression and tension with concrete

tensile stress below modulus of rupture,

than cracking moment…

NSCP 2001 PROVISION:

f r

= 0.7

f' c
f'
c

or when moment is less

f I

6.1.2 CRACKING MOMENT,

c

t

M cr

=

r

g

6.1.3 CRACKED STAGE – member carries bending moment greater than cracking moment where concrete in tension cracks, steel carries all the tensile force, stresses are below elastic range

6.1.4 ULTIMATE STRENGTH STAGE (COLLAPSE STAGE) – member collapses either by crushing of concrete of yielding of steel bars

DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES

fc C c d NA T fct
fc
C
c
d
NA
T
fct
fc C c NA d jd T
fc
C
c
NA
d
jd
T
f’c C c jd T
f’c
C
c
jd
T
 

CRACKED STAGE

COLLAPSE STAGE

UNCRACKED STAGE

(WORKING STRESS)

(ULTIMATE STRENGTH)

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.2

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6.2 FLEXURE FORMULA, Working Stress Design (WSD)

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam (SRRB)

Straight-line stress distribution (triangular compressive stress block)

Maximum allowable compressive stress of 0.45f’c

Maximum allowable tensile stress on steel of 0.5fy (if not given)

b b fc x/3 C x NA d h M jd d - x As
b
b
fc
x/3
C
x
NA
d
h
M
jd
d - x
As
T
f
s
n
BEAM SECTION
TRANSFORMED SECTION
STRESS DIAGRAM
T R A N S F O R M E D
S E C T I O N
M E T H O D
E
s
 Modular Ratio,
n =
E
c
 Location of Neutral Axis -
Σ
M
=
0
and solve for x
NA
b
2
x
=
nA
(d x)
  
s
2

Moment of Inertia of transformed section – inertia about the N.A.

Compressive force,

3

I

NA

=

()

b x

3

I NA = () b x 3 + nA s ( d − ) 2 x

+

nA

s (

d

) 2

x

2 c

volume of stress block

C =

1

f

(xb)

 Tensile force, T = A f s s   Resisting Moment, M =
 Tensile force,
T = A
f
s
s
 Resisting Moment,
M
=
C  d
x =  T   d − x  
3
3
M x
()
 Extreme concrete stress,
f
=
c
I NA
M d
(
− x
)
 Steel bar stress,
=
n
f s
I NA

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GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR SRRB. C O N C R E T E D E S

GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR SRRB.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

b fc kd/3 C kd NA d h M jd As T
b
fc
kd/3
C
kd
NA
d
h
M
jd
As
T
BEAM SECTION ELASTIC STRESS DIAGRAM E s  Modular ratio, n = E c A
BEAM SECTION
ELASTIC STRESS DIAGRAM
E
s
Modular ratio,
n =
E
c
A s
Steel ratio,
ρ=
bd
2
k = ρ
(
n)
+ ρ −ρ
2
n
n
k
j =1−
3
1
Compressive force,
C =
f kdb
Resisting Moment, M = Cjd
c
2

Actual concrete stress,

Tensile force,

Actual Steel Stress,

Actual concrete stress, Tensile force, Actual Steel Stress, M = 1 f kdb jd 2 c

M =

1 f kdb jd
2

c

()

M = 1 f kdb jd 2 c () → f c = 2M 2 bd
M = 1 f kdb jd 2 c () → f c = 2M 2 bd

f

c

=

2M

2

bd kj

T = A

s

f

s

 

M

=

A

f

s s

()

jd

f

s

=

M

A jd

s

Resisting Moment, M = Tjd

DESIGN FOR BALANCED SECTION

When there is simultaneous limiting stresses in the concrete and steel

1 k = b f 1 + s nf c  Balanced steel ratio kf
1
k
=
b
f
1 +
s
nf
c
 Balanced steel ratio
kf
c
ρ
=
bal
2f
s

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N L

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

L O A D

SIT. A:

A N A L Y S I S

Reinforced concrete beams DF, BE and EH are 300 mm wide and 500 mm deep below the slab, spaced 2.5 m on centers. The beams support a monolithic slab 100 mm thick carrying superimposed dead load of 2 kPa and live load of 4.8 kPa. Concrete weighs 24 kN/m 3 . Determine the following:

P R O B L E M S :

1. Total service floor load.

2. Total factored floor load.

3. The factored uniform load supported by beams BE and EH.

4. The factored uniform load supported by beams DF.

5. The maximum ultimate positive and negative bending moments that must be sustained by beams BE and EH assuming simple supports at B, E and H.

