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Submitted to: Submitted by:


Mr. DEEPAK SOOD
(Asst. prof. In ece dept.) PRADEEP(1407234)

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INDEX
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION BASICS AND HISTORY

1.1 History of Microstrip Patch Antenna 9-10

1.2 Overview 10-22

1.3 How Antenna Radiates 22-31

1.4 Advantage and disadvantage 31-32

Chapter 2 FEEDING

2.1 Feeding Techniques 32-36

Chapter 3 LITERATURE

3.1 Method of Analysis 37-41

3.2 Antenna Literature 42-51

Chapter 4 FABRICATION

4.1 Fabricated Antenna 52-53

Chapter 5 TESTING AND RESULTS

5.1 Antenna Measurement 54-56

5.2 RESULT 57-64

LIST OF REFERENCES 65-66

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Name of Figures

Fig. 1 Surface waves

Fig. 2 Leaky waves

Fig. 3 Radiation pattern

Fig. 4 Linear polarization

Fig. 5 Circular polarization

Fig. 6 Transmit (Tx) and Receive (Rx) Antennas separated by R.

Fig. 7 A negative charge has an associated Electric Field with it,


everywhere in space.

Fig. 8 The E-fields when the charge is accelerated.F

Fig. 9 (a) Geometry of Microstrip (Patch) Antenna. (b) Side View

Fig. 10 Magnitude of S11 versus Frequency.

Fig. 11 Side view of patch antenna with E-fields shown underneath.

Fig. 12 Radiation pattern of rectangular patch

Fig. 13 Common Shapes of microstrip patch elements

Fig. 14 Microstrip Line Feed

Fig. 15 Probe fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Fig. 16 Aperture Coupled Feed

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Fig. 17 Proximity Coupled Feed

Fig. 18 Transmission Line Model

Fig. 19 Microstrip Patch Antennas

Fig. 20 Top View of Antenna

Fig. 21 Side View of Antenna

Fig. 22 Charge distribution and current density creation on the


microstrip patch

Fig. 23 Various types of circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas:


(a) triangular patch,(b) square patch, (c) circular patch, (d) ring,
(e) pentagonal patch, and (f) elliptical patch.

Fig. 24 Two types of excitations for circularly polarized microstrip


antennas: (a) dual-fed patch and (b) singly fed patch.

Fig. 25 Typical configurations of dual-fed circularly Polarized


microstrip antennas: (a)circular patch and (b) square patch

Fig. 26 Typical configurations of singly fed circularly polarized


microstrip antennas: (a)Circular patch and (b) square patch

Fig. 27 Amplitude and phase of orthogonal modes for singly fed


circularly polarized microstrip antennas.

Fig. 28 Geometry of a ractangular patch antenna on a normally biased


ferrite substrate.

Fig. 29 Geometries of a rectangular patch antenna with (a) a


shortingwall, (b) a shorting

Fig. 30 Surface current distributions for meandered rectangular


microstrip patches with (a) meandering slits and (b) a pair of
triangular notches cut at the patch’s non radiating edges.

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Fig. 31 Microstrip-line-fed Planar Inverted-L Patch Antenna for


Compact Operation.

Fig. 32 Compact broadband microstrip Antenna

Fig. 33 Antenna using chip resistor

Fig. 34 Geometry of a stacked shorted patch antenna for compact


broadband operation.

Fig. 35 Compact circularly polarized rectangular microstrip Antenna

Fig. 36 Compact circularly polarized circular microstrip Antenna

Fig. 37 Back View Of Patch Antenna

Fig. 38 Front View Of Patch Antenna

Fig. 39 Plot of angle vs. voltage

Fig. 40 Block Diagram Of Microwave Setup

Fig. 41 Antenna Setup For Measuring E & H-Plane Characteristics

Fig. 42 Setup For Measurement At X-Band

Fig. 43 VSWR results of simulation

Fig. 44 Impedence plot of antenna

Fig. 45 Magnetic field vector plot of antenna

Fig. 46 Reflection coff. plot of antenna

Fig. 47 Electric field plot of antenna

Fig. 48 3D radiation plot of antenna

Fig. 49 Polarization plot of antenna

Fig. 50 E field plot of antenna


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Fig. 51 Gain plot of antenna

Fig. 52 Impedence plot of antenna

Fig. 53 VSWR plot of antenna

Fig. 54 3D radiation plot of antenna

Fig. 55 Radiation plot of antenna

Fig. 56 H field plot of antenna

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KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
(HARYANA)

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “Microstrip Patch Antenna” is the

bonafide work of “Pradeep Attri” who carried out the project work under

my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

PROF. SHARAD SHARMA PROF. DEEPAK SOOD

ASSTT. PROF. & HOD ASSTT. PROF.

( ECE) (ECE)

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CHAPTER1

History of Microstrip Patch Antenna


The rapid development of microstrip antenna technology began in the late 1970s. By the
early 1980s basic microstrip antenna elements and arrays were fairly well established in
terms of design and modeling, and workers were turning their attentions to improving
antenna performance features (e.g. bandwidth), and to the increased application of the
technology. One of these applications involved the use of microstrip antennas for integrated
phased array systems, as the printed technology of microstrip antenna seemed perfectly suited
to low-cost and high-density integration with active MIC or MMIC phase shifter and T/R
circuitry.

The group at the University of Massachusetts (Dan Schaubert, Bob Jackson, Sigfrid
Yngvesson) had received an Air Force contract to study this problem, in terms of design
tradeoffs for various integrated phased array architectures, as well as theoretical modeling of
large printed phased array antennas. The straightforward approach of building an integrated
millimeter wave array (or subarray) using a single GaAs substrate layer had several
drawbacks. First, there is generally not enough space on a single layer to hold antenna
elements, active phase shifter and amplifier circuitry, bias lines, and RF feed lines. Second,
the high permittivity of a semiconductor substrate such as GaAs was a poor choice for
antenna bandwidth, since the bandwidth of a microstrip antenna is best for low dielectric
constant substrates. And if substrate thickness is increased in an attempt to improve
bandwidth, spurious feed radiation increases and surface wave power increases. This latter
problem ultimately leads to scan blindness, whereby the antenna is unable to receive or
transmit at a particular scan angle. Because of these and other issues, they were looking at the
use of a variety of two or more layered substrates. One obvious possibility was to use two
back to-back substrates with feed through pins. This would allow plenty of surface area, and
had the critical advantage of allowing the use of GaAs (or similar) material for one substrate,
with a low dielectric constant for the antenna elements. The main problem with this approach
was that the large number of via holes presented fabrication problems in terms of yield and
reliability. They had looked at the possibility of using a two sided-substrate with printed slot
antennas fed with microstrip lines, but the bidirectionality of the radiating element was
unacceptable.

At some point in the summer of 1984 they arrived at the idea of combining these two
geometries, using a slot or aperture to couple a microstrip feed line to a resonant microstrip
patch antenna.

After considering the application of small hole coupling theory to the fields of the microstrip
line and the microstrip antenna, they designed a prototype element for testing. Their intuitive

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theory was very simple, but good enough to suggest that maximum coupling would occur
when the feed line was centered across the aperture, with the aperture positioned below the
center of the patch, and oriented to excite the magnetic field of the patch.

The first aperture coupled microstrip antenna was fabricated and tested by a graduate
student, Allen Buck, on August 1, 1984, in the University of Massachusetts Antenna Lab.
This antenna used 0.062” Duroid substrates with a circular coupling aperture, and operated at
2 GHz. As is the case with most original antenna developments, the prototype element was
designed without any rigorous analysis or CAD - only an intuitive view of how the fields
might possibly couple through a small aperture. They were pleasantly surprised to find that
this first prototype worked almost perfectly – it was impedance matched, and the radiation
patterns were good. Most importantly, the required coupling aperture was small enough so
that the back radiation from the coupling aperture was much smaller than the forward
radiation level.

The geometry of the basic aperture coupled patch antenna is described. The radiating
microstrip patch element is etched on the top of the antenna substrate, and the microstrip feed
line is etched on the bottom of the feed substrate. The thickness and dielectric constants of
these two substrates may thus be chosen independently to optimize the distinct electrical
functions of radiation and circuitry. Although the original prototype antenna used a circular
coupling aperture, it was quickly realized that the use of a rectangular slot would improve the
coupling, for a given aperture area, due to its increased magnetic polarizability. Most aperture
coupled microstrip antennas now use rectangular slots, or variations thereof.

Aim and Objectives

Microstrip patch antenna used to send onboard parameters of article to the ground while
under operating conditions. The aim of the thesis is to design and fabricate an probe -
fedSquare Microstrip Patch Antenna and study the effect of antenna dimensions Length
(L),and substrate parameters relative Dielectric constant (εr), substrate thickness (t) on
theRadiation parameters of Bandwidth and Beam-width.

