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A

ECD LAB PROJECT REPORT

on

Design and Simulation of Missing Pulse Detector

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

in

Electronics & Communication Engineering

Submitted by

PRAGYA SHIVHARE

(1513331XXX)

Under the Supervision of

Miss Khyati Kandpal

(Asst. Professor ECE)

Noida Institute of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida (UP), India

of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida (UP), India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow (UP)
of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida (UP), India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow (UP)

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow (UP), India

November 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

1. Aim

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2. Components Required

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3. Theory

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3.1 Major Components

2

3.2 Circuit Diagram

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3.3 Working

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4. Software Simulation

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5. Hardware Implementation

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6. Result

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7. References

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AIM:

Design and Implementation of Missing Pulse Detector using IC 555.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

Following components used in this project.

1 x 555 Timer (IC 1)

1 x PNP Transistor NTE159 (Q1)

1 x LED (Light Emitting Diode) (D1)

2 x 1kΩ Resistor (R1, R2)

2 x Capacitor (C1=0.1uF, C2=0.01uF)

1 x 9v Battery with holder

1 x Switch

1 x Breadboard

SOFTWARE USED:

Proteous 8 Professional Version: 8.7

THEORY:

This circuit uses a 555 timer chip to detect a missing pulse. The input is a square wave. When you click the logic input (the "L") to bring it high, then the input will stop oscillating and stay high. The 555 will detect this and bring the output low.

The 555 is wired as a monostable. But whenever the input goes low, it turns on a transistor which quickly drains the capacitor. When the input goes high, the capacitor recharges, but doesn't quite make it to the threshold voltage before the input goes low again. If the input stays high, then the capacitor is allowed to charge fully, and the 555 timing interval ends, bringing the output low.

Interesting applications for the Missing pulse detector circuit are:

Monitoring the heartbeat of a patient

Monitoring the rotational speed of a device. The circuit warns when the speed drops, etc.

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MAJOR COMPONENTS:

1. 555 Timer

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin dual in-line package (DIP-8). Variants available include the 556 (a DIP-14 combining two complete 555s on one chip), and 558 / 559 (both a DIP-16 combining four reduced-functionality timers on one chip).

The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 °C to +70 °C, and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range, −55 °C to +125 °C. These were available in both high- reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) packages. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V, NE555T, SE555V, and SE555T.

Low-power CMOS versions of the 555 are also available, such as the Intersil ICM7555 and Texas Instruments LMC555, TLC555, TLC551. CMOS timers use significantly less power than bipolar timers, also CMOS timers cause less supply noise than bipolar version when the output switches states. The ICM7555 datasheet claims that it usually doesn't require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor across the power supply pins. For good design practices, a decoupling capacitor should be included, however, because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage might interfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages.

The IC 555 has three operating modes:

Astable (free-running) mode the 555 can operate as an electronic oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse width modulation and so on. The 555 can be used as a simple ADC, converting an analog value to a pulse length (e.g., selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor and the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature). The use of a microprocessor-based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.

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Monostable mode in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce-free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse width modulation (PWM) and so on.

Bistable (Schmitt trigger) mode the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches.

is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches. Fig 1: 555 IC and internal connections 2. PNP

Fig 1: 555 IC and internal connections

2. PNP Transistor

The term ‘PNP’ stands for positive, negative, positive and also known as sourcing. The PNP transistor is a BJT; in this transistor the letter ‘P’ specifies the polarity of the voltage necessary for the emitter terminal. The second letter ‘N’ specifies the polarity of the base terminal. In this kind of transistor, the majority charge carriers are holes In NPN transistor, the flow of current runs from the collector terminal to the emitter terminal. A PNP transistor switches ON, when there is no flow of current at the base terminal of the transistor. In PNP transistor, the flow of current runs from the emitter terminal to the collector terminal. As a result, a PNP transistor switch ON by a low signal, where NPN transistor switches ON by a high signal

switch ON by a low signal, where NPN transistor switches ON by a high signal Fig
switch ON by a low signal, where NPN transistor switches ON by a high signal Fig

Fig 2 PNP Transistor and its symbol

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3.

LED (Light Emitting Diode)

It is an electronic device which glows up when current is passed through it. A light-emitting diode

(LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it.

The light is not particularly bright, but in most LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength.

LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. Fig 3: LED and its Symbol 4.
LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. Fig 3: LED and its Symbol 4.

Fig 3: LED and its Symbol

4. Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a

circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. Resistors are used for many purposes

among other uses. Resistors are used for many purposes Fig 4 : Resistor and its Symbol
among other uses. Resistors are used for many purposes Fig 4 : Resistor and its Symbol

Fig 4 : Resistor and its Symbol

5. Capacitor

The capacitor is a component which has the ability or “capacity” to store energy in the form of an electrical charge producing a potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates, much like a small rechargeable battery.

There are many different kinds of capacitors available from very small capacitor beads used in resonance circuits to large power factor correction capacitors, but they all do the same thing, they store charge.

