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A PROJECT ON

STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES IN BANKING


BACHELOR OF COMMERCE
(BANKING & INSURANCE)
SEMESTER-VI
FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2018-19
Submitted
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Award of the
Degree Bachelor of Commerce Banking & Insurance
BY
Mr. ZOMBADE DEEPAK BABAN

Roll No. 1882358


UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Miss. Barkha Shamnani

VPM’s R.Z.SHAH COLLEGE OF ARTS,


SCIENCE&COMMERCE
Mithagar Road, Mulund (E) Mumbai-400081

1
DECLARATION

I the undersigned MR. ZOMBADE DEEPAK BABAN here by,


declare that the work embodied in this project work titled “STUDY
ON MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES IN BANKING”, from my
own contribution to the search work carried out under the guidance of
Miss. BARKHA SHAMNANI is a result of my own work and has not
been previously submitted to any other university for any other
Degree/Diploma to this or any other university.

Whenever reference has been made to previous works of others, it has


been clearly indicates as a such and included in the bibliography.

I, here by further declared that all information of this document has


been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and
ethical conduct.

Name:
Signature:

Certified by
Name and signature of the Guiding Teacher

2
Acknowledgement

I want to thank the following people for making this project


a success. They mean a lot to me and have bought this project
into existence. Principal Dr. M. S. Raje for allowing me to
frame my talent by allowing me to present my project in front
of you.
Mr. Om P Dewani, our course co-ordinator for providing me
constant help and support while preparing this project.
My project guide Miss.BARKHA SHAMNANI who has given
shape to this project by giving the required guidance to prepare
the project as per the requirements of the university.
I would not like to forget my parents who have played a vital
role behind the scenes so that the project would be worth
presenting in front of you.

Sr Page
No Index Number

3
1 Chapter 1 7-15

Introduction and background


Literature review
2 Chapter 2 16-20

Global and Indian view


3 Chapter 3
21-42
Research and methodology
4 Chapter 4 43-76

Comparative study of SBI and


ICICI
5 Chapter 5 77-79

Explain employee motivation


and questionnaire
6 Chapter 6 80-84

Analysis and interpretation


conclusion

4
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
 To know about motivational practices carried out in a
bank.
 To know about the scope and limitations of the techniques.
 To know role of motivation in the progress of a bank.
 To know the human behavior and employee satisfaction
through the project.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The scope of this research is to study the Motivational practices
in banking. This research is based on primary data and
secondary data. The project reveals information about various
motivational practices in banks. The project explains about
benefits of motivation.

5
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
 Primary Data has its own limitations.
 The results are based on a survey of 20 people. The study
does not consider potential customers who are non-
banking now but could be future bank customers.
 If the sample size could be taken a bit larger, we could
have reached to more accurate results.
 The study is restricted to Mulund city.

6
C h a p t e r 1
 Introduction and Background to the study
L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w

7
Chapter 1
Introduction

Motivation is a behavior, willingness and contribution of


employees to perform a particular task. It is a process,
which arise, direct and maintain human behavior to attain
some goal. All the major organizations felt the importance
of employee’s motivation when it has a substantial impact
on the boiler suit performance of the organization. The
basic purpose of any organization to achieve a goal so that it
important to hold their employees motivated and satisfied.
If the employees are motivated, case by case the quality and
quantity of performance increase that has a positive effect
directly to all organization’s performance.

Motivation is a core element of management in human


resources. There is no similarities in qualities, feelings and
behaviors of employees so it is some difficult to take care of
human being with varying characteristics and qualities.
Without motivation, organization could not run long time.
It is more important for human resources to activate, train
and develop all motivated in order that make individual and
organization goals. Every single employee has skills,
abilities and knowledge, if there is not added motivation,
8
would not open a way of success, if there is added
motivation, would open a way of success for an
organization. There are various sources of motivation by
which can motivate the staff, such as good pay, provision of
decent accommodation, good condition of service and
opportunity for staff training, and motivated employees can
increase their productive capacity.

Finally, the management of private and public


organizations is to find out measured needs and motivators,
which will make reaction of an employee according to
desires to increase productivity of organization. If
organizations want to motivate their employees, she has to
stimulate to come to work regularly and stay full time.

Background
Employee’s motivation is more important, because
motivated employees are productive and more profitable
employees. When employees are not satisfied or motivated,
they become less creative, less productive of the
organization. It is more important for an organization to
achieve their goals for that they have to increase

9
productivity and efficiency in the work place in any
organization.

Literature Review:
Employee’s motivation is one of the important aspects in
today’s dynamic world because, if your employee will not
motivated the overall performance of your company can be
affected, in result company’s mission and objective will be
overlap. Joint contribution of employees will surely take the
company to the new horizons. Complex and challenging job
are not a big matter if your employees are truly motivated.
Creativity is becoming a topic of ever-increasing interest to
organization managers. Thus, there is a need for a greater
understanding of the dynamics between the personal and
contextual factors responsible for creative performance in
work settings. In particular, there is a need to identify the
role of leadership for creativity. Until now, creativity studies
have examined leadership and employee characteristics,
and leader- Member Exchange Results suggest that
employee intrinsic motivation and cognitive style, the
interactions between employee intrinsic motivation and
leader intrinsic motivation.

10
The main basic issues of employee motivation concerning
for the employees are employee commitment , productivity
and employee retention in order to view loyalty concerns,
corporate restructuring efforts and tight competition in this
regard. Productivity and retention spoiling prices usually
decrease further as employees become depressed,
dishearten and preoccupied with potential results
immediately following an organizational transition such as
a major restructuring, corporate downsized merger,
acquisition or even rapid growth spurt.

Employee motivation practices of an organization are


significantly important forces for determining behavior and
insolence of employees. Managing HR has many forms of
continuation but employee motivation practically in
organizations is to make use of people and maintain
employment relations.

Human resources management practices consist of staffing


and assortment procedures selections practices, guidance,
reward, promotion, and employee’s performance.
Complaint procedure and allowance or social security are in
relative with the perceived performance of employees. It is
11
for implementation of business strategy. We have found
that the effectiveness of employees with the impact of HRM
on performance depends upon worker’s response to HRM
practices, so the impact will move in directions of the
perceptions of HRM practices by the employee. With
reference of Wood (1999) and Guest (2002) he has forced
that a competent, committee and highly involved work
force.

Problems of employees motivation in developing countries,


one is low levels of salary, second one is deficiency of useful
performance values, third on lack of ability to fire people,
fourth one is small number of incentives for excellent
performance, fifth one is employment measures that do not
catch the attention of properly skilled people, promotion
guidelines based more on seniority that n actual
performance of employees, sixth one is deliberate
promotions and lack of compensations against hard work,
and deficient and uncomforting management by
supervisors and lack of motivating tasks. In human
resources management includes writing has been to
elaborate the significanc3e of efficiently administrating
human resources of enterprises.
12
Importance of training as complement of selection practices
through which the organizational culture and employees
behavior can be aligned to produce positive results has
included efficiency and effectiveness as in positive parts of
performance apart from competitiveness and productivity
training is the tool to develop knowledge and skills as
means of increasing individual’s performance (efficiency
and effectiveness). Compensation is a behavior aligning
mechanism of employees with business strategy of the firm.

Every great company has one thing in common engaged


employees. Engaged employees learn grow, display strong
leadership skills, and provide heightened return on
investment and significantly decrease your firm’s turnover
rate. Formulating a team that approaches work with vigor
and passion, however is easier discussed that executed.
Regardless, building just such a team is a crucial factor In
your company’s ability to operate smoothly and navigate the
changing business landscape. To increase productivity and
motivation the steps below can help your make the right
difference in the way your firm approaches business.

13
When your hire and motivate the fight people, the fifth
work gets done in the faith way. In other words, the
machine functions smoothly. The company becomes
defined by their continuous productivity improvements,
wider spread innovation and ability to adapt to the
changing business environment. Studies have shown that
for employees to be motivated, sales recruiting minimums
must be upheld. These include pay working conditions and
job security. Without these, headhunting even the best
employees will yield undesired performance results.

The attempt to motivate employees by making them fear


that they will lose their jobs will have the opposite effect
resulting in less energy and lower morale contrary or
popular belief money is not the most pervasive driver of
productivity is how creative an employee feels when
working on a project. If you want to motivate employees,
give them projects that allow them to use their creatively.

According to Ricie and Miles, 1970 that managers who hold


human relation theory of participation belief simply in
involvement or the sake of involvement for the sake of
involvement, arguing that as long as subordinated feel that
14
they are participating and are consulted, their ego needs
will be satisfied and they will be more cooperative.

According to Locke, 1976, Three thousand studies had been


done on job satisfaction alone by the time Locke prepared
his study nearly 20 years ago. Job satisfaction and employee
obligation receive considerable attention from industrial
and organizational psychologists, management scientists,
and sociologists.

According to (Hellriegel, Slocum & Woodman, 1998),


Productivity is a performance measure encompassing both
efficiency and effectiveness. It is important, therefore, to
know who the productive works are. Productivity is a
performance measure encompassing both efficiency and
effectiveness. High performing, effective organizations have
a culture that encourages employee involvement. Therefore,
employees are more willing to get involved in decision
making goal setting or problem solving activities, which
subsequently result in higher employee performance.