Overview of Microstrip Antenna

A microstrip antenna is characterized by its Length, Width, Input impedance, and Gain
and radiation patterns. Various parameters of the microstrip antenna and its design
considerations were discussed in the subsequent chapters. The A microstrip antenna
consists of conducting patch on a ground plane separated by dielectric substrate. This
concept was undeveloped until the revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization and
large-scale integration in 1970. After that many authors have described the radiation
from the ground plane by a dielectric substrate for different configurations. The early
work of Munson on micro strip antennas for use as a low profile flush mounted antennas
on rockets and missiles showed that this was a practical concept for use in many antenna
system problems. Various mathematical models were developed for this antenna and its
applications were extended to many other fields. The number of papers, articles
published in the journals for the last ten years, on these antennas shows the importance
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gained by them. The micro strip antennas are the present day antenna designer’s choice.
Low dielectric constant substrates are generally preferred for maximum radiation. The
conducting patch can take any shape but rectangular and circular configurations are the
most length of the antenna is nearly half wavelength in the dielectric; it is a very critical
parameter, which governs the resonant frequency of the antenna. There are no hard and
fast rules to find the width of the patch.

Waves on Microstrip

The mechanisms of transmission and radiation in a microstrip can be understood by


considering a point current source (Hertz dipole) located on top of the grounded dielectric
substrate (fig. 1.1) This source radiateselectromagnetic waves. Depending on thedirection
toward which waves are transmitted, they fall within three distinct categories,each of which
exhibits different behaviors.

fig. dipole antenna

Surface Waves
The waves transmitted slightly downward, having elevation angles θ between π/2and π -
arcsin (1/√εr), meet the ground plane, which reflects them, and then meet the dielectric-to-air
boundary, which also reflects them (total reflection condition). The magnitude of the field
amplitudes builds up for some particular incidence angles that leads to the excitation of a
discrete set of surface wave modes; which are similar to the modes in metallic waveguide.
The fields remain mostly trapped within the dielectric, decaying exponentially above the
interface . The vector α, pointing upward, indicates the direction of largest attenuation. The
wave propagates horizontally along β, with little absorption in good quality dielectric. With
two directions of α and β orthogonal to each other, the wave is anon-uniform plane wave.
Surface waves spread out in cylindrical fashion around the excitation point, with field
amplitudes decreasing with distance (r), say1/r, more slowly than space waves. The same
guiding mechanism provides propagation within optical fibers . Surface waves take up some
part of the signal’s energy, which does not reach the intended user. The signal’s amplitude is
thus reduced, contributing to an apparent attenuation or a decrease in antenna efficiency.
Additionally, surface waves also introduce spurious coupling between different circuit or
antenna elements. This effect severely degrades the performance of microstrip filters because
the parasitic interaction reduces the isolation in the stop bands .In large periodic phased
arrays, the effect of surface wave coupling becomes particularly obnoxious, and the array can

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neither transmit nor receive when it is pointed at some particular directions (blind spots). This
is due to a resonance phenomenon, when the surface waves excite in synchronism the Floquet
modes of the periodic structure. Surface waves reaching the outer boundaries of an open
microstrip structure are reflected and diffracted by the edges. The diffracted waves provide an
additional contribution to radiation, degrading the antenna pattern by raising the side lobe and
the cross polarization levels. Surface wave effects are mostly negative, for circuits and for
antennas, so their excitation should be suppressed if possible.

Fig1. surface waves


Leaky Waves
Waves directed more sharply downward, with θ angles between π – arc sin (1/√εr) and π, are
also reflected by the ground plane but only partially by the dielectric-to-air boundary. They
progressively leak from the substrate into the air (Fig 1.3), hence their name laky waves, and
eventually contribute to radiation. The leaky waves are also non uniform plane waves for
which the attenuation direction α points downward, which may appear to be rather odd; the
amplitude of the waves increases as one moves away from the dielectric surface. This
apparent paradox is easily understood by looking at the figure 1.3; actually, the field
amplitude increases as one move away from the substrate because the wave radiates from a
point where the signal amplitude is larger. Since the structure is finite, this apparent divergent
behaviour can only exist locally, and the wave vanishes abruptly as one crosses the trajectory
of the first ray in the figure. In more complex structures made with several layers of different
dielectrics, leaky waves can be used to increase the apparent antenna size and thus provide a
larger gain .This occurs for favourable stacking arrangements and at a particular frequency.
Conversely, leaky waves are not excited in some other multilayer structures.

Fig2. leaky waves

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Guided Waves
When realizing printed circuits, one locally adds a metal layer on top of thesubstrate, which
modifies the geometry, introducing an additional reflecting boundary.
Waves directed into the dielectric located under the upper conductor bounce back and forth
on the metal boundaries, which form a parallel plate waveguide. The waves in the metallic
guide can only exist for some Particular values of the angle of incidence, forming a discrete
set of waveguide modes. The guided waves provide the normal operation of all transmission
lines and circuits,in which the electromagnetic fields are mostly concentrated in the volume
below the upper conductor. On the other hand, this build up of electromagnetic energy is not
favourable for patch antennas, which behave like resonators with a limited frequency
bandwidth.

Parameters for Designing Antenna Bandwidth


How can your cell phone and your television work at the same time? Both use antennas to
receive information from electromagnetic waves, so why isn't there a problem?

The answer goes back to the fundamental secret of the universe. No matter what information
you want to send, that waveform can be represented as the sum of a range of frequencies.
By the use of modulation (which in a nutshell shifts the frequency range of the waveform to
be sent to a higher frequency band), the waveforms can be relocated to separate frequency
bands.

As an example, cell phones that use the PCS (Personal Communications Service) band have
their signals shifted to 1850-1900 MHz. Television is broadcast primarily at 54-216 MHz.
FM radio operates between 87.5-108 MHz.

The set of all frequencies is referred to as "the spectrum". Cell phone companies have to pay
big money to get access to part of the spectrum. For instance, AT&T has to bid on a slice of
the spectrum with the FCC, for the "right" to transmit information within that band. The
transmission of EM energy is greatly regulated. When AT&T is sold a slice of the spectrum,
they can not transmit energy at any other band (technically, the amount transmitted must be
below some threshold in adjacent bands)

The Bandwidth of a signal is the difference between the signals high and low frequencies.
For instance, a signal transmitting between 40 and 50 MHz has a bandwidth of 10 MHz.

We'll wrap up with a table of frequency bands along with the corresponding wavelengths.
From the table, we see that VHF is in the range 30-300 MHz (30 Million-300 Million cycles
per second). At the very least then, if someone says they need a "VHF antenna", you should
now understand that the antenna should transmit or receive electromagnetic waves that have
a frequency of 30-300 MHz.

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Frequency Band Wavelength


Frequency Range Application
Name (Meters)
Extremely Low Underwater
3-30 Hz 10,000-100,000 km
Frequency (ELF) Communication
Super Low AC Power (though not a
30-300 Hz 1,000-10,000 km
Frequency (SLF) transmitted wave)
Ultra Low Frequency
300-3000 Hz 100-1,000 km
(ULF)
Very Low Frequency
3-30 kHz 10-100 km Navigational Beacons
(VLF)
Low Frequency (LF) 30-300 kHz 1-10 km AM Radio
Medium Frequency
300-3000 kHz 100-1,000 m Aviation and AM Radio
(MF)
High Frequency (HF) 3-30 MHz 10-100 m Shortwave Radio
Very High Frequency
30-300 MHz 1-10 m FM Radio
(VHF)
Ultra High Frequency Television, Mobile Phones,
300-3000 MHz 10-100 cm
(UHF) GPS
Super High Satellite Links, Wireless
3-30 GHz 1-10 cm
Frequency (SHF) Communication
High Frequency Astronomy, Remote
30-300 GHz 1-10 mm
(EHF) Sensing
400-790 THz
380-750 nm
Visible Spectrum (4*10^14- Human Eye
(nanometers)
7.9*10^14)
Table Frequency Bands

Basically the frequency bands each range over from the lowest frequency to 10 times the
lowest frequency. Antenna engineers further divide the bands into things like "X-band" and
"Ku-band". That is the basics of frequency. To understand at a more advanced level, read on,
or move to the next topic.

Bandwidth
Bandwidth is another fundamental antenna parameter. This describes the range of
frequencies over which the antenna can properly radiate or receive energy. Often, the desired
bandwidth is one of the determining parameters used to decide upon an antenna. For
instance, many antenna types have very narrow bandwidths and cannot be used for
wideband operation.

Bandwidth is typically quoted in terms of VSWR. For instance, an antenna may be described
as operating at 100-400 MHz with a VSWR<1.5. This statement implies that the reflection

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coefficient is less than 0.2 across the quoted frequency range. Hence, of the power delivered
to the antenna, only 4% of the power is reflected back to the transmitter. Alternatively, the
return loss S11=20*log10(0.2)=-13.98 dB.

Note that the above does not imply that 96% of the power delivered to the antenna is
transmitted in the form of EM radiation; losses must still be taken into account. Also, the
radiation pattern will vary with frequency. In general, the shape of the radiation pattern does
not change radically.

There are also other criteria which may be used to characterize bandwidth. This may be the
polarization over a certain range, for instance, an antenna may be described as having
circular polarization with an axial ratio <3dB from 1.4-1.6 GHz. This polarization
bandwidth sets the range over which the antenna's operation is roughly circular. The
bandwidth is often specified in terms of its Fractional Bandwidth (FBW). The antenna Q
also relates to bandwidth.

