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Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) &

Indian Building Congress (IBC)

Workshop on
National Building Code 2016

‘Construction Management Practices and Safety’

New Delhi
Vigyan Bhavan, 21 February 2018

Jose Kurian,
Convener, Panel for Plain, Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
National Building Code 2016
Contents
•Section 1 Construction Management
•Section 2 Construction Planning and Site
Management
•Section 3 Construction Practices
•Section 4 Safety in Construction
•Section 5 Repairs, Retrofitting and
Strengthening Of Buildings
•Section 6 Habitat and Welfare Requirements
for Workers

Construction Project
• Non-Recurring Task
• Definable Beginning and End
• Definite Mission/ Set Objectives

Construction Project Management


Application of knowledge, skills, tools & techniques to
achieve the objectives of a defined project with the aim to
ensure that a project is completed within:

• The scheduled time,


• Authorized cost and
• To the requirement of quality standards.
Project Lifecycle
• Project formulation and appraisal – Inception, feasibility and
strategic planning;
• Project development – Project brief development, planning and
design, finalization of proposals, procurement strategy, construction
documentation including tender drawings, working drawings,
specifications, cost estimates, bills of quantities, procurement documents;
• Planning for construction – Sequencing of project components,
planning tools, resource planning and time cost trade off;
• Tender action – Open competitive bidding/pre-qualification of
agencies, issue of tender documents, evaluation of bids, negotiation if
required and award of work;
• Construction – Execution, monitoring, control, work acceptance; and
• Commissioning and handing over – Contractual closeout, financial
closeout, defect liability commencement, facility handing over.
% COMPLETE

PROJECT FORMULATION
ANDAPPRAISAL

PROJECT
DEVELOPMENT

PLANNING FOR
CONSTRUCTION

TENDER

TIME
ACTION

CONSTRUCTION
Construction Project Lifecycle

COMPLETION AND
HANDING OVER
Construction Project Delivery Models

•Traditional design-bid-build,
• Design-build with variants,
• Turn-key and
• Build, operate and transfer and its variants.
Construction Methodologies and Techniques

• Conventional,
• Prefabrication,
• Systems Building Approach,
• Mixed/Composite Construction,
• Mechanization In Construction and
• Other Innovative Technologies,
Stakeholders

Actively involved and having interest in the success of the


project

 Owner / Client
Project Manager
Consultant
Construction Agency
User
Construction Project Organization
Owner/Client

Project
Manager

Construction
Consultant
Agency

Elect./Mech.
Planning Design Civil Work
Work

Quantity Other
Services
Survey Services

Others
Pre-Construction Stages
Project Development
Formalization of Design Brief Decision on Const. Methodology
Site Survey and Soil Investigation Preliminary Cost Estimate

Hazard Risk Vulnerability Analysis Detail Design of each Discipline

Alternative Concept Designs, Costing Construction Working Drawings and


& Finalization related Specifications

Preliminary Design & Drawing Detailed Cost Estimate

Each Discipline Design Development Detailed Specifications & Bill of


& Integration Quantities

Obtaining Statutory Approvals Tender Document


Planning for Construction

Sequencing of Project Components


Planning Tools
 Work-Break-Down Structure (WBS)
 Bar Charts
 Network Techniques and Scheduling
Resource Planning
 Resource Allocation
 Resource Leveling
 Resource Schedule
Time Cost Trade-off
Tender Action
Finalization of Tender Document (NIT)
Call of Competitive Bids
Open Bids
Limited Bids
Bid Evaluation
Negotiation
Award of Work
Construction Project Management
Scope Management
Procurement Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management
Risk Management
Communication Management
Human Resource Management
Safety, Health Management
 Sustainalbility Management
Integration Management
Other Management Processes
Scope Management
Scope monitoring and change control are critical to the
construction stage in order to control time and cost
overrun
Scope Planning
Scope Definition
Scope Verification
Scope Monitoring
Change Control
Procurement Management