15
C h a p t e r 2
Indian View
Global View

16
Chapter 2
Motivational practices in banking at Indian and Global
Level
Global View
Global Journal of Management and Business Research
Volume 11 Issue 4 Version 1.0 March 2011
Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal
Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA)
Reward System And Its Impact On Employee
Motivation In
Commercial Bank Of Sri Lanka Plc, In Jaffna District.
By Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth
Abstracts - Increasingly, organizations are realizing that they have to establish an equitable
balance between the employee’s contribution to the organization and the organization’s
contribution to the employee. Establishing this balance is one of the main reasons to reward
employees. Organizations that follow a strategic approach to creating this balance focus on
the
three main components of a reward system, which includes, compensation, benefits and
recognition. Studies that have been conducted on the topic indicates that the most common
problem in organizations today is that they miss the important component of Reward, which
is
the low-cost, high-return ingredient to a well-balanced reward system. A key focus of
recognition
is to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Research has proven that employees
who
get recognized tend to have higher self-esteem, more confidence, more willingness to take
on
new challenges and more eagerness to be innovative. The aim of this study is to investigate
whether rewards and recognition has an impact on employee motivation. A biographical
and
Work Motivation Questionnaire was administered to respondents. The results also revealed
that
staff, and employees from non-white racial backgrounds experienced lower levels of
rewards,
and motivation. Future research on the latter issues could yield interesting insights into the
different factors that motivate employees. Notwithstandinthe insights derived from the
current
research, results need to be interpreted with caution since a convenience sample was used
g thereby restricting the generalisability to the wider population.

17
Keyword: Reward, Motivation, Commercial Bank of Sri Lanka

.Classification: GJMBR-B Classification: G21


Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2011 . Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth.This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting
all non-commercial
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reward System And Its Impact On Employee

18
Motivation In Commercial Bank Of Sri Lanka
Plc,
In Jaffna District.
Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth

Abstract : Increasingly, organizations are realizing that they


have to establish an equitable balance between the
employee’s contribution to the organization and the
organization’s contribution to the employee. Establishing this
balance is one of the main reasons to reward employees.
Organizations that follow a strategic approach to creating this
balance focus on the three main components of a reward
system, which includes, compensation, benefits and
recognition. Studies that have been conducted on the topic
indicates that the most common problem in organizations
today is that they miss the important component of Reward,
which is the low-cost, high-return ingredient to a well-balanced
reward system. A key focus of recognition is to make
employees feel appreciated and valued. Research has proven
that employees who get recognized tend to have higher selfesteem,
more confidence, more willingness to take on new
challenges and more eagerness to be innovative. The aim of
this study is to investigate whether rewards and recognition
has an impact on employee motivation. A biographical and
Work Motivation Questionnaire was administered to
respondents. The results also revealed that staff, and
employees from non-white racial backgrounds experienced
lower levels of rewards, and motivation. Future research on the
latter issues could yield interesting insights into the different
factors that motivate employees. Notwithstanding the insights
derived from the current research, results need to be
interpreted with caution since a convenience sample was
used, thereby restricting the generalisability to the wider
population.
Keywords : Reward, Motivation, Commercial Bank of
Srilanka
I. INTRODUCTIONR eward system is an important tool that
management can use to channel employee

19
motivation in desired ways. In other words,
reward systems seek to attract people to joint the
organization to keep them coming to work, and motivate
them to perform to high levels.The reward system
consists of all organization components – including
people processes rules and decision making activities
involved in the allocate of compensation and benefits to
employees in exchange for their contribution to the organization.

IMPACT OF EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION ON BANKING


EFFECTIVENESS - A STUDY OF SELECTED BANKS IN
SHIMOGA CITY INDIA
AUTHOR(S)

Alsabri, Mohammed Ahmed; Ramesh, H. N.

PUB. DATE

July 2012

SOURCE

International Journal of Research in Computer Application & Mana;Jul2012, Vol. 2 Issue 7,


p61

SOURCE TYPE

Academic Journal

DOC. TYPE

Article

ABSTRACT

One of the fastest growing industry is the Banking sector with thousands of employees from
all over the world are in demand. Banking sector is characterized by high competition and in
order to survive in market place, employees must be motivated and satisfied. In recent
years, they have been paid increasing attention to "factors" in job satisfaction.This paper
provides an impact of employee's performance and employee's motivation towards banking
effectiveness and the relationship between employees motivation and banking effectiveness.
The study focuses on the practice of two central factors, empowerment and employee
recognition for enhancing employee motivation which lead to banking effectiveness. The
banks should design their rules, policies and banking structures which give employee to

work well and appreciate them on their task fulfillment and achievement .

20
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY / FUNDAMENTAL OF
MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES IN BANKING

ResearchMethodology
The scope of the study will be limited to the
public and private sector banks in Punjab and Haryana.
This research will cover the aspects related to the
activities related to motivation and recognition in in public
sector banks and the different tools that are used by public sector banks for
motivation.
This study was
conducted in public and private banks in Punjab and
Haryana. The data was collected from top level and
middle level employees as the target group of the study.
This research took a period of two months during which
data was collected from the field, organized, analyzed and presented in
analytic form. The significance of this
study is to find that which motivators affect the
performance of employees the most. Therefore findings
of this study will provide important information to
decision makers and human resource managers of the
bank to either change ways of motivating staff of the
bank. The results of the study will also add to the
existing body of knowledge on the issue of motivation
and productivity in the public sector banks.
All the items
under consideration in any field of inquiry constitute a
population .we select only a few items from the
population for our study purposes. The items so
selected constitute what is technically called a sample.
Sekeran, (1990) defines a sample as a portion of the
population that has attributes as the entire population.
The target population for the study consists of staff
of
private and public sector banks of Punjab and Haryana.
The study employed the use of self
Structured so
selected constitute what is technically called a sample.

21
Sekeran, (1990) defines a sample as a portion of the
population that has attributes as the entire population.
The target population for the study consists of staff
of
private and public sector banks of Punjab and Haryana.
. Research Questions
Based on the objectives of the study stipulated above, the following
research questions have been formulated
(i) Are there statistically significant differences between the
respondents’ profile and job satisfaction of SBI and ICICI banks?
(ii) Is there a statistically significant relationship between employee
motivation and job satisfaction at SBI and ICICI banks?

: (iii) Are there statistically significant differences between the


respondents’ profile and dimensions of work motivation such as
work content, payment, promotion, recognition, working conditions,
leader supervision, benefits, personal and security of SBI and ICICI
banks?

Research Hypotheses:
Sekaran (2000) defines a hypothesis as “a logically conjectured
relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of
testable statements.
” Hypothesis 1
There are no statistically significant difference between respondents’
profile and work motivation dimensions such as work content,
payment, promotion, recognition, working conditions, leader
supervision, benefits, personal and security of SBI and ICICI banks.
1a) Banks and Work Motivation Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in motivation
dimensions of different employees working with SBI and ICICI
Banks, i.e the motivational levels of employees of SBI and
ICICI do not differ significantly.

22
H1: There is significant difference in motivational levels of
employees working with SBI and ICICI Banks.
1b) Gender and Motivational Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with gender. H1:
There is significant difference in different employees with gender.
1c) Age and Motivational Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with different age
groups.
H1: There is significant difference in different employees with different age
groups.
1d) Educational Levels and Motivational Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with different
education levels.
H1: There is a significant difference in different employees with different
education levels.
1e) Job Experience and Motivational Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with different
years of job experience.
H1: There is a significant difference in different employees with different years
of job experience.

1f) Income levels and Motivational Dimensions


H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with different
income levels.
H1: There is significant difference in different employees with different
income levels.
1g) Designation and Motivational Dimensions
H0: There is no significant difference in different employees with different
designations.
H1: There is significant difference in different employees with different
designations.
1h) Job Security and Motivational Dimensions H0: There is no significant
difference in different employees with job security.
H1: There is significant difference in different employees with job security.
 Methodology:
 This Research addresses the approach to the study. It
provides rationalization of the research design (Sample
23
size, questionnaire development, Survey, instruments
description) details regarding the sample, research
model and variables (Independent variables,
intervening and dependent variables), hypotheses and
response rate, selected measurement instruments, data
collection means and data analysis. The core objective
of this chapter is to delineate the steps followed in
carrying out the research.
 Data Analysis:
DESCRIPTIVE
Table showing the
descriptive statistics of
job satisfaction
Std.
N MinimumMaximumMean Deviation

Benefits and incentives 502.25 5.00 3.9500.63688

Job description 501.75 5.00 3.6400.70378

Work delegation 501.33 5.00 3.8133.74736

Training and
development 501.50 5.00 3.7350.73264

24
Low productivity 502.00 5.00 3.7800.61162

Valid N (listwise) 50

 According to respondent’s opinions the rating on


independent variable benefits and incentives in
banking sector was highest with a mean of (3.9500).
The rating of work delegation was second highest with
a mean of (3.8133), the rating of dependent variable
low productivity was third highest with a mean of
(3.7800), the rating of independent variable training
and development was fourth highest with a mean of
(3.7350), and the rating of job description was fifth
highest with a mean of (3.6400).