RADIATION PATTERN
A radiation pattern defines the variation of the power radiated by an antenna as a function
of the direction away from the antenna. This power variation as a function of the arrival
angle is observed in the far field.

As an example, consider the 3-dimensional radiation pattern in Figure 1, plotted in decibels


(dB) .

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Fig3. radiation pattern


This is an example of a donut shaped or toroidal pattern. In this case, along the z-axis, which
would correspond to the radiation directly overhead the antenna, there is very little power
transmitted. In the x-y plane (perpendicular to the z-axis), the radiation is maximum. These
plots are useful for visualizing which directions the antenna radiates.

Typically, because it is simpler, the radiation patterns are plotted in 2-d. In this case, the
patterns are given as "slices" through the 3d plane. The same pattern in Figure 1 is plotted in
Figure 2. Standard spherical coordinates are used, where ϴ is the angle measured off the z-
axis, and is the angle measured counterclockwise off the x-axis.
If you're unfamiliar with radiation patterns or spherical coordinates, it may take a while to
see that Figure 2 represents the same pattern as shown in Figure 1. The pattern on the left in
Figure 2 is the elevation pattern, which represents the plot of the radiation pattern as a
function of the angle measured off the z-axis (for a fixed azimuth angle). Observing Figure
1, we see that the pattern is minimum at 0 and 180 degrees and becomes maximum at
broadside to the antenna (90 degrees off the z-axis). This corresponds to the plot on the left
in Figure 2.

The plot on the right in Figure 2 is the azimuthal plot. It is a function of the azimuthal angle
for a fixed polar angle (90 degrees off the z-axis in this case). Since the pattern in Figure 1 is
symmetrical around the z-axis, this plot appears as a constant in Figure 2.

A pattern is "isotropic" if the radiation pattern is the same in all directions. These antennas
don't exist in practice, but are sometimes discussed as a means of comparison with real
antennas. Some antennas may also be described as "omnidirectional", which for an actual
means that it is isotropic in a single plane (as in Figure 1 above for the x-y plane). The third
category of antennas are "directional", which do not have a symmetry in the radiation
pattern.

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FIELD REGION
The fields surrounding an antenna are divided into 3 principle regions:
Reactive Near Field
Radiating Near Field or Fresnel Region
Far Field or Fraunhofer Region

The far field region is the most important, as this determines the antenna's radiation pattern.
Also, antennas are used to communicate wirelessly from long distances, so this is the region
of operation for most antennas. We will start with this region.

Far Field (Fraunhofer) Region


The far field is the region far from the antenna, as you might suspect. In this region, the
radiation pattern does not change shape with distance (although the fields still die off with
1/R^2). Also, this region is dominated by radiated fields, with the E- and H-fields
orthogonal to each other and the direction of propagation as with plane waves.

If the maximum linear dimension of an antenna is D, then the far field region is commonly
given as:

This region is sometimes referred to as the Fraunhofer region, a carryover term from optics.

Reactive Near Field Region


In the immediate vicinity of the antenna, we have the reactive near field. In this region, the
fields are predominately reactive fields, which means the E- and H- fields are out of phase
by 90 degrees to each other (recall that for propagating or radiating fields, the fields are
orthogonal (perpendicular) but are in phase).

The boundary of this region is commonly given as:

Radiating Near Field (Fresnel) Region

The radiating near field or Fresnel region is the region between the near and far fields. In
this region, the reactive fields are not dominate; the radiating fields begin to emerge.
However, unlike the Far Field region, here the shape of the radiation pattern may vary
appreciably with distance.

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The region is commonly given by:

Note that depending on the values of R and the wavelength, this field may or may not exist.

Finally, the above can be summarized via the following diagram:

DIRECTIVITY
Directivity is a fundamental antenna parameter. It is a measure of how 'directional' an
antenna's radiation pattern is. An antenna that radiates equally in all directions would have
effectively zero directionality, and the directivity of this type of antenna would be 1 (or 0
dB).

An antenna's normalized radiation pattern can be written as a function in spherical


coordinates

Because the radiation pattern is normalized, the peak value of F over the entire range of
angles is 1. Mathematically, the formula for directivity (D) is written as:

This equation might look complicated, but the numerator is the maximum value of F, and
the denominator just represents the "average power radiated over all directions". This
equation then is just a measure of the peak value of radiated power divided by the average.

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Impedance
An antenna's impedance relates the voltage to the current at the input to the antenna. This is
extremely important as we will see.

Let's say an antenna has an impedance of 50 ohms. This means that if a sinusoidal voltage is
input at the antenna terminals with amplitude 1 Volt, the current will have an amplitude of
1/50 = 0.02 Amps. Since the impedance is a real number, the voltage is in-phase with the
current.

Let's say the impedance is given as Z=50 + j*50 ohms (where j is the square root of -1).
Then the impedance has a magnitude of

and a phase given by

This means the phase of the current will lag the voltage by 45 degrees. To spell it out, if the
voltage (with frequency f) at the antenna terminals is given by

then the current will be given by

So impedance is a simple concept, which relates the voltage and current at the input to the
antenna. The real part of an antenna's impedance represents power that is either radiated
away or absorbed within the antenna. The imaginary part of the impedance represents power
that is stored in the near field of the antenna (non-radiated power). An antenna with a real
input impedance (zero imaginary part) is said to be resonant. Note that an antenna's
impedance will vary with frequency.

While simple, we will now explain why this is important, considering both the low
frequency and high frequency cases. It turns out (after studying transmission line theory for
a while), that the input impedance Zin is given by:

This is a little formidable for an equation to understand at a glance. However, the happy

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thing is:

If the antenna is matched to the transmission line (ZA=ZO), then the input impedance does
not depend on the length of the transmission line.

Polarization

Linear Polarization
A slot antenna is the counter part and the simplest form of a linearly polarized antenna. On a
slot antenna the E field is orientated perpendicular to its length dimension The usual
microstrip patches are just different variations of the slot antenna and all radiate due to linear
polarization.

fig.4 linear polarization

Circular Polarization
Circular polarization (CP) is usually a result of orthogonally fed signal input. When two
signals of equal amplitude but 90o phase shifted the resulting wave is circularly polarized.
Circular polarization can result in Left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) where the wave is
rotating anticlockwise, or Right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) which denotes a clockwise
rotation. The main advantage of using CP is that regardless of receiver orientation, it will
always receive a component of the signal. This is due to the resulting wave having an angular
variation.

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Fig5. circular polarization

Criteria for Circular Polarization


The E-field must have two orthogonal (perpendicular) components.
The E-field's orthogonal components must have equal magnitude.
The orthogonal components must be 90 degrees out of phase.

Effective Area

A useful parameter calculating the receive power of an antenna is the effective area or
effective aperture. Assume that a plane wave with the same polarization as the receive
antenna is incident upon the antenna. Further assume that the wave is travelling towards the
antenna in the antenna's direction of maximum radiation (the direction from which the most
power would be received).

Then the effective aperture parameter describes how much power is captured from a given
plane wave. Let W be the power density of the plane wave (in W/m^2). If P represents the
power at the antennas terminals available to the antenna's receiver, then:

Hence, the effective area simply represents how much power is captured from the plane
wave and delivered by the antenna. This area factors in the losses intrinsic to the antenna
(ohmic losses, dielectric losses, etc.). This parameter can be determine by measurement for
real antennas.

A general relation for the effective aperture in terms of the peak gain (G) of any antenna is
given by:

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Effective aperture will be a useful concept for calculating received power from a plane
wave. To see this in action, go to the next section on the Friis transmission formula.

Antenna Temperature
Antenna Temperature ( ) is a parameter that describes how much noise an antenna
produces in a given environment. This temperature is not the physical temperature of the
antenna. Moreover, an antenna does not have an intrinsic "antenna temperature" associated
with it; rather the temperature depends on its gain pattern and the thermal environment that
it is placed in.

To define the environment, we'll introduce a temperature distribution - this is the


temperature in every direction away from the antenna in spherical coordinates. For instance,
the night sky is roughly 4 Kelvin; the value of the temperature pattern in the direction of the
Earth's ground is the physical temperature of the Earth's ground. This temperature
distribution will be written as . Hence, an antenna's temperature will vary depending
on whether it is directional and pointed into space or staring into the sun.For an antenna
with a radiation pattern given by , the noise temperature is mathematically defined
as:

This states that the temperature surrounding the antenna is integrated over the entire sphere,
and weighted by the antenna's radiation pattern. Hence, an isotropic antenna would have a
noise temperature that is the average of all temperatures around the antenna; for a perfectly
directional antenna (with a pencil beam), the antenna temperature will only depend on the
temperature in which the antenna is "looking".The noise power received from an antenna at
temperature can be expressed in terms of the bandwidth (B) the antenna (and its
receiver) are operating over:

In the above, K is Boltzmann's constant (1.38 * 10^-23 [Joules/Kelvin = J/K]). The receiver
also has a temperature associated with it ( ), and the total system temperature (antenna
plus receiver) has a combined temperature given by . This temperature can
be used in the above equation to find the total noise power of the system. These concepts
begin to illustrate how antenna engineers must understand receivers and the associated

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electronics, because the resulting systems very much depend on each other.