6. The maximum ultimate positive bending moment that must be sustained by beam DF assuming simple supports at D and F.

SIT. B:

A

B

C

4.5 m 4.5 m G D 2.5 m E H 2.5 m F I
4.5 m
4.5 m
G
D
2.5
m
E
H
2.5
m
F
I

A typical floor framing plan of a 4-storey building with roof deck is shown in the following figure. Reinforced concrete columns are 400 mm square and beams are 300 mm wide and 600 mm deep spaced 2.5 m on centers. The beams support a slab 100 mm thick carrying superimposed dead load of 3 kPa and live load of 2.9 kPa. Concrete weighs 24 kN/m 3 .

A

D

G

J

5.6 m

B

6 m

C

E

F

2.5

m

H

I

2.5

m

K

L

2.5

m

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 7.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

7. Estimate the axial load carried by column E at the fourth floor from total factored floor load using tributary area method.

8. Estimate the axial load carried by column E at the ground floor from total factored floor load using tributary area method.

9. Calculate the factored uniform load on 1-m strip of slab ABED.

10. Calculate the ultimate bending moments for the design of slab ABED by ACI Coefficients Method.

11. Calculate the factored uniform load on girders DE and EF.

12. Calculate the ultimate bending moments for the design of girder DE and EF by ACI Coefficients Method.

13. Calculate the shear force at faces of supports for members DE and EF by ACI Coefficients Method.

NSCP PROVISION : ACI MOMENT COEFFICIENTS

POSITIVE MOMENT

M

u

= Cw

u

l

n

2

End spans Discontinuous end unrestrained…………………… Discontinuous end integral with support……………… Interior spans………………………………………….

1/11

 

1/14

1/16

NEGATIVE MOMENT

M

u

= Cw

u

l

n

2

 

At exterior face of first interior support Two spans…………………………………………… More than two spans…………………………………. At other faces of interior supports…………………… At face of all supports for slabs with spans not exceeding 3 meters; and beams where ratio of sum of column stiffness to beam stiffness exceeds eight at each end of the span……………………………………. At interior face of exterior support for members built integrally with supports:

Where support is a spandrel beam………………… Where support is a column………………………….

1/9

 

1/10

1/11

1/12

1/24

1/16

SHEAR At face of first interior support ……………………

1.15

2

w

l

u n

At face of all other supports ………………………

1

2

w

l

u n

Where

C = coefficient wu = factored floor load l n = CLEAR span for +M and V; = AVERAGE adjacent CLEAR span for -M

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N B

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

B E A M

SIT. A:

D E S I G N

A N D

A N A L Y S I S

B Y

W S D :

A hollow beam with cross-section given below is simply supported over a span of 4 m. The cracking moment of the beam is 78 kN·m.

300 mm

150 mm 600 mm
150 mm
600 mm

1. Find the maximum uniform load in kN/m the beam can carry without cracking.

2. Calculate the modulus of rupture in MPa of concrete used for the beam.

3. If the hollow part of the beam is replaced with a square of side 200 mm, what is the new cracking moment in kN·m?

A rectangular beam 300 mm x 500 mm reinforced with 3-φ28 mm bars having its centroid 75 mm from the bottom edge of the beam. Use f’c = 21 MPa and fy = 275 MPa.

SIT. B:

1. Calculate the elastic bending stresses if is to sustain a dead load moment of 30 kN∙m and live load moment of 40 kN∙m.