 The standard deviation of respondents’ opinion on


work delegation was the highest (0.74736), as
compared to other dimensions. This indicates that
there is a low involvement of work delegation in
banking sector of Karachi.

Correlati
ons
25
Benefit Training
Low s and Job Work and
productiv incentiv descripti delegati developm
ity es on on ent

Low Pearson
productivi Correlati
ty on 1 .384** .600** .295* .308*

Sig. (2-
tailed) .006 .000 .037 .029

N 50 50 50 50 50

Benefits Pearson
and Correlati
incentives on .384** 1 .662** .409** .239

Sig. (2-
tailed) .006 .000 .003 .095

N 50 50 50 50 50

26
Job Pearson
descriptio Correlati
n on .600** .662** 1 .455** .440**

Sig. (2-
tailed) .000 .000 .001 .001

N 50 50 50 50 50

Pearson
Work Correlati
delegation on .295* .409** .455** 1 .386**

Sig. (2-
tailed) .037 .003 .001 .006

N 50 50 50 50 50

Training
and Pearson
developm Correlati
ent on .308* .239 .440** .386** 1

27
Sig. (2-
tailed) .029 .095 .001 .006

N 50 50 50 50 50

**.
Correlatio
n is
significant
at the 0.01
level (2-
tailed).

*.
Correlatio
n is
significant
at the 0.05
level (2-
tailed).

 The data was analyzed through SPSS (statistical


package for social sciences) software by using
28
correlation and regression. The correlation test
indicates that the relationship between the variables.
The correlation values show that there is a positive
correlation of low productivity with benefits and
incentives, job description, work delegation, and
training and development.

 The dependent variable “Low productivity” has the


strongest correlation with incentive and benefits
(.384**), with job description (0.600**), with work
delegation (0.295**), and weak relationship with
training and development (0.308*).
Regression
Variables
Entered/Removed
Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method

Benefits and
1 incentivesa . Enter

29
1. All requested variables
entered.

1. Dependent Variable: low


productivity

Model Summary
R Adjusted R Std. Error of
Model R Square Square the Estimate

1 .384a.147 .130 .57064

1. Predictors: (Constant),
benefits and incentives

The R value show Coefficient of Correlation is the numerical


measure of strength of the linear relationship between two
variables. The R value (.384a) is show that there is positive
correlation between the benefits and incentives and
Dependent Variable low productivity.

The R Square show Coefficient of Determination defines the


square of Coefficient of Correlation. The R Square values

30
(.147) mean 14% reliable to be used for estimation of
population.

The Std. Error is important because they reflect how much


sampling Fluctuation a statistic will show. The Std. Error
value show that 57% Fluctuation of Sampling Mean.

The R change shown that differences between R-value &


Adjusted R square.

ANOVA
Sum of Mean
Model Squares df Square F Sig.

1 Regression 2.7001 2.7008.291.006a

Residual 15.630 48 .326

Total 18.330 49

31
1. Predictors: (Constant),
benefits and
incentives

1. Dependent Variable:
low productivity

The Sum of Square shows the total variability around the


mean, the Sum of Square Residual mean the Sum of
Squared Errors in Prediction and Sum of Square Regression
mean the improvement in Prediction by using the predicted
value of (Y) Dependent Variable over just using the mean of
(X) Independent Variable.

The degree of freedom means number of sample minus one.

The F Test value (8.291) shows the combination of all


variable, overall significances of the Model its mean one
independent variable Benefits and incentives on Dependent
variable low productivity and Observation of Independent
Variable met.

Coefficients

32
Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 2.324 .512 4.539.000

Benefits and
incentives .369 .128 .3842.879.006

1. Dependent
Variable: low
productivity

The Std. Error is important because they reflect how much


sampling fluctuation a statistic will show. The St.d Error of
a statistic depends on the sample size in the general the
larger sample of the St.d Error. St.d Error of Constant (.512)
value shows the 51% of fluctuation of sampling mean and
the St.d Error of Independent Variable benefits and reward
is (.128) value shows the 12% of fluctuation of sampling
mean.

33
Standardized Coefficients are the coefficient that you would
obtain if the Predictors and the outcomes variable were
standardized prior the analysis and the Comparing the size
of the coefficient across variable. The t value of Independent
Variable benefits and incentives is (2.879). According to the
rules if t value is greater that 2 (t>2.5) than null hypothesis
will be rejected and alternate hypothesis will be accepted.

 Discussion:
 With the reference of HRM expert Madam Shahiroz Ali
and other research reports on employee’s motivation in
banks, there are same statements which we have gotten
from expert and other research reports that the
positive impacts of salaries and bonuses 4 to 6 weeks
during these weeks employee can motivate and
according to other research reports there is also
mention of bonus.

 If we place the results of employee’s performance on


notice boards it will increase the motivational level of
employees because there in a common human nature
that if he knows about his good performance, he would
motivate. This motivation also impact the productivity
34
of organization and this can be positive. An
organization should look after the employees to their
health means give medical allowance, medical
allowance is also motivated factor because employee
does not pay his money from his pocket the
organization give him that facility.

 With the help of training and development the


employee’s skills will develop he knows the work of an
organization, if he has some similar skills he can also
uses in other organization. There is a main impact of
work delegation in an organization. Delegation is more
important because if there is an important document
and this will not approve without sign of manager, if
manager give his authority to other employee. So this
will effect to image and as well as her productivity.

 According to expert of HRM, we have gotten the new


point “Fear Evaluation”. The fear evaluation is judge
the broad layer between the managers and subordinate
which creates the distance in decision making. If there
is a manager says to his subordinate anything and
subordinate cannot catch his negative point and he
35
continues his point. This is can be negative impact of
an organization. Subordinate should catch negative
point and says something on it, or give some suggest to
his manager.

 Discussion:
 With the reference of HRM expert Madam Shahiroz Ali
and other research reports on employee’s motivation in
banks, there are same statements which we have gotten
from expert and other research reports that the
positive impacts of salaries and bonuses 4 to 6 weeks
during these weeks employee can motivate and
according to other research reports there is also
mention of bonus.

 If we place the results of employee’s performance on


notice boards it will increase the motivational level of
employees because there in a common human nature
that if he knows about his good performance, he would
motivate. This motivation also impact the productivity
of organization and this can be positive. An
organization should look after the employees to their
health means give medical allowance, medical
36
allowance is also motivated factor because employee
does not pay his money from his pocket the
organization give him that facility.

 With the help of training and development the


employee’s skills will develop he knows the work of an
organization, if he has some similar skills he can also
uses in other organization. There is a main impact of
work delegation in an organization. Delegation is more
important because if there is an important document
and this will not approve without sign of manager, if
manager give his authority to other employee. So this
will effect to image and as well as her productivity.

 According to expert of HRM, we have gotten the new


point “Fear Evaluation”. The fear evaluation is judge
the broad layer between the managers and subordinate
which creates the distance in decision making. If there
is a manager says to his subordinate anything and
subordinate cannot catch his negative point and he
continues his point. This is can be negative impact of
an organization. Subordinate should catch negative

37
point and says something on it, or give some suggest to
his manager.

This doesn’t mean they’ve stopped aiming for fulfilment and


happiness. (They top the boomers in this category too.) The only
category in which boomers and millennials draw even is
retirement benefits. With almost 40 percent in both age groups
saying this is of concern when choosing a job.

38
My guess is that it comes down to many Millennials growing up
and realizing that their parents priorities are now theirs too. The
youngest in that age group are now in their early to mid-twenties.
Any difference between generations is bound to melt away once
the younger generation grows up.

So, from time to time you need to check who you’re actually
talking about, when talking about your generation. Perhaps there
is no such thing as a generation that holds shared values through
time and space, there are only people growing up and changing
their priorities while they do so.

Up until today millennials were stigmatized as a generation


that grew up spoilt in times of plenty, when material wealth
was peaking, at least in the Western World. This in turn
might have been the reason why millennials were said to be
seeking gratification in non-material ways.

In reality though, as the American Advisors Group’s survey


suggests, Millennials are just as materialistic or non-
materialistic as the older baby boomers. A glance at
the chart above will inform you that Millennials primarily

39
value jobs according to pay level, even a little more so than
the older.

A MODERN APPROACH OF MANAGEMENT IN


MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES/METHODS OF EMPLOYEE
MOTIVATION: A MODERN APPROACH
AUTHOR(S)

VEMPATI, ANOOP SAI.