How Antenna Radiates:


FRIIS TRANSMISSION FORMULA
This page is worth reading a couple times and should be fully understood. Consider two
antennas in free space (no obstructions nearby) separated by a distance R:

Fig6 Transmit (Tx) and Receive (Rx) Antennas separated by R.

Assume that PTWatts of total power are delivered to the transmit antenna. For the moment,
assume that the transmit antenna is omnidirectional, lossless, and that the receive antenna is
in the far field of the transmit antenna. Then the power p of the plane wave incident on the
receive antenna a distance R from the transmit antenna is given by:

If the transmit antenna has a gain in the direction of the receive antenna given by , then
the power equation above becomes:

The gain term factors in the directionality and losses of a real antenna. Assume now that the
receive antenna has an effective aperture given by . Then the power received by this
antenna ( ) is given by:

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Since the effective aperture for any antenna can also be expressed as:

The resulting received power can be written as:

This is known as the Friis Transmission Formula. It relates the free space path loss, antenna
gains and wavelength to the received and transmit powers. This is one of the fundamental
equations in antenna theory, and should be remembered (as well as the derivation above).

Finally, if the antennas are not polarization matched, the above received power could be
multiplied by the Polarization Loss Factor (PLF) to properly account for this mismatch..

HOW AN ANTENNA RADIATES


Obtaining an intuitive idea for why antennas radiate is helpful in understanding the
fundamentals of antennas. On this page, I'll attempt to give a low-key explanation with no
regard to mathematics on how and why antennas radiate electromagnetic fields.

First, lets start with some basic physics. There is electric charge - this is a quantity of nature
(like mass or weight or density) that every object possesses. You and I are most likely
electrically neutral - we don't have a net charge that is positive or negative. There exists in
every atom in the universe particles that contain positive and negative charge (protons and
electrons, respectively). Some materials (like metals) that are very electrically conductive
have loosely bound electrons. Hence, when a voltage is applied across a metal, the electrons
travel around a circuit - this flow of electrons is electric current (measured in Amps).

Lets get back to charge for a moment. Lets say that for some reason, there is a negatively
charged particle sitting somewhere in space. The universe has decided, for unknown reasons,
that all charged particles will have an associated electric field with them.

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Fig7. A negative charge has an associated Electric Field with it, everywhere in space.

So this negatively charged particle produces an electric field around it, everywhere in space.
The Electric Field is a vector quantity - it has a magnitude (how strong the field strength is)
and a direction (which direction does the field point). The field strength dies off (becomes
smaller in magnitude) as you move away from the charge. Further, the magnitude of the E-
field depends on how much charge exists. If the charge is positive, the E-field lines point
away from the charge. Now, suppose someone came up and punched the charge with their
fist, for the fun of it. The charge would accelerate and travel away at a constant velocity. How
would the universe react in this situation?

The universe has also decided (again, for no apparent reason) that disturbances due to moving
(or accelerating) charges will propagate away from the charge at the speed of light - c0 =
300,000,000 meters/second. This means the electric fields around the charge will be
disturbed, and this disturbance propagates away from the charge. This is illustrated in Figure
2.

Fig8.The E-fields when the charge is accelerated.

Once the charge is accelerated, the fields need to re-align themselves. Remember, the fields
want to surround the charge exactly as they did in Figure 1. However, the fields can only

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respond to events at the speed of light. Hence, if a point is very far away from the charge, it
will take time for the disturbance (or change in electric fields) to propagate to the point.

we have 3 regions. In the light blue (inner) region, the fields close to the charge have
readapted themselves and now line up as they do in Figure 1. In the white region (outermost),
the fields are still undisturbed and have the same magnitude and direction as they would if the
charge had not moved. In the pink region, the fields are changing - from their old magnitude
and direction to their new magnitude and direction.

Hence, we have arrived at the fundamental reason for radiation - the fields change because
charges are accelerated. The fields always try to align themselves as in Figure 1 around
charges. If we can produce a moving set of charges (this is simply electric current), then we
will have radiation.

Now, you may have some questions. First - if all accelerating electric charges radiate, then
the wires that connect my computer to the wall should be antennas, correct? The charges on
them are oscillating at 60 Hertz as the current travels so this should yield radiation, correct?

Answer: Yes. Your wires do act as antennas. However, they are very poor antennas. The
reason (among other things), is that the wires that carry power to your computer are a
transmission line - they carry current to your computer (which travels to one of your battery's
terminals and out the other terminal) and then they carry the current away from your
computer (all current travels in a circuit or loop). Hence, the radiation from one wire is
cancelled by the current flowing in the adjacent wire (that is travelling the opposite
direction).

Another question that will arise is - if its so simple, then everything could be an antenna.
Why don't I just use a metal paper clip as an antenna, hook it up to my receiver and then
forget all about antenna theory?

Answer: A paper clip could definitely act as an antenna if you get current flowing on the
antenna. However, it is not so simple to do this. The impedance of the paper clip will control
how much power your receiver or transmitter could deliver to the paper clip (i.e. whether or
not you could get any current flowing on the paper clip at all). The impedance will depend on
what frequency you are operating at. Hence, the paper clip will work at certain frequencies as
an antenna. However, you will have to know much more about antennas before you can say
when and it may work in a given situation.

In summary, all radiation is caused by accelerating charges which produce changing electric
fields. And due to Maxwell's Equations, changing electric fields give rise to changing
magnetic fields, and hence we have electromagnetic radiation. The subject of antenna theory
is concerned with getting power from your receiver to radiation away from an antenna. This
requires the impedance of your antenna to be roughly matched to your receiver, and that the
currents that cause radiation add up in-phase (that is, they don't cancel each other out as they
would in a transmission line). A multitude of antenna types produce ways of achieving this,
and you can find descriptions about them on the antenna list page.

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Microstrip or patch antennas are becoming increasingly useful because they can be printed
directly onto a circuit board. They are becoming very widespread within the mobile phone
market. They are low cost, have a low profile and are easily fabricated.

Consider the microstrip antenna shown in Figure 1, fed by a microstrip transmission line. The
patch, microstrip and ground plane are made of high conductivity metal. The patch is of
length L, width W, and sitting on top of a substrate (some dielectric circuit board) of

thickness h with permittivity . The thickness of the ground plane or of the microstrip is
not critically important. Typically the height h is much smaller than the wavelength of
operation.

(a) Top View

fig. 9Geometry of Microstrip (Patch) Antenna. (b) Side View

The frequency of operation of the patch antenna of Figure 1 is determined by the length L.
The center frequency will be approximately given by:

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The above equation says that the patch antenna should have a length equal to one half of a
wavelength within the dielectric (substrate) medium.

The width W of the antenna controls the input impedance. For a square patch fed in the
manner above, the input impedance will be on the order of 300 Ohms. By increasing the
width, the impedance can be reduced. However, to decrease the input impedance to 50 Ohms
often requires a very wide patch. The width further controls the radiation pattern. The
normalized pattern is approximately given by:

In the above, k is the free-space wave number, given by 2π/λ. The magnitude of the fields,
given by:

The directivity of patch antennas is approximately 5-7 dB. The fields are linearly polarized.
Next we'll consider more aspects involved in Patch (Microstrip) antennas.

Consider a square patch antenna fed at the end as before. Assume the substrate is air (or
styrofoam, with a permittivity equal to 1), and that L=W=1.5 meters, so that the patch is to
resonate at 100 MHz. The height h is taken to be 3 cm. Note that microstrips are usually
made for higher frequencies, so that they are much smaller in practice. When matched to a
200 Ohm load, the magnitude of S11 is shown in Figure 1.

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Fig10. Magnitude of S11 versus Frequency.

Some noteworthy observations are apparent from Figure 1. First, the bandwidth of the patch
antenna is very small. Rectangular patch antennas are notoriously narrowband; the bandwidth
of rectangular patches are typically 3%. Secondly, the antenna was designed to operate at 100
MHz, but it is resonant at approximately 96 MHz. This shift is due to fringing fields around
the antenna, which makes the patch seem longer. Hence, when designing a patch it is
typically trimmed by 2-4% to achieve resonance at the desired frequency.

The fringing fields around the antenna can help explain why the microstrip antenna radiates.
Consider the side view of a patch antenna, shown in Figure 2. Note that since the current at
the end of the patch is zero (open circuit end), the current is maximum at the center of the
half-wave patch and (theoretically) zero at the beginning of the patch. This low current value
at the feed explains in part why the impedance is high when fed at the end.

Since the patch antenna can be viewed as an open circuited transmission line, the voltage
reflection coefficient will be -1. When this occurs, the voltage and current are out of phase.
Hence, at the end of the patch the voltage is at a maximum (say +V volts). At the start of the
patch (a half-wavelength away), the voltage must be at minimum (-V Volts). Hence, the
fields underneath the patch will resemble that of Figure 2, which roughly displays the
fringing of the fields around the edges.