 Identification of Procurement needs


 Preparation for Procurement
 Soliciting Proposals
 Selection of Supplier/Consultant/ Contractor
 Administering of Contract
 Contract Management
 Closure of Contract
Cost Management
Aims to complete the project in the
authorized Budget
 Cost estimation & budgeting
 Cost monitoring & control
Periodical cost reporting
Comparison of actual and planned cost
Control of Cost changes and corrective actions
 Forecast of final completion cost
 Modification of cost line
 Preparation of revised estimates
Quality Management

Aims to achieve required functional and physical


characteristics of the constructed facility.
 Quality Planning
Development of an efficient Quality system
 Quality Assurance
Receiving Stage
In-process Stage
Final Stage
 Quality Control
Receiving Stage
In-process Stage
Final Stage
 Identification & elimination of non-conformity
Risk Management

Aims to reduce the impact of project risks on the


objectives of the project
Risk responsive scheduling of project
Identification & classification of risk activities
Risk level analysis
Risk probability analysis
Identification of risk mitigation measures
Planning of risk impact mitigation activities
Communication Management

 Development of system
 Identification of data
 Collection of data
 Verification of data
 Sorting, filtration & isolation of data
 Storage of data
 Conversion of data into information
 Report generation
 Communication
Human Resource Management

 Classification of HR Requirement
 Development of HR Requirement Schedule
 Identification of source
 Procurement
 Training
 Motivational aspects
 Identification of HR loss and corrective measures
Health, Safety Management

Health hazards and preventive measures


Implementation of safety regulations / provisions
Education & training to workers
Publicity of safety requirements
Regular machinery/equipment inspection
Regular safety audits
Insurance
Post accident analysis and corrective measures
HS- Hazard Analysis and Prevention Planning

 Identification of Safety and Health Challenges


 Work Specification Requirements
 Management Systems Requirements
 Safety and Health Management Performance
Indicator
 Requirement for Enabling Works
 Physical Infrastructure
 Work Environment Constraints
 Preventive Measures for High Risk Construction
Areas
HS-Management System Requirements

 Policy, Objective and Target


 Management Commitment
 Organization Structure
 Roles, Responsibility and Authority
 System Integration
 Statutory Requirements for HSE
 Project Specific Health & Safety Plan
 Project Safety & Health Rules and Regulations
Safety Health Management Requirements at Site

 Site Layout
 Access
 Circulation
 Emergency Access
 Access Controls
 Security System against Sabotage and Pilferage
 Project Facilities for Labour
 Identification
 Accommodation & Transportation
 Drinking Water, Toilet, Canteen, Crèche etc.
 Rest Shelter, First Aid/Dispensary/Emergency Facilities
 Community Welfare
HS- Capacity Building

 Induction Training
 HS Awareness Program
 Training for Communicative Skills
 Training for Usages of Personal Protective
Equipment
 Construction Worker Behavioral Analysis
 Need Based Tailor-made training Programs
HS- Performance Monitoring and Improvement

 Health and Safety Management Audits


 Walk-Around Audits
 Third Party Inspections
 Safety Statistics
 Deficiency Reporting
 Analysis of Accidents
 Corrective and Improvement Action
 Efficacy Assessment of Corrective Actions
Integration Management

Aims to ensure that the various organizational teams


perform in an integrated manner, with their actions
coordinated to the mutual interests towards the
project.