PUB. DATE
January 2013
SOURCE
Golden Research Thoughts;Jan2013, Vol. 2 Issue 7, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT

The most difficult job that faces a supervisor/manager is


learning how to effectively motivate and keep his/her
employees motivated. Unfortunately, everyone is different and
what motivates one employee may only make another
employee angry. Motivations means it is a process of
encourage employee and get the work is done in less time and
give him/her appraisals and rewards based on his/her
performance. The method we use to motivate each employee
must be tailored to the individual employee. We must offer
them something that value as an incentive to work towards a
goal. One size does not fit all when it comes to motivation.
40
Everyone wants to be successful. But to be successful, there is
an important thing you must have and that is motivation. Here
are four reasons why motivation is important for success.
Motivation helps you get started, Motivation helps you keep
moving, Motivation makes you do more than necessary, and
Motivation makes the journey fun.

Motivation factors
Motivation Factor includes factors that lead to job
satisfaction; it includes development, advancement,
responsibility & success. True motivators are achievement,
gratitude, work itself, responsibility, improvement, and
personal development. Motivating factor helps subordinates
to show more interest in the present activities of job and
thus make them work harder in achieving their objectives
(Leach and Westbrook 2000).

Method and Material


Research Design
The research study is quantitative and descriptive in nature;
The data is collected in the form of questionnaire, which
were filled by employees working at different levels of
management in Public banks of Karachi such as Sindh
Bank, National Bank of Pakistan and First Women Bank. In
the questionnaire, factors will be covered that are in
accordance with the motivational concern such as Job
description, Appraisals, defined tasks, Salary, Work
satisfaction, Environment etc. The variables used in
Questionnaire are in continuation with the work done by
(Safakli and Ertanin 2012) , as this is replication of the
study with respect to Pakistan. The variable covered in our
questionnaire are divided into two major categories;
Motivational Factors and Hygiene factors, each category will
be used to take necessary information from the respondent
41
and it will be easy for the researcher to calculate and
eliminate the non-response rate and the irrelevant
questionnaires filled by Bank employees. The tool developed
is a seven Likert Scale.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER


RESEARCH

The effectiveness of any Organization is


influenced greatly by human behaviors. Staffs who are a
resources common to all Organization. Effective’s
administrative exactitudes helped to create a work
environment. That encourages, support and sustained
improvement in work motivation. The following
suggestion recommended for future researches.

1)
In this study only commercial bank of Ceylon PLC
Jaffna is considered to develop the analysis and
findings. There are millions of employees and
Organization in Sri Lanka. In future studies could
consider almost all employees and Bank in the
others of district.
2)
Finding of this study analyzed only the employees of
Bank of Jaffna. But there are various type of hospital
and different types of employees works their. So,
this analysis will helpful to conduct the further
researcher including all the employees in the bank.
3)
Even through various factors determine the
Motivation, if is considered as to how the monetary
and non-monetary matters influence on the
Motivation of the staff
of this Bank in this analysis.

42
Therefore, the analysis in relation to other factors
that determine the Motivation must be considered.
4)
The analysis in relation to the effect and the
problems and the inconvenience of the staff of this
Bank / other Bank may be conducted based on the
result of this analysis.
.

C h a p t e r 4
 A Comparative study of SBI and ICIC I
B a n k s .

43
CHAPTER IV
Motivation Analysis: A Comparative Study of SBI and
ICICI Banks
This chapter presents the analysis of employee perceived motivation
and respondents
profile. It also presents the results of anova and t test performed
between motivation and
respondents profile.
Analysis of Motivation and Respondents Profile
4.1. Gender Distribution
Since the days when women first began entering the work force
scholars have studied perceived
gender differences related to motivation in organizational settings.
From the vantage point of the
early 21st century, women have entered the workforce in large
numbers. Although women have
begun to attain leadership positions in government and middle
management levels in business,
those who reach top positions represent a very small portion of the
population.
Eagly, Karau, Miner, and Johnson (1994) conducted a meta-analysis
of the motivation to manage
issue that spanned 30 years. Their study compared male and female
motivation to manage

44
research that used the Miner Sentence Completion Scale as it related
to gender in hierarchic
organizations. The study emphasized that it is critical to understand
the hierarchy of traditional
business organization and the power that administrators have over
subordinates. Since the top
administrative positions are predominately male, managerial roles
have traditionally been
defined from a masculine viewpoint.
Eagly et al. (1994) pointed out that a masculine-oriented managerial
role description was a
barrier to females wanting to assume such a role. He alluded to
several other theorists, including
Bass (as cited in Eagly et al., 1994), who expressed concern that
women would encounter role
conflicts. Heilman (as cited in Eagly et al., 1994) stated that a “lack of
fit would be perceived to
exist between women’s attributes and the requirements of the
managerial role”.Motivation
continued to be considered a key to attaining management levels
Alderfer (1969). Researchers
are still studying whether there are gender differences in motivation;
hence an attempt has been
made to study difference in motivation due to gender.
Table No 4.1. Gender Distribution

BANKS

Gender SBI ICICI Total

MALE 106 171 177

70.7% 47.3% 59.0%

FEMALE 44 79 123

29.3% 52.7% 41.0%

TOTAL 150 150 300

45
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Survey
The above analysis shows that 70.7 percent and 29.3 percent of the
respondents were male and
female in SBI bank. The respondents in ICICI bank comprise more of
female with 52.7 percent
and male 47.3 percent. The study has been administered by considering
both the genders to be important.

4.2Age Distribution
Research on age and motivation is limited and conceptually
ambiguous. Results of literature
review indicate that most age-related factors can have a negative
impact on the work motivation
of older age employees. However, earlier research Paynter (2004),
Rhodes (1983) has also found
a positive relation between age and work motivation. Furthermore,
numerous factors intervene in
the relation between the different conceptualizations of age and work
motivation. Consequently,
the present study wants to address age-related factors influencing the
work motivation of bank
employees.

AGE OF BANKS
RESPONDENTS SBI ICICI TOTAL

Upto 25 years 15 35 50
10.0% 23.3% 16.7%
26 to 35 years 38 73 111
25.3% 48.7% 37.0%
36 to 45 years 52 39 91

46
34.7% 26.0% 30.3%
46 years and 45 3 48
above
30.0% 2.0% 16.0%

Total
150 150 300
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Findings showed that of all respondents in SBI, more than 34.7 percent were
aged
between 36 – 45yrs followed by the age groups of above 46 yrs and 26 – 35yrs
which
accounted for 30 percent and 25.3 percent respectively. At ICICI bank 48.7
percent
respondents were in the age group of 26 – 35yrs followed by 36 – 45yrs and
below 25yrs
which accounted for 26 percent and 23.3 percent respectively. Interestingly only
2
percent of the respondents were in the age group of above 46yrs, this might be
due to
issues relating to stress and job security. Whereas at SBI above 46yrs accounted
for 30
percent this situation might be due to promotions and other benefits of
superannuation.
The young respondents aged below 25yrs were 10 percent at SBI and at ICICI
were 23.3
percent. This can be due to most of the public sector banks have certain
selection
formalities which restricts the entry level of the candidates where as at private
banks the
situation is different.
The mean age of employees is 35.7967 and S.D is 9.36059. Most of the sample

47
employees are in the age of 29 years, the minimum age being 20 yrs and
maximum being
58 yrs.

The world of work has changed dramatically over the past decade.
Organizations are being
assessed against international standards and best practices. This is due to
downsizing and
expanding, increasing globalization, workforces diversifying, new
organizational forms and
benchmarking. All these changes have a profound influence on how
organizations, including
banking organizations, attempt to motivate their employees in order to have a
competitive edge.
The importance of employee motivation and job satisfaction is growing all the
time in the
organizations. Motivation is believed to lead to an increase in employees’ work
performance.
That in turn leads to an increase in overall organizational productivity levels.
Furthermore,
motivation is said to improve employee job satisfaction. Many researchers have
been made to
find out the effect the job satisfaction and motivation have in the productivity of
the company.
According to Oosthuizen (2001), motivation is one of the key factors in getting
employees to
increase performance. He further adds that “in today’s competitive world and
market it is
essential that an organisation have positively motivated employees to improve
productivity and
efficiency”. Furthermore, Ströh (2001) outlined that some employees do not
produce the quality
161
of work or maintain a consistent level of work outputs, which they are capable
of. This may be
attributed to many factors, including the under utilization of their skills, lack of
a challenge, or
unstimulating leadership styles. This could result in motivation levels
decreasing, and hence
overall job satisfaction levels decreasing.
Research shows that employees are motivated by various factors, which in turn
should satisfy

48
certain needs and expectations Luthans (1989). Analoui’s (2000) research
indicates that in terms
of motives, managers are interested in power, status, achievement, income and
advancement.
These are specifically related to the job itself (known as intrinsic factors) and
factors related to
the work environment (known as extrinsic factors) Buitendach & De Witte,
(2005); Mehta et al.,
(2000). Managers are continually challenged to motivate a workforce to do two
things. The first
challenge is to motivate employees towards helping the organization achieve its
goals. The
second is to motivate the employees towards achieving their own personal goals
Motivation is a need satisfying process. It is an interaction between the
individual and his/her
situation or background. One factor that may motivate one employee may not
be the motivating
factor for another. According to research, a great number of employees are
motivated by
interesting work content and good wages. As for other factors there is
inconsistency in the order
of what motivates one from another, which is dependent upon his/her education,
cultural
differences, financial condition and other contexts in which he works. The
concept of employee
motivation has been the subject of study in many different disciplines.
However, within each
discipline different theories prevail about what motivates people to go to work
each day and how
these motivations can be affected by changing the rewards of working. While
economic theory
attributes changes in behaviour to changes in relative prices, psychology
generally focuses on
people’s preferences Frey et al (2002). Psychologists have argued for a long
time that people are
not only motivated to do things because of rewards from the outside. According
to these
psychologists, people can also be motivated to do things even though there is no
external reward
but the behaviour itself. In this case people are said to be intrinsically motivated
Deci (1975).
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes,
directs, and sustains