In its basic form, a capacitor consists of two or more parallel conductive (metal) plates which are not

connected or touching each other, but are electrically separated either by air or by some form of a good insulating material such as waxed paper, mica, ceramic, plastic or some form of a liquid gel as

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used in electrolytic capacitors. The insulating layer between a capacitors plates is commonly called the Dielectric

a capacitors plates is commonly called the Dielectric Fig 5: Different Capacitors and their symbols 6.

Fig 5: Different Capacitors and their symbols

6. Battery and its Clip

When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to

an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement

of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.

Clip: It is the thing with two studs on it, it provides an electrical connection to the battery.

on it, it provides an electrical connection to the battery. Fig 6: 9V Battery and its

Fig 6: 9V Battery and its Clip

7. Push Switch

A

push button is a momentary or non-latching switch which causes a temporary change in the state

of

an electrical circuit only while the switch is physically actuated. An automatic mechanism (i.e. a

spring) returns the switch to its default position immediately afterwards, restoring the initial circuit

condition. There are two types:

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A push to make switch allows electricity to flow between its two contacts when held in. When the button is released, the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Open (NO) Switch. (Examples: doorbell, computer case power switch, calculator buttons, individual keys on a keyboard)

switch, calculator buttons, individual keys on a keyboard) Fig 7a: Push to make switch symbol 

Fig 7a: Push to make switch symbol

A push to break switch does the opposite, i.e. when the button is not pressed, electricity can flow, but when it is pressed the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Closed (NC) Switch. (Examples: Fridge Light Switch, Alarm Switches in Fail-Safe circuits)

Fridge Light Switch, Alarm Switches in Fail-Safe circuits) Fig 7b: Push to break switch symbol 8.

Fig 7b: Push to break switch symbol

8. Breadboard

A breadboard is a solderless device for temporary prototype with electronics and test circuit designs. Most electronic components in electronic circuits can be interconnected by inserting their leads or terminals into the holes and then making connections through wires where appropriate. The breadboard has strips of metal underneath the board and connect the holes on the top of the board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below. Note that the top and bottom rows of holes are connected horizontally and split in the middle while the remaining holes are connected vertically

are connected horizontally and split in the middle while the remaining holes are connected vertically Fig

Fig 8: Breadboard

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Circuit Diagram:

The circuit diagram of missing pulse detector and its output waveform is shown below-

pulse detector and its output waveform is shown below- Fig. 9. Circuit Diagram and Output Waveform

Fig. 9. Circuit Diagram and Output Waveform of Missing Pulse Detector

WORKING:

This circuit is a missing pulse detector, i.e., it can be used to detect missing pulses in an incoming pulse train. The main component of this circuit is the 555 timer IC. In this circuit, it is configured as a monostable multivibrator, i.e., a circuit which will output a single pulse every time it is 'triggered'.

Every time a pulse arrives at pin 2 of the 555 timer in this circuit, the 555 is triggered to output a single pulse at pin 3. The width of this output pulse is defined by the values of R2 and C1. R2 and C1 must be chosen such that the output pulse width is slightly greater than the time between each incoming pulse. If the arrival of the pulses at pin 2 is continuous, the output will never complete a single pulse. This is because the 555 timer will always be retriggered and C1 will always be discharged through Q1 every time a new input pulse arrives. As such, the output of pin 3 will always be 'high'.

However, a missing pulse will allow pin 3 to output a complete pulse. This means that it will change its state from 'high' to 'low' after the set pulse width has been attained. Thus, a change in state of the output of this circuit signifies that it has detected a missing pulse in the pulse train arriving at the input

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SOFTWARE SIMULATION:

The software we have used for the simulation of our lab project is “Proteous 8 Professional”. The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and technicians to create schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. The simulation result of the circuit is shown below.

and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. The simulation result of the circuit is shown
and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. The simulation result of the circuit is shown

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Fig.10: Simulation of the Missing Pulse Detector. 9

Fig.10: Simulation of the Missing Pulse Detector.

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HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION:

The circuit was implemented on breadboard The circuit is driven with the 9V battery. The hardware result obtained is same as the simulation result was, which is shown below.

result obtained is same as the simulation result was, which is shown below. Fig. 11: Hardware
result obtained is same as the simulation result was, which is shown below. Fig. 11: Hardware

Fig. 11: Hardware implementation of circuit

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RESULT:

The ECD lab project i.e., Missing Pulse Detector using 555 Timer has been design and implementation properly. And the simulation of the circuit on software has also been performed successfully and hardware implementation is also done.

REFERENCES:

[1] http://www.circuitstoday.com/missing-pulse-detector-circuit-using-ne555 [2] https://electronicsarea.com/missing-pulse-detector-circuit-555-timer/ [3] https://forum.allaboutcircuits.com/threads/555-timer-as-a-missing-pulse-detector.5170/ [4] Digital Electronics : An Introduction To Theory And Practice by William Gothmann [5] Microelectronic Circuits by sidra and smith

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