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Fig11. Side view of patch antenna with E-fields shown underneath.

It is the fringing fields that are responsible for the radiation. Note that the fringing fields near
the surface of the patch are both in the +y direction. Hence, these E-fields add up in phase
and produce the radiation of the microstrip antenna. As a side note, the smaller εr is, the more
"bowed" the fringing fields become; they extend farther away from the patch. Therefore,
using a smaller permittivity for the substrate yields better radiation. In contrast, when making
a microstrip transmission line (where no power is to be radiated), a high value of εr is desired,
so that the fields are more tightly contained (less fringing), resulting in less radiation. This is
one of the trade-offs in patch antenna design. There have been research papers written were
distinct dielectrics (different permittivities) are used under the patch and transmission line
sections, to circumvent this issue.

RADIATION PATTERN OF A RECTANGULAR PATCH

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Fig12. RADIATION PATTERN OF A RECTANGULAR PATCH

MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA


Microstrip antennas are attractive due to their light weight, conformability and lowcost.
These antennas can be integrated with printed strip-line feed networks and active devices.
This is a relatively new area of antenna engineering. The radiation properties of micro strip
structures have been known since the mid 1950’s. The application of this type of antennas
started in early 1970’s when conformal antennas were required for missiles. Rectangular and
circular micro strip resonant patches have been used extensively in a variety of array
configurations. A major contributing factor for recent advances of microstrip antennas is the
current revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization brought about by developments in
large scale integration. As conventional antennas are often bulky and costly part of an
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electronic system, micro strip antennas based on photolithographic technology are seen as an
engineering breakthrough.

Introduction
In its most fundamental form, a Microstrip Patch antenna consists of a radiatingpatch on one
side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side asshown in Figure
below The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can
take any possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on
the dielectric substrate.

In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction, the patch is generally square,
rectangular, circular, triangular, and elliptical or some other common shape as shown in
Figure 2.2. For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually 0.3333λo< L < 0.5 λo,
where λo is the free-space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t << λo
(where t is the patch thickness).The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually .003
λo≤h≤0.05 λo. The dielectric constant of the substrate (εr) is typically in the range 2.2 ≤ εr≤
12.

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Fig13. Common Shapes of microstrip patch elements


Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch
edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate having
a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency ,larger bandwidth
and better radiation. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to
design a compact Microstrip patch antenna, substrates with higher dielectric constants must
be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a trade-off must be
realized between the antenna dimensions and antenna performance.

ADVANTAGES
Microstrip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless
applications due to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely compatible for
embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc... The
telemetry and communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are
often in the form of Microstrip patch antennas. Another area where they have been used
successfully is in Satellite communication. Some of their principal advantages are given
below:
• Light weight and low volume.
• Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to
host surface.
• Low fabrication cost, hence can be manufactured in large quantities.
• Supports both, linear as well as circular polarization.
• Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs).
• Capable of dual and triple frequency operations.
• Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces.

DISADVANTAGES
Microstrip patch antennas suffer from more drawbacks as compared to conventional
antennas. Some of their major disadvantages aregiven below:
• Narrow bandwidth.
• Low efficiency.
• Low Gain.
• Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions.
• Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas.
• Low power handling capacity.
• Surface wave excitation.

Microstrip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). It represents the losses
associated with the antenna where a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. Q
can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. But as the thickness
increases, an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface
wave. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is
ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends and causes degradation of the antenna
characteristics. Other problems such as lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be
overcome by using an arrayconfiguration for the elements
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CHAPTER2
Feed Techniques
Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. These methods can be
classified into two categories- contacting and non-contacting. In the contacting method, the
RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a
microstrip line. In the non-contacting scheme, electromagnetic field coupling is done to
transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch. The four most popular
feed techniques used are the microstrip line, coaxial probe (both contacting schemes),
aperture coupling and proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes).

Microstrip Line Feed

In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the
Microstrip patch as shown in Figure 2.3. The conducting strip is smaller in width as
compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can
be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure.

Fig14. Microstrip Line Feed


The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the
patch without the need for any additional matching element. This is achieved by properly
controlling the inset position. Hence this is an easy feeding scheme, since it provides ease of
fabrication and simplicity in modeling as well as impedance matching. However as the
thickness of the dielectric substrate being used, increases, surface waves and spurious feed

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radiation also increases, which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna.The feed radiation also
leads to undesired cross polarized radiation. Coaxial Feed

The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding Microstrip
patch antennas. As seen from Figure 2.4, the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends
through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is
connected to the ground plane.
Figure

Fig15. Probe fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any
desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. This feed method
is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. However, a major disadvantage is that it
provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the
substrate and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane, thus not making it completely
planar for thick substrates (h > 0.02λo). Also, for thicker substrates, the increased probe
length makes the input impedance more inductive, leading to matching problems. It is seen
above that for a thick dielectric substrate, which provides broad bandwidth, the microstrip
line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. The non-contacting feed
techniques which have been discussed below,solve these issues.

Aperture Coupled Feed


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In this type of feed technique, the radiating patch and the microstrip feed line are separated
by the ground plane as shown in Figure below. Coupling between the patch and the feed line
is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane.

Fig16.Aperture Coupled Feed

The coupling aperture is usually centered under the patch, leading to lower crosspolarization
due to symmetry of the configuration. The amount of coupling from the feed line to the patch
is determined by the shape, size and location of the aperture. Since the ground plane separates
the patch and the feed line, spurious radiation is minimized. Generally, a high dielectric
material is used for bottom substrate and a thick, low dielectric constant material is used for
the top substrate to optimize radiation from the patch. The major disadvantage of this feed
technique is that it is difficult to fabricate due to multiple layers, which also increases the
antenna thickness. This feeding scheme also provides narrow bandwidth.

Proximity Coupled Feed


This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme. As shown
in Figure 2.6, two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two
substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. The main advantage of this
feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth
(as high as 13%), due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna.

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This scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media, one for the patch

Fig.17 Proximity Coupled Feed

and one for the feed line to optimize the individual performances. Matching can be achieved
by controlling the length of the feed line and the width to-line ratio of the patch. The major
disadvantage of this feed scheme is that it is difficultto fabricate because of the two dielectric
layers which need proper alignment. Also, thereis an increase in the overall thickness of the
antenna.

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CHAPTER3

Methods of Analysis
The preferred models for the analysis of Microstrip patch antennas are the transmission line
model, cavity model, and full wave model (which include primarily integral
equations/Moment Method). The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives
good physical insight but it is less accurate. The cavity model is more accurate and gives
good physical insight but is complex in nature. The full wave models are extremely accurate,
versatile and can treat single elements, finite and infinite arrays, stacked elements, arbitrary
shaped elements and coupling. These give less insight as compared to the two models
mentioned above and are far more complex in nature.

Transmission Line Model


This model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots of width W and height h, separated
by a transmission line of length L. The microstrip is essentially a nonhomogeneous line of
two dielectrics, typically the substrate and air.

Fig18. Transmission Line Model

Hence, as seen from Figure 2.8, most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and
parts of some lines in air. As a result, this transmission line cannot support pure transverse-
electric-magnetic (TEM) mode of transmission, since the phase velocities would be different
in the air and the substrate. Instead, the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasi-
TEM mode. Hence, an effective dielectric constant (εreff) must be obtained in order to
account for the fringing and the wave propagation in the line. The value of εreff is slightly
less then εr because the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in
the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 3.8 above. The
expression for εreff is given by Balanis as:

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Where εreff = Effective dielectric constant

εr = Dielectric constant of substrate

h = Height of dielectric substrate

W = Width of the patch

Consider Figure 2.9 below, which shows a rectangular microstrip patch antenna of length L,
width W resting on a substrate of height h. The co-ordinate axis is selected such that the
length is along the x direction, width is along the y direction and the height is along the z
direction.

Fig19. Microstrip Patch Antennas

In order to operate in the fundamental TM10 mode, the length of the patch must be slightly
less than λ/2 where λ is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to λo/√εreff
where λo is the free space wavelength. The TM10 mode implies that the field varies one λ/2
cycle along the length, and there is no variation along the width of the patch. In the Figure
2.10 shown below, the microstrip patch antenna is represented by two slots, separated by a
transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends. Along the width of the
patch, the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends. The fields at the
edges can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground
plane.

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Fig20. Top View of Antenna fig21. Side View of Antenna

It is seen from Figure 1.11 that the normal components of the electric field at the two edges
along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is λ/2 long
and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. The tangential components (seen
in Figure 1.11), which are in phase, means that the resulting fields combine to give maximum
radiated field normal to the surface of the structure. Hence the edges along the width can be
represented as two radiating slots, which are 2 / λ apart and excited in phase and radiating in
the half space above the ground plane. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as
radiating slots and electrically the patch of the microstrip antenna looks greater than its
physical dimensions. The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended
on each end by a distance L ∆, which is given empirically by Hammerstad [11] as:

The effective length of the patch Leff now becomes:

For a given resonance frequency o f, the effective length is given by [9] as:

For a rectangular Microstrip patch antenna, the resonance frequency for any TMnm mode is
given by James and Hall [14] as:

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Where m and n are modes along L and W respectively. For efficient radiation, the width W
is given by Bahl and Bhartia [15] as:

Cavity Model
Although the transmission line model discussed in the previous section is easy to use, it has
some inherent disadvantages. Specifically, it is useful for patches of rectangular design and it
ignores field variations along the radiating edges. These disadvantages can be overcome by
using the cavity model. A brief overview of this model is given below.