2. Calculate the safe bending moment the beam can sustain without exceeding allowable stresses under working load conditions. The dimensions of the reinforced concrete T-beam in the figure below are b1 = 500 mm, h1 = 150 mm, b = 250 mm and h = 500 mm. If n = 8 and As = 3300 mm 2 , determine the following:

SIT. C:

1 h
1
h

h 1

1. The maximum stress produced in concrete by a positive bending moment of 120 kN-m

2. The maximum stress produced in steel.

3. The maximum bending moment applied without exceeding fc = 12 MPa and fs = 140 MPa.

SIT. D:

A rectangular concrete beam of concrete with f’c = 21 MPa and steel reinforcing with fs = 138 MPa must sustain a total service uniform load of 50 kN/m over a simple span of 5 m. Select the beam dimensions and the reinforcing for a section with tension reinforcing only. Assume b = 0.56d, db = 20 mm, stirrup diameter = 10 mm.

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.3

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6.3 FLEXURE FORMULA, Ultimate Strength Design (USD)

Uniform stress of 0.85f’c replaces the non-linear stress distribution on concrete compression area from extreme compression fiber to a depth of “a”

Depth of equivalent rectangular stress block,

a = c ⋅β 1
a = c ⋅β
1

β= 0.85

1

β=

1

0.85

for f'

0.05

c

30 MPa

(f' 30) for f' 30 MPa

c

c

>

7

Linear distribution of strain

 Concrete cracks at a maximum strain of concrete, ε = 0.003 c f 
 Concrete cracks at a maximum strain of concrete,
ε
= 0.003
c
f
Steel strain,
s
ε =
s
E
s
GENERAL SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM (SRB)
Ac
0.85f’c
0.003
z
a
C
c
NA
d
d − z
As
T
s
ε
s
STRESS BLOCK
STRAIN DIAG

BASIC EQUATIONS OF USD

Compression on Concrete

Steel tensile stress at

ε conc

= 0.003

Non Yielding Tension on steel, (

f

s

Yielding Tension on steel, (

f

s

f

y

)

< f

y

)

Nominal Moment Strength

Design Moment Strength

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C = 0.85f' A c c 600 d − c ( ) = < f
C = 0.85f'
A
c
c
600 d − c
(
)
=
< f
f s
c y
T = A
f
s
s
T = A
f
s y
M
= C
(
d
z
)
n
M
= T
(d z)
n
φ 0.9 ⋅ C
M
=
(
d
z
)
n
φ 0.9 ⋅ T
M
=
(d z)
n

73

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.3.1

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6.3.1 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams (SRRB)

b a/2 0.85f’c ε = 0.003 c a C = 0.85f' ab c c d
b
a/2
0.85f’c
ε =
0.003
c
a
C = 0.85f'
ab
c
c
d
NA
h
d – a/2
As
T = A
f
s y
ε
= f
E
STRESS
s
s
s
STRAIN
SRRB BASIC EQUATIONS:

1. STATIC EQUILIBRIUM,

2. DESIGN MOMENT CAPACITY,

FLEXURE EQUATIONS:1. STATIC EQUILIBRIUM, 2. DESIGN MOMENT CAPACITY, NSCP 2001 PROVISIONS [ C =   A f

NSCP 2001 PROVISIONSEQUILIBRIUM, 2. DESIGN MOMENT CAPACITY, FLEXURE EQUATIONS: [ C =   A f   T ]

[

C

=

 

A

f

 

T

]

a =

 

s

y

 

0.85f' b

c

 
 

a

=

ρ f

y

d

where

ρ=

A

s

 

0.85f'

c

 

bd

 

a

=

ω

d

where

ω=

ρ

f

y

 

0.85

 

f'

c

φ

M

n

 

0.9

C

 

d

a  

2

 

=

 

 

0.9 T

 

d

 

a  

φ

M

n

=

 

2

φ

M

n

=

0.9

⋅ρ

f bd

y

2

1

0.59

ρ f

c

y

f'