49
behaviour and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to
action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ
effective motivation, which
makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not
the only motivator.
There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators. Vroom (1964)
defined motivation
as an internal force, based on an individual’s conscious and unconscious needs
that drive him/her
to achieve. Robbins (1993) further defines motivation as a needs-satisfying
process that reveals
that when an individual’s needs are satisfied or motivated by some factors
(motivators), the
individual will exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals.
Motivators are referred to as “factors of motivation.” Motivators are the factors
that influence or
lead to positive willingness, and include specific needs, wants, drives or
impulses Hersey &
Blanchard (1988). These factors (for example, recognition, work content,
promotion,
supervision, salary and working conditions) could trigger this willingness to
achieve
organizational goals. Work motivation is shaped by the interplay between
individuals and their
work organizations. Organizations hire high potential people under the
expectation that they will
work to the full extent of their abilities, and exert all their effort and mental
resources in their
job. This expectation recognizes the existence of two important factors such as
potential physical
and mental resources, and motivational forces that energize and regulate the
allocation of those
resources to work related activities. Motivation regulates the amount of
resources to be allocated,
the direction or goal towards which those resources will be allocated, and the
persistence of
allocation and direction over time. Motivation affects choice, action, and
performance.
Individuals engage in work activities because work is a source of satisfying
their basic needs for
existence, relatedness and growth, and because work creates opportunities for
developing a sense

50
of self-worth and well-being Erez & Earley (1993; Locke (1991). However,
these expectations
are not always fulfilled. For several decades, the Roper Organization in New
York City has been
polling about twelve hundred employees every few years, and has found job
satisfaction in
America to be at its lowest level during the early 1990’s. Similarly, the Hay
Group, a
Philadelphia consulting firm whose clients included American Airlines, Disney,
GE, Chase
Manhattan, Maytag and others, has surveyed 750,000 middle managers in 1000
large
corporations, and found that the Work Motivation percentage expressing
favorable attitudes
towards their companies dropped from 65% in 1987 to 55% in 1990 Fisher
(1991) . Dissatisfied
163
employees are not motivated to allocate effort and mental resources to do their
work, and they
often show withdrawal behavior of lateness, absenteeism, and turnover, which
is detrimental to
productivity. Therefore, motivating employees is essential for maintaining the
competitive
advantage of the modern workplace.
4.11. Public and Private Sector Work-Motivation and Satisfaction
Overview
The purpose of this study is to research the different motivational factors that
affect employees
motivation in the SBI and ICICI Banks. The banks represent one from public
sector and the other
one being from private sector. Based on previous research it is viewed that
employees employed
in the public sector will prioritize work motivation in different ways than their
counterparts
employed in private sector. It is also observed that public sector and private
sector employment
differ at a number of levels.
Today's work environment is undergoing a major shift; factors such as
globalization, growing
economies, and improved technology are constantly presenting new challenges
and creating new
opportunities for people. With these changes, people's perceptions regarding
their jobs are also
51
changing. In this grow-or-die marketplace, the success of any organization
relies on its
workforce. Satisfied and committed employees are the most significant assets of
any
organization, including banks. As banking institutions are the backbone of a
nation's economy,
the efficient management of human resources and the maintenance of higher job
satisfaction
levels affect the growth and performance of an entire economy.
The Indian banking sector is a fast-growing financial service sector that has
seen tremendous
progress following liberalization. The Indian banking system can be broadly
categorized into
"scheduled commercial banks" and "non-scheduled commercial banks".
Scheduled commercial
banks can be further classified into public sector banks, private sector banks
(old and new) and
foreign banks. Over time, differences have been observed between public sector
banks and
private sector banks in terms of various operational and efficiency parameters.
164
Literature indicates that the performance of the private and foreign banks have
been stronger
than that of public sector banks IBA (2008). A recent study Selvaraj (2009)
reveals that private
banks are more successful than public sector banks in terms of implementing
Total Quality
Management (TQM) initiatives, such as human resource management, customer
focus, and top
management commitment. Furthermore, public and private sector banks differ
with respect to
their compensation structures, working environments, technology, growth
opportunities, and job
security provided to the employees. Public sector banks structure compensation
in a way such
that there are lower pay differentials between the employees, long-term tenure is
rewarded and
there is a high base pay, whereas in the private sector banks, there are larger pay
differentials,
fewer rewards for tenure, and pay for performance D'Souza (2002).
In addition, the working environment in private sector banks has been found as
growth driven,

52
technologically advanced, and devoid of bureaucracy, where employees'
promotions are highly
contingent on their performance and merit. However, private sector banks do
not provide job
security and would lay off their employees in cases of poor performance or
adverse market
conditions (Jha, Gupta & Yadav, 2008; Singh & Kohli, 2006; Thakur, 2007).
Bajpai and
Srivastava (2004) studied the satisfaction levels of employees of two public
sector and two
private sector banks in India. The results indicated that layoff threats, quick
turnover, less
welfare schemes, and less scope for vertical growth increased job
dissatisfaction. In contrast,
secure job environment, welfare policies, and job stability increased the degree
of job
satisfaction. In their study, Kumudha and Abraham (2008) compared 100
managers from 13
public and private sector banks and found that the programs related to self-
development,
information about job openings, opportunities to learn new skills and retirement
preparation
programs greatly influence the feelings of career satisfaction.
Public and private sector banks also differ with respect to their background and
work culture. It
has been observed that the work culture of public sector banks was based on the
concept of
socio-economic responsibility, in which profitability is secondary. On the other
hand, private
sector banks work towards profitability. Because these differences between the
sectors hold an
important factor in shaping the work culture of an organization, it needs to be
explored how they
would likely affect job satisfaction. For the success and sustained growth of
Indian banks, it is
165
imperative to create a pool of committed employees by determining whether
they are job
satisfied. Their satisfaction would affect their performance and commitment,
which would
eventually influence the banks' growth and profitability.
The aim of this research is to analyze the levels of employee motivation and job
satisfaction in
53
SBI and ICICI banks. The questionnaire was specifically designed to
accomplish the objectives
of the study. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions, besides 11 questions on
profile of the
respondents. A population refers to the entire group of people from which data
can be sourced
and investigated and from which the researcher can make inferences (Cooper &
Schindler, 2001;
Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2000; Sekaran, 2000).
In this study the total numbers of respondents were 300, with 150 employees
coming from SBI
and ICICI banks. A non-probability sampling design, namely, convenience
sampling was used to
draw the sample. Convenience sampling involves collecting information from
members of the
population who are most easily accessible and conveniently available to provide
the required
information (Kerlinger, 1986). The rationale for using this method is that it is
convenient, quick
and cost effective (Neuman, 1997; Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 1999).
A quantitative method was used to gather data for the research. The measuring
instruments
included the Work Satisfaction and Motivation Questionnaire developed by De
Beer (1987) and
a self developed questionnaire. The self developed questionnaire was used to
determine the
personal information of Sample respondents. It includes variables such as age,
gender,
experience, designation, education, salary, job security and so on.
4.12. Testing for reliability and Validity
In order to ensure credibility of findings by empirical research, the survey
instrument should
have reliability and validity. Reliability refers to consistency. It suggests that the
same thing
repeated or recurs under identical or very similar conditions. The opposite of
reliability is a
measurement that yields erratic, unstable, or inconsistent results Neuman
(2000). Validity is the
match between a construct, a conceptual definition, and a measure. It refers to
actually
measuring what you define.
166
4.12.1. Reliability
54
In this study, statistical analysis is performed by SPSS package of computer to
verify the
dimensionality of constructs. The Cronbach coefficient alpha is used to measure
the internal
consistency of the variables; the Cronbach’s and item to correlation are adopted.
To test the
validity of the survey instrument, the questionnaire was pilot tested. 30
questionnaires were
distributed to the employees of both SBI and ICICI banks and the results were
analysed using
SPSS package. Cronbach Coefficient Alpha is used to measure internal
consistency of the data, it
is a commonly used measure of reliability. If the Cronbach Alpha is greater than
0.70 means it
has high reliability, if the Cronbach Alpha is between 0.50 and 0.60 the internal
consistency is
still acceptable and if the Cronbach Alpha is smaller than 0.30 it has low
reliability.
The second section contained the items, measuring work motivation. It is a 43-
item questionnaire
using a Likert scale with responses ranging from Strongly Disagree = SD;
Disagree = D; NS =
Not Sure; Agree = A; and Strongly Agree= SA; The items were adapted from
De Beers (1987)
standardized questionnaire for work satisfaction and motivation was used to
collect data. The
tool is a standardized tool and has been widely used by various researchers for
studying
employee motivation. The tool was administered individually, with minor
modifications, to all
the respondents and doubts (if any) were removed. De Beers tool measures
motivational
orientation with sub dimensions, hence it can be said that it is difficult to
measure the
motivational orientation directly and motivational orientation is a constraint.
Motivational
orientation can be quantified with the help of its nine factors viz. work content,
payment,
promotion, recognition, working conditions, benefits, personal, supervisor and
general. The
modification yielded an r = 0.74 Cronbach Alpha.
The questionnaire incorporates the sixteen factors of Herzberg’s two-factor
theory De Beer