In this model, the interior region of the dielectric substrate is modeled as a cavity bounded by
electric walls on the top and bottom. The basis for this assumption is the following
observations for thin substrates (h << λ).

• Since the substrate is thin, the fields in the interior region do not vary much in the z
direction, i.e. normal to the patch.

• The electric field is z directed only, and the magnetic field has only the transverse
components Hx and Hy in the region bounded by the patch metallization and the ground
plane. This observation provides for the electric walls at the top and the bottom.

Fig22. Charge distribution and current density creation on the microstrip patch

Consider Figure 2.12 shown above. When the microstrip patch is provided power, a charge
distribution is seen on the upper and lower surfaces of the patch and at the bottom of the
ground plane. This charge distribution is controlled by two mechanisms-an attractive
mechanism and a repulsive mechanism as discussed by Richards. The attractive mechanism
is between the opposite charges on the bottom side of the patch and the ground plane, which
helps in keeping the charge concentration intact at the bottom of the patch. The repulsive
mechanism is between the like charges on the bottom surface of the patch, which causes
pushing of some charges from the bottom, to the top of the patch. As a result of this charge
movement, currents flow at the top and bottom surface of the patch. The cavity model

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assumes that the height to width ratio (i.e. height of substrate and width of the patch) is very
small and as a result of this the attractive mechanism dominates and causes most of the
charge concentration and the current to be below the patch surface. Much less current would
flow on the top surface of the patch and as the height to width ratio further decreases, the
current on the top surface of the patch would be almost equal to zero, which would not allow
the creation of any tangential magnetic field components to the patch edges. Hence, the four
sidewalls could be modeled as perfectly magnetic conducting surfaces. This implies that the
magnetic fields and the electric field distribution beneath the patch would not be disturbed.
However, in practice, a finite width to height ratio would be there and this would not make
the tangential magnetic fields to be completely zero, but they being very small, the side walls
could be approximated to be perfectly magnetic conducting. Since the walls of the cavity, as
well as the material within it are lossless, the cavity would not radiate and its input
impedance would be purely reactive. Hence, in order to account for radiation and a loss
mechanism, one must introduce a radiation resistance RR and a loss resistance RL. A lossy
cavity would now represent an antenna and the loss is taken into account by the effective loss
tangent δeff which is given as:

Qt is the total antenna quality factor and has been expressed by [4] in the form:

•Ad represents the quality factor of the dielectric and is given as:

Where ωr is the angular resonant frequency.

W T is the total energy stored in the patch at resonance.

P d is the dielectric loss.

tanδ is the loss tangent of the dielectric.

•Qc represents the quality factor of the conductor and is given as:

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Where Pc is the conductor loss.

∆ is the skin depth of the conductor.

H is the height of the substrate.

• Q r represents the quality factor for radiation and is given as:

Where Pr is the power radiated from the patch.

Thus, equation (1.12) describes the total effective loss tangent for the microstrip patch
antenna.

Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas


In this content, the design consideration for circularly polarized microstrip antennas is
presented. Various techniques for circularly polarized radiation generation and bandwidth
enhancement are also discussed.

Different Types of Circularly Polarized Antennas.


Generally antenna radiates an elliptical polarization, which is defined by three parameters:
axial ratio, tilt angle and sense of rotation. When the axial ratio is infinite or zero, the
polarization becomes linear with the tilt angle defining the orientation. The quality of linear
polarization is usually indicated by the level of the cross polarization. For the unity axial
ratio, a perfect circular polarization results and the tilt angle is not applicable. In general the
axial ratio is used to specify the quality of circularly polarized waves. Antennas produce
circularly polarized waves when two orthogonal field components with equal amplitude but
in phase quadrature are radiated. Various antennas are capable of satisfying these
requirements. They can be classified as a resonator and traveling-wave types. A resonator-
type antenna consists of a single patch antenna that is capable of simultaneously supporting
two orthogonal modes in phase quadrature or an array of linearly polarized resonating
patches with proper orientation and phasing. A traveling-wave type of antenna is usually
constructed from a microstrip transmission line. It generates circular polarization by radiating
orthogonal components with appropriate phasing along discontinuities is the travelling-wave
line.

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Microstrip Patch Antennas


A microstrip antenna is a resonator type antenna. It is usually designed for single mode
operation that radiates mainly linear polarization. For a circular polarization radiation, a patch
must support orthogonal fields of equal magnitude but in-phase quadrature. This requirement
can be accomplished by single patch with proper excitations or by an array of patches with an
appropriate arrangement and phasing.

Circularly Polarized Patch

A microstrip patch is one of the most widely used radiators for circular polarization. Figure
3.1shows some patches, including square, circular, pentagonal, equilateral triangular, ring,
and elliptical shapes which are capable of circular polarization operation. However square
and circular patches are widely utilized in practice. A single patch antenna can be made to
radiate circular polarization if two orthogonal patch modes are simultaneously excited with
equal amplitude and out of phase with sign determining the sense of rotation. Two types of
feeding schemes can accomplish the task as given in figure 3.2. The first type is a dual-
orthogonal feed, which employs an external power divider network. The other is a single
point for which an external power divider is not required.

Dual-Orthogonal Fed circularly Polarized Patch


The fundamental configurations of a dual-orthogonal fed circularly polarized patch using an
external power divider is shown in figure 3.3. The patch is usually square or circular. The
dual-orthogonal feeds excite two orthogonal modes with equal amplitude but inphase
quadrature. Several power divider circuits that have been successfully employed for CP
generation include the quadrature hybrid, the ring hybrid, the Wilkinson power divider, and
the T-junction power splitter. The quadrature hybrid splits the input into two outputs with
equal magnitude but 900 out of phase. Other types of dividers, however, need a quarter-
wavelength line in one of the output arms to produce a 900 phase shift at the two feeds.
Consequently, the quadrature hybrid provides a broader axial ratio bandwidth. These splitters
can be easily constructed from various planar transmission lines.

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Figure23 Various types of circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas: (a) triangular
patch,
(b) square patch, (c) circular patch, (d) ring, (e) pentagonal patch, and (f) elliptical patch.

Dual-Orthogonal Fed circularly Polarized Patch

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Fig24.Two types of excitations for circularly polarized microstrip antennas: (a) dual-fed patch
and (b) singly fed patch.

Fig25. Typical configurations of dual-fed circularly Polarized microstrip antennas: (a)circular


patch and (b) square patch

Singly Fed Circularly Polarized Patch


Typical configurations for a singly fed CP microstrip antennas are shown in figure 3.4 A
single point feed patch capable of producing CP radiation is very desirable is situations where
it is difficult to accommodate dual-orthogonal feeds with a power divider network.

Fig26. Typical configurations of singly fed circularly polarized microstrip antennas:


(a)Circular patch and (b) square patch

Because a patch with single-point feed generally radiates linear polarization, in order to
radiate CP, it is necessary for two orthogonal patch modes with equal amplitude an in phase
quadrature to be induced. This can be accomplished by slightly perturbing a patch at
appropriate locations with respect to the feed. Purturbation configurations for generating CP
operate on the principle of detuning degenrate modes of a symmetrical patch by perturabation
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segments as shown in figure 3.5. The fields of a singly fed patch can be resolved into two
orthogonal degenerates modes 1 and 2. Proper purturbation segments will detune the
frequency response of mode 2 such that, at the operating frequency f0, the axial ratio rapidly
degrades while the input match remains acceptable. The actual detunig occurs either for one
or both modes depending on the placement of perturbation segments.

Fig27.Amplitude and phase of orthogonal modes for singly fed circularly polarizedmocrostrip
antennas.

A circular polarization can also be obtained from a single-point-fed square or circular patch
on a normally biased ferrite substrate, as shown in fig 3.6. Pozar demostrated that a singly fed
patch radiates both left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) and right hand circularly
polarized(RHCP) at the same level and polarity of bias magnetic field; however LHCP and
RHCP have different resonan frequencies. At the same operating frequency, the sence of
polarization can be reversed by reversing the polarity of bias field. The axial ratio bandwidth
is found to be larger than the impedance bandwidth. The radiation efficiency is on the order
of 70%. Dual circular polarization have also been achieved using a singly fed triangular or
pentagonal microstrip antenna. A schematic diagram of an isoceles triangular patch and its
feed loci is shown in figure 3.7. A triangular patch radiates CP at dual frequencies, f1 and f2,
with the separation ratio depending on the aspect ratio b/a. As shown in figure 3.7

RHCP can be changed to LHCP at each frequency by moving the feed location Ѓ1to Ѓ2 or
from Ѓ4 to Ѓ3. The aspect ratio b/a is generally very close to unity; hence, a triangularpatch is
almost equilateral. A pentagonal patch in figure 3.8, with the aspect ratio c/a as a design
parameter, also behaves in a similar manner. It radiates RHCP when the feed pointis on Ѓ2 or
Ѓ3 and LHCP for the feed on Ѓ1 to Ѓ4.