 Clearly defining of responsibility


 Formation of coordination groups/committees
 Resolving the conflicts and competing interests
 Proper integration of group output
Sustainability Management
• Minimizing adverse environmental impact of
activities, products and services.
• Limiting any adverse impact within the
laws/prescribed norms and their monitoring.
• Safety of environment while working with
hazardous materials and maintaining
material safety data sheets.
• Management of disposal of waste from the
construction sites.
• Considering positive environmental
contribution particularly after completion of
construction.
• Mechanism to review concerns of interested
parties.
Other Management Issues

Steady increase of global population, awareness,


vested interests, rapid depletion of natural resources
etc. require the Project Manager to address many
other issues such as
 Energy Management
 Social Security Management
 Gender Equlaity Manaagaemnt
Time Management

 Need of Time Management


 Project Time Determination
 Time Planning Process
 Time Monitoring Process
 Based on Weightage Concept
 Earned Value Management Technique
 Time Control Process
 Time Cost Trade-off
Need forTime Management
Need for Time management of the project generates
from
 Date specific project completion
 Sub project of a large dependent project
 Availability of resources
 Match the time frame of user
 Control the direction and organization of project
functions
 Co-ordinate the activities and responsibilities of
stake holders
Project Time Determination

The determination of the optimum Project Time is


based on
 Past experience of similar project
 Time constraints laid down by stake holders
 Availability of resources
 Work Activities time durations
 Environmental constraints
Types of Projects
Approach to time management depends on the nature
and complexities of project

Building Projects Long Duration Projects


Infrastructure Projects Medium Duration Projects
Industrial Projects Short Duration Projects
Other Projects Special Short Duration Proj.
Mega Value Projects Fast track Projects
Large Value Projects Normal Pace Projects
Medium Value Projects
Small Value Projects
Time Management
Aims to complete the project in the stipulated time
period
 Defining Project Scope in WBS
 Activity identification and listing
 Activity duration estimation
 Activity sequencing with interactivity dependency
 Project schedule development
 Project schedule monitoring & control
Time Planning Process
Baseline Schedule/Bar Charts/
Gantt Charts/ Network Diagrams
from Time Planning
Time Monitoring Process
Communicating
monthly/ weekly Targets Preparation of Planned
Resources Curves and
"S Curves" for Project WBS

Site Collection of data from site


Execution execution teams through
Works Daily, Weekly & Monthly
Progress Reports

Generation of MIS
reports

Updated Schedule with Planned vs Actual Planned vs Actual "S


Actuals & Revised Resource deployment Curves" & Variance
dates for Start & Finish & Productivity Analysis

Communicating the
Status reports
Compelled Project Status
Report for Time Control
Time Control process
Time Monitoring – Weightage Concept

 Each activity is assigned a percent weightage based on


 Importance of work activity
 Tentative cost
 Level of required effort
 Cumulative weightage of all activities is plotted on
time scale to generate the S-Curve
 Planned and Actual Metric of S-Curve is used for time
monitoring
Time Baseline-Actual Progress
Baseline Vs Actual Progress
100%
Y Axis- Project % Progress

Baseline Monthly Plan


Actual Progress Monthly
80%
Baseline Plan Cumulative
Actual Progress Cumulative
60%

40%

20% Horizontal Shift - Time Delay Vertical Gap - Progress Shortfall

0%
Month-11
Month-1

Month-2

Month-3

Month-4

Month-5

Month-6

Month-7

Month-8

Month-9

Month-10

Month-12

Month-13

Month-14

Month-15

Month-16

Month-17

Month-18
X Axis - Project Timeline
0.0%
20.0%
40.0%
60.0%
80.0%
100.0%
M o n th -1
M o n th -2
M o n th -3
M o n th -4
M o n th -5
Baseline Plan Cumulative

Catch up Plan Cumulative


Actual Progress Cumulative

M o n th -6
M o n th -7
M o n th -8
M o n th -9
M o n th -1 0
M o n th -1 1
Catch up Plan

M o n th -1 2
M o n th -1 3
Time Catch-up Plan

M o n th -1 4
M o n th -1 5
M o n th -1 6
M o n th -1 7
M o n th -1 8
Time Monitoring – EVM Technique