φM = 0.9bd f' ω⋅(1 0.59ω)

n

2

c

MINIMUM TENSION STEEL RATIO

ρ

min

f' c = 4f y
f'
c
=
4f
y

but not less than

1.4

f y

MAXIMUM TENSION STEEL RATIO

but not less than 1.4 f y   MAXIMUM TENSION STEEL RATIO 74 Center for

74 Center for Professional Career Development

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N BALANCED

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N BALANCED CONDITION

BALANCED CONDITION

When there is simultaneous yielding of concrete and steel

600 ⋅ d c = b 600 + f y  BALANCED STEEL RATIO 
600 ⋅ d
c
=
b
600
+ f
y
 BALANCED STEEL RATIO
f'
600
c
ρ
=
0.85
⋅β
×
bal
1
600 + f
f y
y

A

A

D E T E R M I N A T I O N

O F

S T E E L

A R E A

(GIVEN Mu and beam dimensions)

METHOD 1:

M =φ M u n  M = 1.4M + 1.7M u DL LL 
M
M
u
n
 M
=
1.4M
+
1.7M
u
DL
LL
φ =φ
M
0.85f' ab  d
a  
n
c
2
 
 
CALCULATE a
0.85f'
c ab
A
=
s
f
y
A
A
=
A
bd
s <
s min
s
s min
min
> A
redesign as DRB
s
s min
D E T E R M I N A T I O N

O F

METHOD 2:

M

φ

u

M

=

n

M

u

1.4M

DL

2

bd f'

M

n

+ 1.7M

c

(

ω⋅ 1

CALCULATE ω

LL

0.59 ω

)

 

ρ=

ωf'

f

y

c

ρ<ρ

min

A

s

min

bd

 

ρ≤ρ

max

 

A

s

bd

ρ

> ρ

max

redesign as DRB

M O M E N T

C A P A C I T Y

(GIVEN beam dimensions and tension steel bars)

METHOD 1:

0.85f'

c

(

a

= c β

1

[

C = T

)

b

=

A

s

]

f

s

=

600 d c

(

)

c

CALCULATE c, f s and check

f

s

< f

y

NON YIELDING STEEL,

T = A f

s

s

,

φ M

n

A f

s

s

(d a/2)

f

s

f

y

STEEL YIELDS, max

T = A f

s

y

,

a =

a = cβ

A f

s

y

1

0.85f' b

c

φ M

n

A f

s

y

(d a/2)

Center for Professional Career Development

ρ < ρ

ρ > ρ

bal

0.85f'

c

(

a

METHOD 2:

ρ=

A s

bd

bal

STEEL YIELDS,

ω=

ρf

y

f'

c

NON YIELING STEEL,

ω=

ρf

s

f'

c

= β

c

1

C = T

)

b

=

A

s

f

s

=

(

)

c

600 d

c

φM = φbd f' ω ⋅ (1 0.59ω)

n

2

c

75

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.3.2
C O N C R E T E
D E S I G N
6.3.2 Doubly Reinforced Beam (
ρ >ρ
)
SRB
max
b
0.85f’c
ε
=
0.003
c
C’ = A’sf’s
d’
C = 0.85f’cab
A’s
a
A’ s
f'
s
c
ε'
=
s
E
s
d
φ M
=
d – a/2
+
φ M
d – d’
Mu
n1
n2
As
A
A
s1
s2
T1 = As1fy
T2 = As2fy
ε
= f
E
y
y
s
DRB
SRB
STRESS
COUPLE
STRAIN
BLOCK
BARS
MDRB = MSRB + MCouple bars
A’s = compression bars
As = tension bars = As1 + As2
Asmax = ρmaxbd + A’s(fy/f’s)
DESIGN
(Given Mu, required As & A’s)
ANALYSIS
(Given As & A’s, required
φM
)
n
AAA
=
+
φM =φM +φM
s
s1
s2
n
n1
n2
A
bd
s1
max
a
φ =φ
M
0.85f ' ab
d
−  +φ
A '
f '
(
d
d'
)
A
f
a
n
c
s
s
s1 y
from
C
=
T:
a
=
c
 