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Fig28. Geometry of a ractangular patch antenna on a normally biased ferrite substrate.

Reduction in Size of Antenna


The use of an edge-shorted patch for size reduction is also well known [see the geometry in
Figure below, and makes a microstrip antenna act as a quarter wavelength structure and thus
can reduce the antenna’s physical length by half at a fixed operating frequency. When a
shorting plate (also called a partial shorting wall) [see Figure 1.2(b)] or a shorting pin [Figure
1.2(c)] is used instead of a shorting wall, the antennas fundamental resonant frequency can be
further lowered and further size reduction can be obtained. In this case, the diameter of a
shorting-pin-loaded circular microstrip patch or the linear dimension of a shorting-pin-loaded
rectangular microstrip patch can be as small as one-third of that of the corresponding
microstrip patch without a shorting pin at the same operating frequency. This suggests that an
antenna size reduction of about 89% can be obtained. Moreover, by applying the

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Fig29. Geometries of a rectangular patch antenna with (a) a shortingwall, (b) a shorting

plate or partial shorting wall, and (c) a shorting pin. The feeds are not shown. shorting-pin
loading technique to an equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna, the size reduction can be
made even greater, reaching as large as 94%.This is largely because an equilateral-triangular
microstrip antenna operates at its fundamental resonant mode, whose null-voltage point is at
two-thirds of the distance from the triangle tip to the bottom side of the triangle; when a
shorting pin is loaded at the triangle tip, a larger shifting of the null-voltage point compared
to the cases of shorted rectangular and circular microstrip antennas occurs, leading to a
greatly lowered antenna fundamental resonant frequency.

Lowering Resonant Frequency


Meandering the excited patch surface current paths in the antenna’s radiating patch is also an
effective method for achieving a lowered fundamental resonant frequency for the microstrip
antenna. For the case of a rectangular radiating patch, the meandering can be achieved by
inserting several narrow slits at the patch’s nonradiating edges. It can be seen in Figure given
below that the excited patch’s surface currents are effectively meandered, leading to a greatly
lengthened current path for a fixed patch linear dimension. This behavior results in a greatly
lowered antenna fundamental resonant frequency, and thus a large antenna size reduction at a
fixed operating frequency can be obtained. Figure 1.3(b) shows similar design, cutting a pair
of triangular

Fig30. Surface current distributions for meandered rectangular microstrip patches with
(a) meandering slits and (b) a pair of triangular notches cut at the patch’s nonradiating
edges.

Compactness
By embedding suitable slots in the radiating patch, compact operation of microstrip antennas
can be obtained. Figure below shows some slotted patches suitable for the design of compact
microstrip antennas. In Figure , the embedded slot is a cross slot, whose two orthogonal arms
can be of unequal or equal lengths. This kind of slotted patch causes meandering of the patch
surface current path in two orthogonal directions and is suitable for achieving compact
circularly polarized radiation or compact dual- Compact microstrip antennas with (a) an
inverted U-shaped patch, (b) a folded patch, and (c) a double-folded patch for achieving
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lengthening of the excited patch surface current path at a fixed patch projection area. The
feeds are not shown.

Fig31. Microstrip-line-fed Planar Inverted-L Patch Antenna for Compact Operation.

The microstrip-line-fed planar inverted-L (PIL) patch antenna is a good candidate for
compact operation. The antenna geometry is shown in Figure 1.6. When the antenna height is
less than 0.1λ0 (λ0 is the free-space wavelength of the center operating frequency), a PIL
patch antenna can be used for broadside radiation with a resonant length of about 0.25λ0
[24]; that is, the PIL patch antenna is a quarter-wavelength structure, and has the same
broadside radiation characteristics as conventional half wavelength microstrip antennas. This
suggests that at a fixed operating frequency, the PIL patch antenna can have much reduced
physical dimensions (by about 50%) compared to the conventional microstrip antenna.
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COMPACT BROADBAND MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS


With a size reduction at a fixed operating frequency, the impedance bandwidth of a
microstrip antenna is usually decreased. To obtain an enhanced impedance bandwidth, one
can simply increase the antenna’s substrate thickness to compensate for the decreased
electrical thickness of the substrate due to the lowered operating frequency, or one can use a
meandering ground plane (Figure 1.7) or a slotted ground plane (Figure 1.8). These design
methods lower the quality factor of compact microstrip antennas and result in an enhanced
impedance bandwidth.

By embedding suitable slots in a radiating patch, compact operation with an enhanced


impedance bandwidth can be obtained.Atypical design is shown in Figure.

However, the obtained impedance bandwidth for such a design is usually about equal to or
less than 2.0 times that of the corresponding conventional microstrip antenna.

Fig32 .COMPACT BROADBAND MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS

Antenna using chip resistor


To achieve a much greater impedance bandwidth with a reduction in antenna size, one can
use compact designs with chip-resistor loading or stacked shorted patches. The former design
is achieved by replacing the shorting pin in a shorted patch antenna with a chip resistor of
low resistance (generally 1 ohm)

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Fig33 .Antenna using chip resistor

In this case, with the same antenna parameters, the obtained antenna size reduction can be
greater than for the design using chip-resistor loading. Moreover, the obtained impedance
bandwidth can be increased by a factor of six compared to a design using shorting-pin
loading. For an FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6 mm and relative permittivity 4.4, the
impedance bandwidth can reach 10% in L-band operation [26]. However, due to the
introduced ohmic loss of the chip-resistor loading, the antenna gain is decreased, and is
estimated to be about 2 dBi, compared to a shorted patch antenna with a shorting pin. For the
latter design with stacked shorted patches, an impedance bandwidth of greater than 10% can
be obtained. For this design, of course, the total antenna volume or height is increased.

COMPACT DUAL-FREQUENCY MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS


Compact microstrip antennas with dual-frequency operation have attracted much attention.
The two operating frequencies can have the same polarization planes or orthogonal
polarization planes. One of the reported compact dual-frequency designs with the same
polarization planes uses the first two operating frequencies of shorted microstrip antennas
with a shorting pin, and the obtained frequency ratios between the two operating frequencies
have been reported to be about

Fig34. Geometry of a stacked shorted patch antenna for compact broadband operation.

COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP


ANTENNAS
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Various novel designs have been reported recently to achieve compact circularly polarized
radiation with microstrip antennas. In addition to the well-known technique of

Fig35. COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS

using a high-permittivity substrate as described in, compact CP designs can be achieved by


embedding suitable slots or slits in the radiating patch or the antenna’s ground plane. These
designs mainly use a single probe feed or an edge-fed microstrip-line feed. By using a single
inset microstrip-line feed, it is possible for microstrip antennas with a slotted patch to achieve
compact CP radiation.For a compact CP design using a tuning stub [12, 47] the required
length of the tuning stub increases as the CP center operating frequency is lowered. The
increase in allowable tuning-stub length accompanying the reduction in antenna size for such
compact CP designs allows a greatly relaxed manufacturing tolerance compared to the
corresponding conventional circularly polarized microstrip antenna at the same operating
frequency. This is a great advantage for practical applications,

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Fig36. COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS

Geometries of (a) a microstrip-line-fed compact circularly polarized microstrip antenna with


a tuning stub and (b) an aperture-coupled compact circularly polarized microstrip antenna
with a bent tuning stub.

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CHAPTER4

FULLY FABRICATED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA


The following figures 5.1 (a),(b) and show the resultant fabricated microstrip patch antenna.
The figures shown are front, side and back view of antenna. This patch radiates at a frequency
of 8.5 GHz.

Fig 37 Back View Of Patch Antenna

Fig38 Front View Of Patch Antenna

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CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROSTRIP X-BAND PATCH ANTENNA


RECIEVING Antenna: Microstrip Patch Antenna
Transmitting Antenna: Horn Antenna
Beam Voltage: 329 Volts
Repeller Voltage 132Volts

S.No. Rotation Angle(degree) Voltage(mv)


1 0 1.3
2 Left hand 20 1.1
3 Left hand 40 0.8
4 Left hand 60 0.3
5 Right hand 20 1.1
6 Right hand 40 1.9
7 Right hand 60 2
8 Right hand 80 2.1

RECEPTION PLOT:

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Fig.39 Angle vs Voltage plot

CHAPTER5
TESTING AND MEASUREMENT

Fig40.Block Diagram Of Microwave Setup

Antenna Setup For Measurement

Fig41. Antenna Setup For Measuring E & H-Plane Characteristics


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Antenna Measurement
If a transmission line propagating energy is left open at the end, there will be radiating
from this end. In case of a rectangular waveguide this antenna presents a mismatch of about
2:1 and it radiates in many directions. The match will improve if the open waveguide is horn
shape.