 Integrates the Scope, Schedule & Cost of Project


 Basic elements are
 Planned Value (Budgeted cost of work schedule)
 Actual Cost of work performed
 Earned Value (Budgeted cost of work performed)
 Cost Variance (Earned value – Actual cost)
 Indicates the Health of Project
EVM Graph

CV
Cost

AC(ACWP)
SV

PV(BCWS)
Progress
EV(BCWP) Review

Time
Schedule & Cost Performance Index Graph
1.2
CPI Cost Perf. Index (CPI)= BCWP
SPI ACWP
"GOOD"

1.1 Sched. Perf. Index (SPI) = BCWP


BCWS

1
CPI
"BAD"

0.9 SPI

0.8
Time-Cost Tradeoff

A Process to reduce the project duration with a


minimum increase in the project direct cost
 Identification of All the Paths of Network where
Balance Path Duration > Crashed Project Duration
 Identification of activities with minimum Time-Cost
Slope
 Shortening of selected activities
 Rescheduling of Activities / Network
 Calculation of Crashed Project Duration / Cost
Time-Cost Slope
Crash Crash
Point Cost
Normal
Point
Cost

Normal
Cost

Duration
Crash Time Normal Time
Need for Safety
• Why safety is needed in construction ? & Why we are talking
about to spread the construction safety awareness ?
• Because it cost more than we realize
Consequences
• Moral Responsibility
Prevent suffering and maintain quality of life
No-one should be expected to risk life and limb in return for a
contract of employment 
• Legal Responsibility, The Building & Other Construction Workers
Act 1996
• Failures can lead to:
Enforcement notices
Prosecution
Civil actions for compensation 
• Economical Responsibility
• Direct and Indirect loss
Direct & Indirect Losses
1.Production loss 10.Cost of overtime to complete
2.Material, plant. Building the order
damage, 11.Loss time of co-workers
3.legal cost 12.Loss of supervisory time
13.Cost of police
4.Fine to be paid to the client
5.Expenditure on emergency 14.Diverted clerical efforts for
operations such as finding the dealing with Govt.
drowned body etc authorities 15.Legal cost
16.Loss of expertise
6.Cleaning the site 17.Transportation cost of injured
7.Cost of putting the things in person, dead body etc.
order 18.Loss of business, goodwill,
8.Cost of production delay name of the company
9.Effect on subsequent process
Case Study I