55
(1987). The following categories were measured:
• Work itself/ Work Content
According to Hackman and Oldman’s job characteristics model, the core job
dimensions are skill
variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback (Pearson, 1991;
Robbins, 1998).
167
It probed the respondents’ feelings about the type of work they do. Questions
from 1 to 17 in the
questionnaire measured the work content opinions of the respondents’.
• Payment
Payment refers to the employee’s monthly salary, overtime, and increases. It
considers whether
these are fair and equitable Kruger et al. (1996). It probed respondents’
satisfaction with their
salaries. Questions from 18 to 21 in the questionnaire measured the opinions of
the respondents’
on payment.
• Promotion
Promotion and advancement refer to all changes in status or organisational
hierarchy that include
more responsibility and power (Prinsloo, 1996). It probed for the opportunity
that the
organization offers for promotion. Questions from 22 to 24 in the questionnaire
measured the
opinions of the respondents’ on promotion opportunities.
• Recognition
Recognition is the perception of rewards that is related to performance and what
is required to
earn this recognition Sherman et al. (1996). Recognition can be received from
management,
colleagues or clients Prinsloo, (1996). It probed whether the respondent was
receiving the
recognition and feedback for the jobs they perform. Questions from 25 to 28 in
the questionnaire
measured the opinions of the respondents’ on recognition.
• Working Conditions
Working conditions refer to the physical working environment, the availability
of facilities and
aids and the quantity of work Prinsloo (1996). It also includes the general work
rules that apply
to an individual French (2003). This was probed as the fifth factor and looked at
opportunity to
56
mix with colleagues and interpersonal relations. Questions from 29 to 31 in the
questionnaire
measured the opinions of the respondents’ on working conditions.
168
• Benefits
Benefits are an indirect form of compensation that is mainly intended to
improve the quality of
work life for an employee (Sherman & Bohlander, 1992 cited in Swanepoel,
1998). It looked at
whether the benefits such as pension, medical schemes and leave were
satisfactory. Questions
from 32 to 34 in the questionnaire measured the opinions of the respondents’ on
benefits.

• Personal
Personal refers to whether the individual’s qualities, knowledge and skills are
utilized
appropriately Prinsloo (1996). It probed the respondents’ feelings towards their
job. Questions
from 35 to 36 in the questionnaire measured the opinions of the respondents’ on
personal.
• Supervision
An individual can have an agreeable relationship with a supervisor because
there are certain
characteristics of the supervisor’s role that need to be learnt. The competence
and the proficiency
of the supervisor entail job knowledge, leadership skills and solving of
problems Prinsloo
(1996). It probed the level of satisfaction with the manager. Questions from 37
to 40 in the
questionnaire measured the opinions of the respondents’ on leader supervision.
• Security and overall satisfaction
Security (General) refers to overall satisfaction and whether the employee has
considered
resigning or changing jobs. According to Prinsloo (1996), an individual can
experience a sense
of security in the work that an individual does. It probed if the respondents’ had
considered
alternative employment, and hence their level of satisfaction with the
organization. Questions
from 41 to 43 in the questionnaire measured the opinions of the respondents’ on
general and
overall satisfaction.

57
4.13. Statistical Techniques
The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for all
statistical calculations.
This assisted in describing the data more succinctly and to make inferences
about the
characteristics of populations on the basis of data from the sample. The
accomplished survey
forms were collated, encoded and statistically analyzed. Analysis was carried
out through the
169
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total score is calculated
for each
respondent in terms of the nine categories. Further to measure the motivation
levels to be high or
low, the average of each of the nine dimensions has been taken. The average
value above 2.5 is
considered to be high motivation and below 2.5 is considered as low motivation.
Anova was employed to determine whether there is a difference in the
motivation dimensions
based on respondent’s profile (namely age, educational background, job
experience, annual
salary, designation, working in shifts, working days, and working hours). The
respondent’s
profile of both SBI and ICICI are compared with the application of t test namely
banks, gender,
job security and shifts.
4.13.1. Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive analysis aims to describe the data by investigating the distribution
of scores on each
variable, and by determining whether the scores on different variables are
related to each other
Terre Blanche & Durrheim (1999). The descriptive statistics used in this study
included means,
frequencies, percentages and standard deviations. The mean is a measure of
central tendency,
which provides an arithmetic average for the distribution of scores Coolican
(1999), Neuman,
(1997).
4.13.2. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
According to Coolican (1999), anova procedures test the significance of the
differences between
sample means where more than two conditions are used, or when several
independent variables
58
are involved. In this study, this statistical method isused to establish if a
statistically significant
difference exists between levels of motivation and biographical variables.
According to Hinkle et
al (1982), “in anova, the hypothesis is that the mean performance in the
population is the same
for all groups (equality of population means).” They add that mean differences
are tested for
statistical significance. Mouton and Marais (1990) further states that anova
makes it possible to
appraise the separate and joint influence of several independent variables on the
experimental
criterion.

Work Content/Work Itself


Motivation influences productivity and organizations need to understand what
motivates
employees to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase
employee motivation
because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their
organization's practices.
Motivation is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal. Thus,
motivated behaviors
are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee.
172
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory describes needs in terms of satisfaction and
dissatisfaction.
Frederick Herzberg examined motivation in the light of job content and contest.
Motivating
employees is a two-step process. First provide hygiene’s and then motivators.
One continuum
ranges from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The other continuum ranges from
dissatisfaction to no
dissatisfaction.
Satisfaction comes from motivators that are intrinsic or job content, such as
achievement,
recognition, advancement, responsibility, the work itself, and growth
possibilities. Herzberg uses
the term motivators for job satisfiers since they involve job content and the
satisfaction that
results from them. Motivators are considered job turn ons. They are necessary
for substantial

59
improvements in work performance and move the employee beyond satisfaction
to superior
performance. Motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-level needs of esteem
and selfactualization.
Dissatisfaction occurs when the following hygiene factors, extrinsic or job
context, are not
present on the job: pay, status, job security, working conditions, company
policy, peer relations,
and supervision. Herzberg uses the term hygiene for these factors because they
are preventive in
nature. They will not produce motivation, but they can prevent motivation from
occurring.
Hygiene factors can be considered job stay-ons because they encourage an
employee to stay on a
job. Once these factors are provided, they do not necessarily promote
motivation; but their
absence can create employee dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors correspond to
Maslow's
physiological, safety, and social needs in that they are extrinsic, or peripheral, to
the job. They
are present in the work environment of job context.
Motivation comes from the employee's feelings of accomplishment or job
content rather than
from the environmental factors or job context. Motivators encourage an
employee to strive to do
his or her best. Job enrichment can be used to meet higher-level needs. To
enrich a job, a
supervisor can introduce new or more difficult tasks, assign individuals
specialized tasks that
enable them to become experts, or grant additional authority to employees.
Work content measures the actual content of the job and its positive or negative
effect upon the
employees’. It views whether the job is characterized as interesting or boring,
varied or routine,
173
creative or stultifying, excessively easy or excessively difficult, challenging or
non-demanding.
The following table depicts the motivational level of employees of SBI and ICICI.

Table No 4.14. Work Content

BANKS TOTAL

60
WORK SBI ICICI
CONTENT

2 0 2

LOW 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

148 150 298

HIGH 49.7% 50.0% 100.0%

TOTAL 150 150 300


50.0% 50.0% 100.0%

As per the above analysis almost all the sample respondents of SBI and all the
sample
respondents ICICI have high work content. It is interesting to note that almost
all the sample
respondents view the work to be interesting, creative and challenging.

Payment
The question of money and pay as a motivator in the workplace is not new.
Years of research,
and countless books and articles on motivation include references to money and
pay. The use of
monetary or other financial incentives in the classic “work performance
paradigm” is based
primarily on reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory focuses on the
relationship between a
target behavior (e.g., work performance) and its consequences (e.g., pay), and it
is premised on
the principles and techniques of organizational behavior modification.
Organizational behavior modification is a framework within which employee
behaviors are
identified, measured and analyzed in terms of their functional consequences
(i.e., existing
reinforcements) and where an intervention is developed using principles of
reinforcement.