2
0.85f' b
= β
c
1
from
C
+
C'
=
T
a
0.85f ' ab
+
A '
f '
=→ A f
()
1
φ
M
Af
d
c
s
s
sy
n1
s1 y
 
2
 
ac = β→
()
2
1
φ
MMM
= −φ
n2
u
n1
from strain diagram
φ
M
=
A
f
(
d
−→ d'
)
solve A
n2
s2
y
s2
600 c
(
d'
)
A'
f'
=
A
f
f '
=
()
3
s
s
s
s2
y
c
from strain diagram :
Calculate “c”
0.003
f'
E
s
s
=
Check yielding of “f’s”
c
c
− d'
600 c
(
− d'
)
f'
<
f
,
use
f'
sy
s
f '
=
s
c
f'
f
,
use
f
recalculate
"c"
sy
y
f '
f , use f
→=
A '
A
s
y
y
s
s2
f
y
f '
<
f , use f '
→=
A '
A
***You can also first assume that A’s yielded and
s
y
s
s
s2
f '
s
check after.

76 Center for Professional Career Development

6.3.3 T-BEAMS
6.3.3
T-BEAMS

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH, bf

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N EFFECTIVE FLANGE
C O N C R E T E D E S I G N EFFECTIVE FLANGE
C O N C R E T E D E S I G N EFFECTIVE FLANGE
C O N C R E T E D E S I G N EFFECTIVE FLANGE

L

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N EFFECTIVE FLANGE
Interior Beam bf bf Exterior Beam b =++ 8t 8t b t1 t2 t3 f
Interior Beam
bf
bf
Exterior Beam
b
=++
8t
8t
b
t1
t2
t3
f
t
2w
b
=
6t
+
b
f
3w
= L/4
=
L /12
+
b
w
S
+
S
1
2
= + b
S
3
w
=
+ b
2
S1
bw
S2
S3
bw
w
2
b
= smallest
f
b
=
smallest
f

NSCP Provision:

5.8.10.1 In T-beam construction, the flange and web shall be built integrally or otherwise effectively bonded together.

5.8.10.2 Width of slab effective as a T-beam flange shall not exceed one-quarter of the span length of the beam, and the effective overhanging flange width on each side of the web shall not exceed:

a) eight times the slab thickness, and

b) one-half the clear distance to the next web.

5.8.10.3 For beams with a slab on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall not exceed:

a) one-twelfth of the span of the beam,

b) six times the slab thickness, and

c) one-half the clear distance to the next web.

5.8.10.4 Isolated beams, in which the T-shape is used to provide a flange for additional compression area, shall have a flange thickness not less than one-half the width of web and an effective flange width not more than four times the width of the web.

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.3.3.1

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6.3.3.1 WITHOUT T-ACTION, Wide Rectangular Beam

Compression area is within the flange only

The beam behaves as a wide RECTANGULAR beam

a < tf

bf a tf d h As
bf
a
tf
d
h
As

0.85f’c

Cf = 0.85f’cabf d – a/2 φM n T = Asfy
Cf = 0.85f’cabf
d – a/2
φM
n
T = Asfy
 

T-BEAM

 

STRESS BLOCK for the Flange

 
 

W/o T-action

 
 

DESIGN (Given Mu, required As)

   

ANALYSIS

 
 

(Given As, required

φM

n

)

 
 

Assume :

 

a

=

t

f

Assume as wide rectangular beam :

 

t

 

A f

 
 

M

φ =φ

f

0.85f '

c

t b

f

 

d

f

2

 

 

calculate

a =

s

y

0.85f ' b

c

f

M

φ≥

f

M

u

design as w/o T - action

a

t

f

analyze w/o T - action

 

M

φ<

f

M

u

design w/ T - action

a

>

t

f

analyze w T - action

 

M

u

Af

sy

d

a

2

 

 

φ M

n

Af

ss

 

d

a

2

 

 

A f

   

from C

=

T

 

a

=

s

y

0.85f ' b

   

A f

 

c

f

 

a =

s

s

 

Calculate As by quadratic formula Check minimum requirements:

 

0.85f' b

c

f

 

from strain diagram:

 
 

A

s

c

=

600d

=

a

calculate f

 
 

ρ=

 

b

w

d

 

600

+

f

s

β

1

s

   
 

ρ>ρ

ρ≤ρ →

ok

A

s

min

min

min

bd

w

   

check :

if f

f , use f

sy

y

if f

f , use f

<

sy

s

 

78 Center for Professional Career Development

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 6.3.3.2

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

6.3.3.2 WITH T-ACTION

Compression area composed of flange and portion of web.

b f 0.85f’ c 0.85f’ c ε = 0.003 c C w = 0.85f’ c
b
f
0.85f’ c
0.85f’ c
ε
=
0.003
c
C w = 0.85f’ c ab w
t
C f = 0.85f’ c t f (b f -b w )
a
f
c
t
f
d
φM
h
d – a/2
φM
d – t f /2
n2
n1
A
s
T 1 = A s1 f y
T 2 = A s2 f y
ε
= f
E
s
ys
T-BEAM with T-action STRESS BLOCK for the Web STRESS BLOCK for the Flange STRAIN DESIGN
T-BEAM
with T-action
STRESS BLOCK
for the Web
STRESS BLOCK
for the Flange
STRAIN
DESIGN
(Given Mu, required As)
ANALYSIS
(Given As, required
φM
)
n
AAA = +
φ =φ
MMM
s
s1
s2
n
n1
n2
φ
M
0.85f ' t
(
b
b
)(
d
t
2
)
φ
M
0.85f ' t
(
b
b
)(
d
t
2
)
n2
c
f
f
w
f
n2
c
f
f
w
f
φ
M
Af
(
d
t2
)
from
C
=
T
n2
s2
y
f
f
2
or from
C
=
T:
0.85f ' t
(
b
b
)
=
A
f
f
2
c
f
f
w
s2
y
0.85f ' t
(
b
b
)
=
A
f
A
=
AA −
c
f
f
w
s2
y
s1
s
s2
φ
MM = −φ
M
a
n1
u
n2
φ
M
Af
d
n1
s1 s
 
2
a
φ
M
Af
d
n2
s1 y
Check yielding of "A
"
 
2
 
s1
from
CT
=
from
CT
=
w
1
w
1
A
f
A
f
s1 s
s1 y
a
=
= c β
a =
1
0.85f ' b
0.85f ' b
c
w
c
w
from strain diagram :
Calculate
"A
"
by quadratic formula
s1
600 d
(
c
)
Check “As” for maximum requirements
f
=
s
d
A
=
0.75A
smax
sbal
Calculate “c” simultaneously
From
CC
+
=
T
f
w
Calculate “fs”
0.85f '
t
(
b
b
)
+
a
b
c
f
f
w
bal
w
A
=
sbal
f
y
a
=
c
β
bal
bal
1

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N BEAM

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

BEAM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS PROBLEMS:

SIT. E:

The service load bending moments on a rectangular beam 250 mm wide are 78.6 kN-m for dead load and 51.5 kN-m for live load. If f’cgv = 27 MPa and fy = 414 MPa, determine the depth of the beam and the required area of tension reinforcing. Assume ρ = 0.6ρb , db = 20 mm, ds = 10 mm.

SIT. F:

A 12 m simply supported beam is provided by an additional support at mid span. A superimposed dead load

of

4.95 kN/m and service live load of 24.57 kN/m is to be carried in addition to the self-weight of the beam.

The beam has a constant rectangular section with b = 300 mm and a total depth h = 450 mm and reinforcement is to be varied according to requirements. Allow concrete cover to bar centroid of 70 mm, fy =

415 MPa and f’c = 30 MPa. Use 0.75ρb = 0.023 and ρmin = 0.0033

1.

Determine the required tensile area for positive bending.

2.

Determine the required tensile area for negative bending.

SIT. G:

A rectangular concrete beam is 350 mm wide and 700 mm deep. It is reinforced at the bottom with 5-φ32 mm

bars and at the top with 3-φ28 mm bars. Steel covering to bar centroid is 70 mm at the top and at the bottom

of

the beam. Use f’c = 21 MPa and fy = 415 MPa

3.