• Date of Accident : October 2004


• Day :Sunday
• Time :15.30 hour
• Name : Mr. XYZ Designation :Erection Foreman
• Age : 45 years
Description
• The erection of gantry cranewas in progress.
• Two beams of 11.5mX1.5mX0.75m weighing about 6 tonnes were lying on
concrete sleepers. Out of two beams one beam was lying on sleeper in
horizontal position. The other beam was in vertical position and was to be
positioned to make the alignment with first beam. Slings were placed around
the vertical beam.
• Mr.XYZ went up the beam to adjust the sling.He adjusted the sling and stood
in between the two beams.
• In the mean time some one gave signal to the Crane operator to lift the
beam. The Crane operator lifted the beam byabout 4mm up its position.
During that operation beams swayed towards the first beam and Mr.XYZ was
caught between the two beams.
• On hearing the scream, the crane operator placed the beam back on its
original position. Mr. XYZ got up and tried to get out of two beams but he
stumbled and fell down on sleepers, got injury near left eyebrow.
• He was taken to hospital. He was declared dead on arrival.
Cost
• Loss of execution for one day –Rs.20,00,000/-
• Payment made on humanity ground to Mr. XYZ’s family by company
– Rs.20,000/-
• Payment made on humanity ground to Mr. XYZ’s family by
contractor – Rs.10,000/-
• Family traveling expenses –Rs.5000/-,
• Seven cranes were stopped for work, for inspection testing etc. –
Rs.10,00,000/-
• Two days slackness in the work –Rs.7,00,000/-
• Payment to be made to client –Rs. 1,00,000/-
• Police enquiry faced by contractor’s people –Rs. 25,000/-
• Mediclaim amount. Accident Death Cover Amount Voluntary
contribution by employees for the family.
Cost of the following items is tremendous
but cannot be calculated:
• Company management has to face enquiry at 3 places of client.
• Mental torture to the team for 5 days
• Moral of the entire team was down for how many days?
• Loss of a good head of erection team.
Case Study II
• Date of Accident: 19thJuly, 2013
• Day: Friday
• Time:13.20 hour
• Designation the persons died :Outsider –Tea Stall Vendor
• Age: 32 years
Description
• HDD Pilot has broken the inflammable gas pipe line at a depth of
4.2 meter, and gas leakage has started.
• This has affected the surrounding area. The gas was ignited due to
burning flame in stove in nearby tea stall trolley. This has resulted in
a burst of fire because of which the tea stall vendor and Helper
suffered burn injuries.
• They were rushed to nearest hospital. The Tea Stall vendor died
due to 90 percent burn injury after 3 days and helper was still under
treatment.
• In the fire 3 vehicles (01 Wagon R, 01 Scooter and 01 Motorcycle)
parked nearby were also burnt.
Cost
• Loss of execution for one month –Rs.30,00,000/-
• Payment made to Mr. XYZ’s family by company – Rs. 1,00,000/-
• Payment made to Mr. XYZ’s family by contractor – Rs. 50,000/-
• Cost of Vehicle damage –Rs. 4,00,000/-
• Cost of Gas Pipe line repair –Rs 5,00,000/-
• Police enquiry faced by contractor’s people –Rs. 2,00,000/-
Intangible Cost
• Cost of the following items is tremendous but cannot be calculated:
1Company management had to face enquiry from (Gas Authority a
nd Police)
2.Mental torture to the team for 15 days. Engineer I/C Arrested for
15 days 3.Moral of the entire team was down for how many days?
4.Review and Change of Engineering Drawing, Design and Location
s of Working
Objectives
• To ensure that all workplaces are safe and without risk of injury to
the safety and health of workers;
• To protect persons present at or in the vicinity of a construction site
from all risks which may arise from such site.
• Preventing accidents, Diseases and Harmful effects
• Ensuring appropriate designing and implementation of
construction projects
Framework
• Governance
• Regulation
• Enforcement
• Legal
• Administrative
• Technical
• Educational
• Training
• Certification
• Research
Process
• Safety,
• Health
• Working conditions,
• Construction processes,
• Activities,
• Technologies
• Operations
• Planning,
• Control
• Enforcement
General Safety Requirements for Workplace

• Sanitation
• Fire Protection
• Clothing
• Safety Measures Against Fall Prevention
• Falling Materials Hazard Prevention
• Construction Machinery
Safety of workplaces
• Means of access and egress
• Housekeeping
• Precautions against the fall of materials and persons, and collapse
of structures
• Prevention of unauthorised entry
• Fire prevention and fire fighting
• Lighting
Construction Phase

• Organizational Structure
• Site Management
• Access for firefighting equipment vehicles
• Access to the upper floors during construction
• Electrical installations
• Construction Strategy and Construction Sequence
• Availability of resources (men, material and equipment);
• Construction methods employed including prefabrication;
• Planned construction time;
• Design requirements and load transfer mechanism;
• Stability of ground like in hilly terrain;
• Ensuring slope stability with retaining structure before the main construction;
• Installation and movement of heavy equipment like cranes and piling equipment;
• Effect of weather; and
• Minimum time to be spent on working below ground level.
Construction Practices
• Professional Services and Responsibilities
• Site Preparation
• Habitat for Construction Workers at Site
• Construction of All Elements
• Low Income Housing
• Use of New/Alternative Construction Techniques
• Urban Roads/City Roads Planning and Construction
Temporary Works