61
Organizations use a variety of pay structures in an effort to use pay as a
motivator. Straight174
salary pay seems to fall most obviously into Herzberg's hygiene or maintenance
factors, which
means it is necessary, but not motivating. Other pay structures that include
commissions,
bonuses and other incentives may have more ability to motivate performance.
Some
psychologists and analysts indicate that pay may have varying levels of
motivational influence
on employees. The biggest problem with a straight-pay structure is that
employees quickly
become used to earning a certain level of income regardless of the results they
produce. This
prompts them to seek or need alternative types of motivation to push beyond
meeting basic
expectations and to pursue higher standards of excellence.
Payment refers to the employee’s monthly salary, overtime, and increases. It
considers whether
these are fair and equitable Kruger et al (1996). The following table depicts the
motivational
levels of employees of SBI and ICICI with respect to payment.

Table No 4.15. Payment

PAYMENT BANKS TOTAL

SBI ICICI

62
LOW 78 67 145

53.8% 46.2% 100.0%

HIGH 72 83 155

46.5% 53.5% 100.0%

TOTAL 150 150 300

50.0% 50.0% 100.0%

As per the above table 53.8 percent and 46.2 percent of the sample respondents
of SBI and ICICI
banks considered payment to be low. Which shows that pay or pay related
benefits are not
motivating employees. 46.5 percent and 53.5 percent of SBI and ICICI have
shown a high level.
This trend can be due to ICICI salaries and incentives are based on performance.

Promotion
Promotions are regular prizes offered to encourage more effort at the lower
levels, properly
reward the promoted and sort employees into more senior jobs that better match
their relative
abilities and accumulated human capital. Promotion ladders and promotion
tournaments
supplement theories of careers that are built on the accumulation of general and
specific human
capital by introducing implicit contracts that commit workers to higher levels of
effort and
employers to reward this with pay rises and periodic promotions later in careers.
The simplest
form of incentive pay is a promotions ladder. This requires recruits to accept
lower paid port-ofentry
jobs. This early period of employment is a screening process. Good
performance leads to
promotion. When promotion ladders are used as deferred compensation, almost
all junior
workers who prove themselves are promoted. The prospect of promotion
encourages the good
workers to stay and invest in specific human capital. Job seekers will self-select
by limiting their
63
applications to the type of jobs where they expect to succeed and be promoted
out of the less
well paid port-of-entry jobs. More talented workers are usually more productive
higher up in
organizational hierarchies. Promotions assign workers to jobs better suiting their
abilities and
quickly move up talented workers. These are other purposes of promotions.
They can be used to
reward past employee efforts, promote investments in specific human capital
and lower job
turnover Lazear (1998). The following table depicts the motivational level of
employees of SBI
and ICICI with regard to promotion.
TABLE: PROMOTION

PROMOTION BANKS TOTAL

SBI ICICI

LOW 9 48 57

15.8% 84.2% 100.0%

HIGH 141 102 243

58.0% 42.0% 100.0%

TOTAL 150 150 300

50.0% 50.0% 100.0%

The above table shows that the majority of the sample respondents of both SBI
and ICICI are
highly satisfied and motivated with promotional opportunities provided at
banks. Career
advancement and hierarchical changes influence employee to perform well as
responsibility and
power motivates every employee.

Working Conditions/ Environment

64
The organization must provide opportunities which satisfy employee needs. It
must ensure to
provide a motivating environment in the work place. Each person is different
and unique and has
a different mix of needs in different degree in him/her. This must be appreciated
and the working
environment must be so structured that it provides opportunities for satisfying
their needs.
A motivating environment in which people are challenged to stretch beyond
their
comfort zone, grow and learn.
A highly energizing and creative environment in which people had the
opportunity to
experiment and explore new ways of thinking and new ideas.
An environment that encouraged participation, collaboration, sharing, and
team spirit.
An environment in which people have the freedom and flexibility to do their
job and
make decisions about their work inspiring and motivating.
An environment that provides meaningful work and is emotionally and
intellectually
stimulating
A positive environment which is supportive, open, and caring Prinsloo (1996)
Work environment is a major factor in motivating employees. Social
relationships, creative
freedom, working hours, general work rules and quantity of work all play a role
in the workplace
motivation. Hence an attempt has been made to study how these factors
influence motivation at
SBI and ICICI banks.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (Anova)


Anova was employed to determine whether there is a difference in the
motivation dimensions
based on respondent’s profile (namely age, educational background, job
experience, annual
salary, designation, job security and working in shifts, working days, and
working hours).
4.26. Independent Samples t-test
The t-test is used to compare the values of the means from two samples and test
whether it is
likely that the samples are from populations having different mean values. The t
test is used for
65
analysis as it compares the means between two unrelated groups on the same
continuous,
dependent variable. The respondents profile of both SBI and ICICI are
compared with the
application of t test (namely banks, gender).
4.27. Hypothesis Testing
Hypotheses cannot be tested directly on the population, due to time and
financial constraints, and
the population being too large in most cases. Differences which appear to exist
between groups
in the sample data may in reality, namely in the actual population, not exist
Salkind, 2000).
Consequently, it is common practice for researchers to apply a guideline for
determining which
differences are large enough to be considered ‘real’ and which are due to
chance. The most
common practice is to state a specific significance level that must be reached.
The significance
level, which supports such a decision, is a statement of the probability that an
observed
difference is due to chance. The higher the probability or p-value, the less the
probability is that
the observed relationship between variables in the sample is a reliable indicator
of the actual
relationship between the respective variables in the population. A smaller p-
value is therefore
preferred in most cases StatSoft (2002).
183
Conventionally, the p-levels of 0.05 and 0.01 are used by most researchers to
determine the
significance of the statistical tests performed. For the purposes of the present
study a significance
level of 0.05 was considered adequate. All relationships between variables
denoted by p-values
equal to, or smaller than 0.05, were therefore regarded as significant, i.e. as
indicative of a true
relationship in the population. The absence of a linear relationship between
variables were
indicated by p-values larger than 0.05.
In order to determine whether there were any significant differences with regard
to employee
motivation and between the demographic groups, the analysis of variance test
(Anova) was
66
performed. Differences were considered significant for p-values equal to, or less
than 0.05. There
are statistically significant differences in motivational levels based on
demographic profile such
as gender, age, educational level, job experience, annual salary, designation, job
security
working in shifts, working days and working hours.

Summary
Today's work environment is undergoing a major shift; factors such as
globalization, growing
economies, and improved technology are constantly presenting new challenges
and creating new
opportunities for people. With these changes, people's perceptions regarding
their jobs are also
changing. In this grow-or-die marketplace, the success of any organization
relies on its
workforce. Satisfied and committed employees are the most significant assets of
any
organization, including banks. As banking institutions are the backbone of a
nation's economy,
the efficient management of human resources and the maintenance of higher job
satisfaction
levels affect the growth and performance of an entire economy.
Based on previous research it is found that employees employed in the public
sector will
prioritize work motivation in different ways than their counterparts employed in
private sector. It
is also observed that public sector and private sector employment differ at a
number of levels.
With respect to the dimensions of work motivation assessed by the Work
Satisfaction and
Motivation Questionnaire, the analysis finds that the respondents in the sample
are most likely
214
to be motivated due to their work content, working conditions, promotion,
recognition and leader
supervision. They are least motivated by the remuneration they receive,
security, personal and
benefits.
Since motivation influences productivity, organizations need to understand what
motivates

67
employees to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase
employee motivation
because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their
organization's practices. As
per the findings almost all the sample respondents of SBI and all the sample
respondents of
ICICI have high work content. It is interesting to note that almost all the sample
respondents
view the work to be interesting, creative and challenging. It is found that pay or
pay related
benefits are not highly motivating employees. Though both SBI and ICICI
banks have shown a
high level of motivation comparatively ICICI bank employees are more
motivated. This trend
can be due to ICICI banks salaries and incentives are based on performance.
The study finds that the employees of both SBI and ICICI are highly satisfied
and motivated with
promotional opportunities provided at banks. Career advancement and
hierarchical changes
influence employee to perform well as responsibility and power motivates every
employee. The
study draws conclusion that the employees are satisfied with recognition they
receive from
organization, clients, and colleagues. It is found that most of the employees are
satisfied with the
working conditions provided at the banks. Compared to ICICI, SBI employees
are highly
satisfied and motivated with the work environment and conditions. This
situation might be due to
private bank are more rigid in maintaining rules and regulations. More over the
quantity of work
as well as physical work environment is different from that of Public banks.
The study finds that the sample employees from SBI bank have shown high
motivational levels
than employees from ICICI bank. This situation might be due to public banks
pension schemes,
medical benefits and leave facilities are different from that of a private bank.
Most of the private
banks do not have retirement benefits and the leave rules are also very rigid.
The situation of low
motivation in ICICI bank reflects this. The study reveals that the employees are
satisfied with