The radiation pattern of an antenna is a diagram of field strength or more often the
power intensity as a function of the aspect angle at a constant distance from the radiating
antenna. An antenna pattern is presented as a two dimensional pattern in one or several
planes. An antenna pattern is consists of several labels, the main lobe, side lobe, back bone
lobe . The major power is concentrated in the main lobe as low as possible. The power
intensity at the main lobe compared to the power intensity achieved from an imaginary omni-
directional antenna (radiating equally in all directions) with the same power fed to the
antenna is defined as gin of the antenna.

3dB Beam Width:

The angle between two points on a main lob e where yhe power intensity is half the
maximum power intensity where measuring an antenna pattern , it is normally most
interesting to plot the pattern far from the antenna.

Far field pattern is achieved at a minimum distance of

2D2/λ (for rectangular Horn antenna)

where D is size of the broad wall of horn aperture is free wavelength

It is also very imported to avoid disturbing reflection. Antenna measurement is


normally made at outdoor rangers or in so called anechoic chambers made of absorbing
materials.

Antenna measurements are mostly made with unknown antennas as receiver. Therefor
several methods to measure the gain of antenna. One method is to compare the unknown
antenna with known gain. A method is to use two identical antennas, as transmitters and other
as receiver from following formula the gain can be calculated.

PR = Pt  G1 G2/(4S)2

where Pt is transmitted and receiving antenna S is to radial distance between antenna.

 Is free space wavelength.

If both transmitting & receiving antenna are identical having gain G the

G=4SPr/Pt

In the above equation Pt, S,Pr and can be measured and gain can be computed. As from
the above equation it is not necessary to know the absolute of Pt & Pr. Only is required,

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which can be measured by VSWR meters.

Procedure
Antenna Diagram Plotting

1.Setup the equipments as shown in fig 4.3 .keeping the axis of both antenna in the same axis
line.

Fig42.Setup For Measurement At X-Band

2. Energise the gunn oscillator for maximum output at desired frequency with square wave
modulation by tunning square wave amplitude and frequency of modulating signal of gunn
power supply and by tunning of detector.

3. Also tune the S.S. Tuner in the line for maximum output(if S.S Tuner in the setup.

4. Obtain full scale deflection (0dB) on normal dB scale(0-10dB) at any convenient range
switch position of the V.S.W.R meter by gain control knob of V.S.W.R meter or by variable
attenuator.

5. Turn the receiving horn to the left in 10degree steps up to -130 to 130 degree and note the
corresponding V.S.W.R dB reading in normal dB range. When necessary change the range
switch to next higher range and add 10 dB to the observed value.

6. Repeat the above steps but this time turn the receiving horn to the right and note down the
readings.
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7. Draw the relative power pattern i.e. output v/s angle.

8. from the diagram determine 3dB width of the horn antenna can be measured.

Gain measurement

1. Set up the equipments as shown in fig. both horns should be in line.


2. Keep the range db switch of VSWR meter at 50 db position with gain control full.
3. Energize the gunn oscillator for maximum output at desired frequency of gunn power
supply and by tuning of detector.
4. Obtain full scale deflection in VSWR meter with variable attenuator.
5. Replace the transmitting horn by detector mount and change the appropriate range db
position to get the deflection. On scale . note and record the range db position and
deflection of VSWR meter.
6. Calculate the difference in db between the power measured in step 4 and 5.

Antenna1 results:

Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 5 HFSSDesign1


60.00
Curve Info
dB(VSWR(WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

50.00

40.00
dB(VSWR(WavePort1))

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00
5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

Fig43. vswr results of simulation

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Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 4 HFSSDesign1


400.00
Curve Info
re(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

300.00 im(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

200.00

100.00
Y1

0.00

-100.00

-200.00

-300.00

-400.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

Fig44. impedence plot of antenna

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Fig45. magnetic field vector plot of antenna

Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 3 HFSSDesign1


10.00
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

5.00

0.00
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

Fig46. reflection coff.plot of antenna

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fig.47electric field plot of antenna

fig.48 3d radiation plot of antenna

fig.49. polarization plot of antenna

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Antenna 2:
After changing the dimensions of substrate and ground plate new improved results are
formed as:

fig.50 E field plot of antenna

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Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 6 HFSSDesign1


20.00
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

10.00

0.00
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-10.00

-20.00

-30.00

-40.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

fig.51 Gain plot of antenna


Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 7 HFSSDesign1
700.00
Curve Info
re(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
600.00
im(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

500.00

400.00

300.00
Y1

200.00

100.00

0.00

-100.00

-200.00

-300.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

fig.52 impedence plot of antenna

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Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 8 HFSSDesign1


80.00
Curve Info
dB(VSWR(WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

70.00

60.00

50.00
dB(VSWR(WavePort1))

40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00
5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Freq [GHz]

fig.53 VSWRplot of antenna

fig.54 3D radiation plot of antenna

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fig.55 radiation plot of antenna

fig.56 H field plot of antenna

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Conclusion and Future Scope


The design of slotted square patch antenna for circular polarization and dual bandwidth
operated has been completed using HFSS software. The simulation gave results good
enough to satisfy our requirements to fabricate it on hardware which can be used wherever
needed. The investigation has been limited mostly to theoretical studies and simulations
due to lack of fabrication facilities. Detailed experimental studies can be taken up at a later
stage to fabricate the antenna. Before going for fabrication we can optimize the parameters
of antenna using one of the soft computing techniques known as Particle Swarm
Optimization(PSO).

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REFRENCES
[1] Jordan E C & Balmain K G, “Electromagnetic Waves and RadiatingSystems”, 2nd ed.,
PHI, 1968.
[2] Weeks W.L, “Antenna Engineering”, McGraw-Hill, 1968.
[3] Balanis C.A, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design”, 2nd ed., Wiley, 1996.
[4] Elliot R.S, “Antenna Theory and Design”, Prentice-Hall, 1981.
[5] Stutzman W.L &. Thiele G.A , “Antenna Theory and Design,Wiley”, 1998.
[6] Johnson R.C, “Antenna Engineering Handbook”, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1993.
[7] Collin R.E & Zucker F.J, “Antenna Theory”, eds., Part I, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
[8] Kiang Jean-Fu, “Antennas”, Chapter 3, National Taiwan University,Taipei,Taiwan.
[9] Biswas M & Guha D, “Broadband Microstrip Patches for M.C System", University of
Kolkatta, Kolkatta, India.
[10] Etd.lib.fsu.edu, “Microstrip Patch Antenna Design & Results”, Chapter 3.
[11] Greig D.D, & Enlemann, H.F.,”Microstrip-A New Transmission Technique for the
Kilomegacycle Range,”Proceedings of The IRE, 1952, Vol .40,No.10,pp.1644-1650.
[12] Deschamps G.A., “Microstrip Microwave Antennas”, The Third Symposium on The
USAF Antenna Research & Development Program, University of Illinois, Monticello ,
Illinois, October 18-22,1953.
[13] Wu T.T, “Theory of the Microstrip”, Journal of Applied Physics, March, 1957, Vol. 28,
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[14] Wheeler H.A., “Transmission Line Properties of Parallel Strips Separated by a
Dielectric Sheet”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory of Techniques, Vol. MTT-13, pp
172-185, March 1965.
[15] Purcel R.A., Masse D.J. & Hartwig C.P., “Losses in Microstrip” IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory & Techniques, June, 1968, 342-350.
[16] Purcel R.A., Masse D.J. ,Hartwig C.P. & Errata: “Losses in Microstrip” IEEE
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[17] Denlinger E.J., “Radiation from Microstrip Radiators”, IEEE Transactions on
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[18] Watkins J., “Circular Resonant Structures in Microstrip”, Electronics Letters, Vol 5,
No.21, October 16, 1969, pp. 524-525.
[19] Bancroft, Randy ,Etd.lib.fsu.edu, “Microstrip Patch Antenna Design & Results”,

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Chapter 1.
[20] Haider S & Young L, “Microstrip Patch Antenna for Broadband Indoor Wireless
Systems”, University of Auckland, 2003, pp. 3-5.
[21] Etd.lib.fsu.edu, “Microstrip Patch Antenna Design & Results”, Chapter 4.
[22] Guha D, “Microstrip & Printed Antennas: Recent trends & Developments”, December
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[23] Wong K.L, “Design of Nonplanar Microstrip Antennas and Transmission Lines”, Wiley,
New York, October 4,2001.
[24] Biswas M, Siddiqui J.Y. & Guha D, “CAD of Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna in
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Calcutta, India.
[25] Verma, A.K. & Nasimuddin, “Fast & Accurate Model for Analysis of Equilateral
Triangular Patch Antenna”.Department of Electronics Science,University of Delhi,New
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[26] Wojciech J.K.,"Triangular Microstrip Antenna Loaded by Slots for GPS Applications."
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[27] Solanki M.R., Kiran U.K & Vinoy K.J, “Broadband Design of a Triangular Microstrip
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[28] Siddiqui J.Y. & Guha D, “Applications of TMP: Circuit Elements for Modern Wireless
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