• Temporary works are the parts of a construction project


that are needed to enable the permanent works to be
built. access, scaffolds, props, shoring, excavation support,
false work. formwork, etc.
• Scaffolding
• Tower Cranes
• Falsework
• Formwork
• Trench Support
Storage, Stacking And Handling Practices
• Planning and Storage Layout
• Protection Against Atmospheric Agencies
• Manual Handling
• Storage, Stacking and Handling of Materials
• Cement
• Lime, Asphalt
• Masonry Units
• Floors, Wall and Roof Tiles
• Aggregate
• Pulverized Fuel Ash/Fly Ash/Silica
• Cinder
• Timber
• Bamboo
• Steel
• Aluminium Sections, Sanitory appliances
• Roofing Materials, Plastic Matereials, Paints,Glass Sheets, Pipes,
• Flameable Materials
Safety In Demolition Of Buildings
• Planning
• Precautions Prior to Demolition
• Precautions During Demolition
• Sequence of Demolition Operations
• Walls
• Flooring
• Demolition of Steel Structures
• Catch Platform
• Stairs, Passageways and Ladders
• Mechanical Demolition
• Demolition of Certain Special Types and Elements of Structures
• Miscellaneous
Areas
• Building, including excavation
• Construction,
• Structural alteration,
• Renovation, Repair, Maintenance (including cleaning and
painting) and
• Demolition of all types of buildings or structures;
Areas
• Civil engineering, including excavation and the construction,
structural alteration, repair, maintenance and demolition of:
• Airports,
• Docks, harbours, inland waterways,
• Dams, river and avalanche and sea defence works
• Roads and highways,
• Railways,
• Bridges,
• Tunnels, viaducts and
• Works related to the provision of services such as communications,
• Drainage, sewerage,
• Water and energy supplies;
Areas

• The erection and dismantling of:


• prefabricated buildings and structures,
• manufacturing of prefabricated elements on the construction site.
Scaffolds and ladders
• Materials
• Design and construction
• Inspection and maintenance
• Lifting appliances on scaffolds
• Prefabricated scaffolds
• Use of scaffolds
• Suspended scaffolds
Lifting appliances and gear
• Lifting appliances and gear
• Hoists
• Derricks Stiff-leg derricks
• Guy derricks
• Gin poles
• Tower cranes
• Lifting ropes
Transport, earth-moving and
materials-handling equipment
• Power shovels, excavators
• Bulldozers
• Scrapers
• Mobile asphalt layers and finishers
• Pavers
• Road rollers
Plant, machinery, equipment and hand tools

• Hand tools
• Pneumatic tools
• Cartridge-operated tools
• Electrical tools
• Woodworking machines
Plants
• Silos
• Concrete work equipments
• Pressure plant
• Conveyors
• Crusher plants
• Power generators
Excavations, shafts, earthworks,
underground works and tunnels

• Excavations
• Underground construction
• Drilling
Transport, storage and handling of explosives

• Blasting
• Haulage
Repairs, Retrofitting and Strengthening Of Buildings

• Maintenance Management
• Prevention of Cracks
Repairs and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings

• General Principles and Concepts


• Structural Repairs/Restoration
• Seismic Strengthening
• Seismic Retrofitting
• Strengthening or Retrofititng Versus Reconstruction
Habitat and Welfare Requirements for Workers

• Habitat site selection criteria;


• Area requirements for the various facilities of the habitat;
• Design of the habitat including the construction materials;
• Specifications of living area, height of the rooms, windows and doors, ventilation;
• Specification and requirements for kitchen and other sanitary facilities, such as toilets,
bathrooms, etc;
• Fire and safety requirements;
• First aid and medical requirements;
• Crèches;
• Habitat operation and maintenance;
• Security;
• Recreational facilities;
• Waste management;
• Habitat inspection and monitoring; and
• Other facilities.
Thank you..
IS 15883:2009
Construction Project Management

Part 1 – General
Part 2 – Time Management
Part 3 – Cost Management
Part 4 – Quality Management
Part 5 – Safety and Health Management
Construction Planning and Site Management