68
choice of work preference and departments and the leader supervision at both
the banks is
encouraging and motivating. An interesting finding of the study is that compare
to SBI, ICICI
215
banks motivational levels are high even though there is no job security.
Contrarily SBI sample
showed low motivational levels in spite of high job security. This trend shows
that job security is
one of the motivational factor and not the only motivational factor which
satisfies employees.
Challenging jobs, skill variety jobs keep the employees motivated and stay in
the banks for a
longer tenure.
Anova was employed to determine whether there is a difference in the
motivation dimensions
based on respondent’s profile. Independent samples t test was also administered
and the
respondent’s profile of both SBI and ICICI are compared.
The study finds from the t test results that, the null hypothesis is rejected and
there is significant
difference between banks and motivational dimensions such as promotion,
benefits, personal and
general. Similarly there is difference between gender and benefits, personal and
security.
Alternatively the null hypothesis is accepted for factors work content, payment,
recognition,
working conditions and leader supervision in banks and it is found that there is
no significant
difference between these motivational dimensions and banks. Similarly the null
hypothesis is
accepted for factors work content, payment, promotion, recognition, working
conditions and
leader supervision with respect to gender.
The anova results show that the null hypothesis is rejected with respect to age
and payment,
promotion and benefits in banks. There is significant difference between
educational background
and payment, promotion, working conditions, personal, and leader supervision.
Similarly job
experience and motivational dimensions such as work content, payment,
promotion, working

69
conditions, benefits, personal, and leader supervision have significant
difference. The null
hypothesis is rejected with respect to income levels and motivational
dimensions such as work
content, promotion, recognition, working conditions, benefits, personal, leader
supervision and
security. As for designation there is significant difference between motivation
dimensions and
work content, payment, recognition, working conditions, benefits, personal,
leader supervision
and security.
216
The null hypothesis is rejected for work content, promotion, recognition,
working conditions,
benefits, personal, leader supervision and security and job security. Similarly
benefits, general
and working days, working hours and work content, payment, promotion,
working conditions,
benefits and personal have significant difference.
The anova results show that there is no significant difference between
educational levels of
respondents in the banks and work content, recognition, benefit and security.
Similarly employee
recognition and job experience have no significant difference. The study draws
the inference that
payment and income levels of employees have no significant difference with
motivational
dimensions. Similarly promotion and designation are not interrelated and it does
not affect the
motivation of employees in banks. The study also finds that there is no
significant difference
between payment, motivational dimensions and job security. Alternatively the
null hypothesis is
accepted for factors payment, benefit and leader supervision which draws the
conclusion that
there is no significant difference between these motivational dimensions and
working in shifts in
the banks.
Working days have no significant difference with work content, payment,
promotion,
recognition, working conditions, personal and leader supervision. Similarly
working hours in a

70
day and recognition, leader supervision and security have no significant
difference.
217
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C h a p t e r 5
Explain employee motivation and
q u e s t i o n n a i r e

75
Chapter 5

Explain Employee Motivation.


Motivation can be defined as the enthusiasm of an employee hich causes
him to take actions at work.

Which non-monetary factors do you think help in


building up the motivation level of employees?

Following are some of the effective ways to motivate employees:

i.) Respectful treatment


ii.) Recognising the individual and performance
iii.) Training
iv.) Regular performance and behavioural feedback
v.) Clear communication from the management
vi.) Involvement in activities that desire responsibility
vii.) Challenges
viii.) Clearly defined goals and plan of action

What kind of work culture do you think increases


the motivation level of an employee?

Following are some of the characteristics of the culture that increases the

motivation level of an employee:

i.) Suggestions and feedback from the employees are heard


ii.) Employees are well informed about the things affecting them
iii.) Communication among the team members and with the superiors is

76
open in nature.
iv.) Employees are trusted and treated with respect
v.) Employees work and deliver as a team
vi.) Employees see a path to grow and are regular trained for development

77
Explain Taylor's theory of motivation.
Frederick Taylor put forward a theory about worker’s motivation.

Its main features are:

i.) Workers do not enjoy work.


ii.) They need constant supervision
iii.) They are motivated mainly by the “salary”

What are the main points of Mayo's theory of

motivation?
Mayo’s theory believes that money is not the only motivation for workers.

They are highly motivated by factors like:

i.) Communication between them and managers


ii.) More involvement of manager in their work life
iii.) Working in teams

How is Mayo's theory different from Taylor's theory of

motivation?
i.) Taylor’s theory focuses on the negative aspect of a worker’s behaviour while

Mayo’s theory focuses on positive aspects.


ii.) Taylor’s theory treats money as the biggest motivation while Mayo’s

theory lays more emphasis on non-monetary factors.

78
Explain Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs.
Do you think it applies in real life?
- Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs believes that each individual has
some needs arranged in hierarchical order. Only when a lower need is
satisfied, does the higher need come into picture.

- Thus the incentives offered to the workers at each level have to be


different.

What is Herzberg's theory of motivation?


Herzberg came out with two-factor theory of motivation which believed
that there are certain factors which enthuse motivation in workers while
others de- motivate them. The factors demotivating the workers are called
the hygiene factors.

I. Motivators are the factors that give satisfaction. For e.g.

- Recognition
II. –Challenge

III. – Responsibility

79
The other set of factors are hygiene factors – their presence doesn’t
motivate the employees but their absence surely de-motivates them. For
e.g. –

- Work

-Conditions

-salary
- Job security etc.

Do you think salary is the only motivating factor


for an employee?
No, Salary is not just the motivating factor, but is a huge factor that helps
in keeping the employee motivated. Apart from salary, the work space
environment, relationship with seniors and contemporaries also matter a
lot.

List the components of employee remuneration.


The main components of employee remuneration are as follows:

a. Wages and Salary – wages are paid on an hourly basis whereas the
salary is on a monthly basis. Both wage and salary are subject to annual
increment. The wage and salary differ from employee to employee based
on their knowledge, area of work and other responsibilities carried.

b. Incentives – Incentives are paid over and above the salary of the
employee. Usually incentives are regulated by the performance of the
employee.

80
c. Fringe Benefits – These include benefits like, PF, gratuity, medical
care, insurance, canteen, uniform etc.

d. Perquisites – Perquisites are usually paid to the top notch employees


of the company like CEO, COO, and CFO and so on. They include Car
Company, club memberships, holidays, furnished homes. etc.

e. Non – monetary benefits – These include challenging job


responsibilities, recognition of merit, growth prospects, comfortable
working condition and flexitime.

81
C h a p t e r 6
Analysis & Interpretation
 C o n c l u s i o n

82
Chapter 6

INTRODUCTION
ICICI Bank(industrial credit and investment corporation of india) is an
Indian multinational banking and financial services company. It is
a government-owned corporation with its headquarters in Mumbai,
Maharashtra. As of 2014-15, it had assets of ₹20.480 trillion (US$300 billion)
and more than 14,000 branches, including 191 foreign offices spread across
36 countries, making it the largest banking and financial services company in
India by assets.[4][5][6] The company is ranked 232nd on the Fortune Global
500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016.[7]

The bank traces its ancestry to British India, through the Imperial Bank of
India, to the founding, in 1806, of the Bank of Calcutta, making it the oldest
commercial bank in the Indian Subcontinent. Bank of Madras merged into the
other two "presidency banks" in British India, Bank of Calcutta and Bank of
Bombay, to form the Imperial Bank of India.[8] Government of India owned the
Imperial Bank of India in 1994, with Reserve Bank of India (India's Central
Bank) taking a 60% state, and renamed it the ICICI. In 2008, the government
took over the stake held by the Reserve Bank of India.
ICICI is a banking behemoth and has 20% market share in deposits and loans
among Indian commercial banks.[9]

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VISIT TO ICICI Bank

I visited ICICI Bank MULUND Branch, MUMBAI for research on the


topic of Role of MIBID, MIBOR, LIBOR & EURIBOR in Fixed Income
Money Market and Derivatives Association.

The BRANCH Manager (Mr. SALMAN KAZI) of the bank guided


me with all the necessary information related to the project. he asked me
some question about the project and also he clarified my doubts.

he told me how the Forex department of the bank works and how they
transact. Then he gave the certificate on the letter head of the bank stating
that I went to bank and had done the research.

The information given by them helped me a lot in making the project.

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Conclusion:
Our delving into the study has enabled us to have a better understanding of the
impact of employee motivation on the banking industry in State bank of India.
The importance of motivation on employee performance cannot be over
emphasized. This is because motivation makes the workers conform to the goals
of the organization by putting in their best to increase organizational productivity.

Motivation is a characteristic feature of any organisation and as such should be


accorded top priority since motivation and organizational growth are inseparable.
The management of ICICI administration can be given a fair assessment in terms
of motivating its staff enhanced productivity, but a lot still need to be done .The
problems of motivation identified in the study should be dealt with and workers
needs and aspirations met.

Motivation, it should be noted is a continuous and complex process, and must be


based on situation and organizational climate. This means that management
should find out what motivates its staff from time to time.Where motivational
factors are provided, there is every tendency for high productivity.Any
organization which disregards the motivational problems of staff will ultimately
decline and subsequently collapse. In view of the nature of the banking is issue
of employee motivation should be given the priority it deserves.

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Bibliography:
Abbegleen, H(1974) Principles of management: a modern
approach john willey and sons,London.
Dublin, HUMAN RESOURCES IN ADMINISTRATION
Prentice hall Englewood, new jersey.

Webliography:

www.wikipedia.com
www.google.com

Visit: ICICI Mulund East Branch

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