Calculate the design moment capacity of the beam section in negative bending.

4.

Calculate the design moment capacity of the beam section in positive bending.

5.

If

the beam is simply supported over a span of 6-m with a 2-m overhang determine the maximum factored

load in kN/m the beam can support.

SIT. H:

A rectangular section is limited to a size of b = 350 mm and h = 700 mm to carry a factored moment of 1,500

kNm. Assume that bars in compression will be placed at 70 mm from the compression face and bars in tension 80 mm from the tension face. Given that f’c = 28 MPa and fy = 415 MPa design the steel requirements

of

the cross section.

SIT. I:

The typical T-section results from the monolithic construction of the slab and its supporting beams.

Effective flange width Slab thickness Web width Total depth below the slab Top reinforcement Bottom reinforcement

bf = 1250 mm t = 120 mm bw = 350 mm h = 480 mm 3 – ϕ25 mm 5 – ϕ25 mm

f’c

= 20.7 MPa

fy

= 415 MPa

Concrete cover to the centroid of reinforcements = 70 mm Balanced Steel Ratio ρb = 0.021

6.

Determine the nominal bending strength for positive moment

7.

Find the nominal bending strength for negative moment.

SIT. J:

A monolithic floor system consists of 100 mm thick slabs and simply supported beams with a 7.3 m span, 1.2

m

on centers. The floor carries a superimposed dead load of 1.15 kPa and live load of 1.9 kPa. Walls

weighing 2.8 kPa and 2.4 m high are directly supported by the beams. Beam dimensions, as determined by negative moment requirements at supports, are bw = 275 mm and h = 500 mm. Concrete weights 24 kN/m^3.

8.

Determine the total factored load to be carried by an interior beam in kN/m.

9.

Determine the effective flange width of the interior beam in mm according to NSCP 2001 provisions.

10.

Determine the required amount of steel reinforcement at mid-span of a typical interior beam. Use concrete compressive strength f’c = 21 MPa and steel strength fy = 275 MPa. Assume 20 mm bar diameter for flexure and 10 mm for stirrups.

80 Center for Professional Career Development

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center for

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 82

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 82 Center

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center for

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N P

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N P R

P R O B L E M S :

SIT. A:

The floor framing plan shown in the figure is to be designed to carry a service live load of 4.8 kPa and dead load of 1.75 kPa which includes floor finish, ceiling finish, partition and miscellaneous loading. The concrete slab is 100 mm thick, beams AD, BE and CF are 250 mm wide and 350 mm deep below the slab, beams AC and DF are 350 mm wide and 450 mm deep below the slab. Concrete weighs 24 kN/m 3 .

450 mm deep below the slab. Concrete weighs 24 kN/m 3 . 1. Assuming that beam

1. Assuming that beam BE is simply supported, calculate the factored shear force at critical section for shear using concrete cover from tensile bar centroid 70 mm.

2. Determine the required spacing of 10 mm stirrups using f’c = 21 MPa and fy = 275 MPa.

3. At what section from the face of the left support are stirrups not required?

SIT. B:

A rectangular beam having b = 300 mm and d = 560 mm, spans 6.1 m face-to-face of simple supports. It is reinforced for flexure with three 36 mm bars that continue uninterrupted to the ends of the span. It is to carry service dead load D = 23.8 kN/m (including self-weight), and service live load L = 47.6 kN/m, both uniformly distributed along the span.

1. Design the shear reinforcement, 10-mm-diameter stirrups, using simplified calculation of shear strength of concrete. Material strengths are fy = 415 MPa and f’c = 28 MPa.

2. Redesign the shear reinforcement using more detailed calculation of shear strength of concrete.

SIT. C:

A column section shown is reinforced with 8-ϕ32 mm bars, with clear concrete cover of 40 mm for the 12 mm ties. Due to reversal of lateral forces, the design loads due the reversal effect of combined DL, LL and WL changes as follows:

loads due the reversal effect of combined DL, LL and WL changes as follows: 84 Center

84 Center for Professional Career Development

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 1.