• Construction planning aspects aim to identify and develop various


stages of project execution on site which should be consistent with
the management considerations. Planning aspects evolve out of the
objectives of project and requirements of the final completed
constructed facility. These objectives could relate to the time
constraints, cost considerations, quality standards, safety standards,
environmental considerations and health considerations.
Construction practices would, then have to satisfy these objectives
during construction phase of the project
Health and Safety Management Requirements

• Health and Safety policy


• Project specific Health and safety planning
• Resources, roles, responsibility and authority
• Competence, training and awareness
• Health and safety communication
• Health and safety reporting
• Operation control
• Permit to work systems
• Design and engineering
• Certification of plant and machinery, lifting tools and tackles
Health and Safety Management Requirements

• Subcontractor management
• Fire prevention and control
• Access control
• Safety of visitors
• Traffic and logistics management
• Performance monitoring and improvement
• Reward and reprimand
• Promoting positive health and safety culture
• Integration with other management systems.
• Preconstruction Phase During the design stage, the site conditions should
be fully understood with anticipated difficulties and avoid the risk of
subsequent delays and changes after the construction has started.
• The selection of construction methods, building systems and materials,
components, manpower and equipment and techniques
• Construction in busy localities of cities needs special considerations and
meticulous planning due to restricted space, adjoining structures,
underground utilities, traffic restrictions, noise and environmental pollution
• The constructability aspects of the proposed construction methods needs to
be carefully evaluated
• Construction practices in hilly regions needs to take into considerations the
problem of landslides, slope stability, drainage, etc, besides ensuring no
adverse impact on the fragile environmental conditions.
• Durability of constructions in corrosive atmospheric conditions like
coastal regions and aggressive ground situations with high chlorides
and sulphates should also be taken care
• Construction practices in disaster prone areas need specific planning
• Adverse weather conditions have strong bearing on construction
phase
Construction Project Management
• A non-recurring task having a definable beginning and end,
with a definite mission and has a set of objectives and
achievements
• Construction project management refers to such project
management when applied to construction of built facility
• Project objectives may be defined in terms of scope, time,
cost and quality.
• Stakeholder- Owner/Client, Project Manager, Consultants,
Construction Agencies And Users
Construction Project Delivery Models

Traditional Design-Bid-Build Projects


Design-Build Projects
Turn-key Projects
Build-Operate-Transfer Projects
Variants and Combinations
Construction Methodologies/Techniques

Conventional Techniques
Prefabricated Construction
Mixed / Composite Approach
Mechanization in Construction
Other Innovative Technology

Selection based on Scope, Time, Cost, Quality


requirements.
Organizational Structures

Owner/client or
his
representative

Project
Manager

Consultant Construction
s agencies

Planning Design Quantity Services Other Civil works Electrical/ Other


Survey Consultant Mechanical services
s works
Construction Project Stages
Project Appraisal
Inception
Feasibility
Strategic Planning
Pre-Construction Stage
Project Development
Planning for Construction
Tender Action
Construction
Completion & Hand Over
• Miscellaneous Items
• Finishes
• Fr
• Fragile Fixtures
• Electrical Installations and Lifts
Construction Project Stages
Project Appraisal

Inception
Feasibility
Strategic Planning
Pre-Construction Stage
Project Development
Planning for Construction
Tender Action
Construction
Completion & Hand Over
Safety In Construction
• Safety Management
• Temporary Construction, Use of Side Walls and Temporary
Encroachments
• Testing
• Inspection and Rectification of Hazardous Defects
• Foundations
• General Requirements and Common Hazards During Excavation
• Piling and Other Deep Foundations
• Walls
• Common Hazards During Walling
• Roofing
• Additional Safety Requirements for Erection of Concrete Framed
Structures (High-Rise Buildings
Resource Planning

• Men
• Material
• Cash Flow