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 1. Determine

1. Determine the nominal shear strength of concrete for the positive x direction using simplified calculation with concrete strength f’c = 28 MPa and fy = 415 MPa.

2. Determine the nominal shear strength of concrete for the negative x direction using simplified calculation.

3. Recalculate using more detailed calculation.

SIT. D:

A rectangular tied column is reinforced as shown in the detail below. Clear cover to the 12 mm ties is 40 mm. Use f’c = 28 MPa, vertical bars strength fy = 415 MPa and tie bars strength fyh = 278 MPa

f y = 415 MPa and tie bars strength f yh = 278 MPa 1. Calculate

1. Calculate the nominal strength of the column against shear along the x-direction if ties and cross-ties are spaced 100 mm on centers.

2. Calculate the ultimate shear along the y-direction the column can sustain if ties and cross-ties are spaced 100 mm on centers.

3. Calculate the required spacing of transverse reinforcement for a factored shear force Vux = 450 kN if the allowable nominal concrete shear stress is 0.88 MPa.

4. Calculate the required spacing of transverse reinforcement in accordance with the code for seismic design if shear is along the x-direction.

5. Calculate the required spacing of transverse reinforcement in accordance with the code for seismic design if shear is along the y-direction.

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 86

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 86 Center

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center for

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 88

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 88 Center

88 Center for Professional Career Development

P R O B L E M S : C O N C R E

P R O B L E M S :

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

SIT. E:

A rigidly supported beam with cross-section detail shown below supports a uniform service dead load of 58.38 kN/m and service live load of 87.56 kN/m over its span of 4.3 m. In addition the beam is also subject to uniform torsional moment due to service dead load of 6.31 kN∙m/m and due to service live load of 7.57 kN∙m/m over its entire span. Concrete compressive strength f’c = 28 MP. Use 12 mm diameter stirrups with 40 mm clear cover.

= 28 MP. Use 12 mm diameter stirrups with 40 mm clear cover. 1. Calculate the

1.

Calculate the nominal cracking torsion.

2.

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the beam due to combined shear and torsion.

3.

Calculate the spacing of stirrups required for shear only. Use fy = 415 MPa.

4.

Calculate the spacing of stirrups required for torsion only.

5.

Calculate the spacing of stirrups required for shear and torsion.

6.

Calculate the required additional longitudinal bars for torsion.

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 90

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 90 Center

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N Center for

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C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 92

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

C O N C R E T E D E S I G N 92 Center

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P R O B L E M S : C O N C R E

P R O B L E M S :

C O N C R E T E

D E S I G N

SIT. A:

To comply with architectural requirements, a column in a non-sway frame is of T-section as shown.

a column in a non-sway frame is of T-section as shown. Given data: Longitudinal bars: A

Given data:

Longitudinal bars:

As = 4 – ø28 mm bars

Lateral ties:

fy = 415 MPa dt = ø12 mm bars

Concrete:

fyv = 275 MPa Clear concrete cover = 40 mm f’c = 27.5 MPa

Consider bending about strong axis. Neglect the concrete area displaced by the steel bars.

1. Determine the location of the plastic centroid of the section from the right face of the column.

2. Determine the bending moment, in kNm, induced by a factored load Pu = 3200 kN acting along x- axis at 400 mm away from the right face of the column.

SIT. B:

A tied column 450 mm square is reinforced with 8-ϕ28 mm equally distributed on its sides. The unsupported length of the column is 2.6 m and is prevented against sidesway by shear walls. Use 40 mm clear covering to the tie reinforcement with diameter 12 mm, f’c = 20.7 MPa, fy = 415 MPa and Es = 200 GPa

3. Determine the nominal load in kN that the column could carry.

4. Determine the nominal balanced load in kN using concrete strain of 0.003 and yield strain of steel εy = fy/Es.

5. Determine the nominal balanced moment capacity of the column.

6. Determine the nominal moment capacity when the factored axial load is 900 kN.

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