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COURSE OUTLINE

Strength of materials

Andrew Pytel

Ferdinand L. Singer

TENTATIVE COURSE SCHEDULE

1 Simple stress: Normal stresses

2 Simple stress: Shear stress

3 Thin-walled pressure vessels

4 Simple strain: Stress-strain diagram

5 Simple strain: Hooke’s law: Axial and shearing deformations

6 Simple strain: Poisson’s ratio: Biaxial and triaxial deformations

7 Thermal stresses

8 Thermal stresses

Mid Term Exam

9 Torsion

10 Torsion

11 Shear and moment in beams

12 Shear and moment in beams

13 Stresses in beams

14 Stresses in beams

15 Beam deflections

16 Beam deflections

STUDENT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION / GRADING

• Assignments, Quizzes, Mid Term and the Final examination will evaluate student

progress.

FINAL GRADE

The final grade will be determined by averaging each section and assigning them the

following weights:

Quizzes ............................12.5%

Assignments………………12.5%

Mid Term Examination……25%

Final Examination .............50%

---------------------------------------------------------

Total ............................. 100%

PARTICIPATION

Attendance for all lectures is strongly advised.

Any student whose attendance is less than 75% will be dropped

from the course for insufficient participation.

What is Mechanics?

state of rest or motion of bodies that are subjected to the action of

forces.

Mechanics is the study of forces that act on bodies and the resultant

motion that those bodies experience.

the basis of all the mechanical sciences.

Any of several branches of science, such as physics, chemistry, and

astronomy, that study the nature and properties of energy and

nonliving matter.

Mechanics

Applied Mechanics is subdivided into two parts:

1. SOLID MECHANICS

Solid mechanics is usually subdivided into further two streams i.e.

a) Mechanics of rigid bodies (i.e. objects that do not get deformed when forces are applied)

Mechanics of rigid bodies is further divided into two parts:

i) Statics

ii) Dynamics

Statics deals with bodies at rest.

Dynamics deals with objects in motion.

b) Mechanics of deformable bodies

The mechanics of deformable solids which is branch of applied mechanics is known by several names i.e. strength

of materials, mechanics of materials etc.

2. FLUID MECHANICS

Rigid body

particles, but which are constrained not to move relative to each

other. That is, a rigid body does not deform.

another even after applying forces.

• A rigid body is nothing but a solid body of finite size in which change

in original shape (deformation in other words) is not allowed.

Introduction to Mechanics of Materials

Definition: Mechanics of materials is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with

the behaviour of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.

Mechanics of materials

The fundamental areas of engineering mechanics are

1. Statics

2. Dynamics

Statics and dynamics are devoted primarily to the study of the external effects of forces on rigid bodies i.e. bodies for which

the change in shape (deformation) can be neglected.

In contrast, strength of materials deals with the relation between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies.

Moreover, the bodies are no longer assumed to be rigid; the deformations, however small, are of major interest.

The purpose of studying strength of materials is to ensure at that the structure used will be safe against the maximum internal

effects that may be produced by any combination of loading.

The main objective of the study of the mechanics of materials is to provide the future engineer with the mean of analyzing

and designing various machines and load-bearing structures.

Both the analysis and the design of a given structure involve the determination of stress and deformations.

An understanding of how bodies respond to applied loads is the main area of emphasis in the Mechanics of materials.

STRESS

• Stress can be defined as a measure of the internal reaction to an externally applied

force. It is due to the internal resistance of particles inside the body.

• When some external forces are applied to a body, then the body offers internal

resistance to these forces. This internal opposing force per unit area is called 'stress'.

It is denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma) and its formula is as following

(External)

(Geometry)

The unit of stress is the units of force divided by the units of area.

square meters (m2). Thus the units for stress are newtons per square

meter (N/m2). Frequently, one newton per square meter is referred to

as one Pascal (Pa).

measured in square inches, the units for stress are pounds per

square inch (lb/in2), frequently abbreviated as psi.

Since kip is often used to represent kilopound (1 kip = 1000 lb, 2 kips

= 2000 lb etc). ksi is used an abbreviation for 1 kip per square inch

(1000 lb/in2), for example, 8 ksi = 8000 psi.

Area &Volume

‘cut-across’ is called a cross section.

Concept of Stress

The fundamental concepts of stress can be illustrated by considering a straight bar with a constant cross-sectional area A that

is loaded by axial forces F at the ends, as shown in the Figure.

The external load causes internal forces called stresses. To investigate the internal stresses produced in the bar by the axial

forces, we make an imaginary cut at section c-c. This section is taken perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar.

We now isolate the part of the bar to the left of the cut as a free body. The tensile load F acts at the left hand end of the free

body; at the other end are forces representing the action of the removed part of the bar upon the part that remains.

These forces are continuously distributed over the cross section. The intensity of force (that is, the force per unit area) is called

the stress and is commonly denoted by the Greek letter ζ (sigma). Assuming that the stress has a uniform distribution over the

cross section (see Figure), we can readily see that its resultant is equal to the intensity ζ times the cross-sectional area A of

the bar.

Furthermore, from the equilibrium (balancing of forces) of the body shown in Figure, it is also evident that this resultant must

be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the applied load F. Hence, we obtain

Strength

It is a material property which defines the maximum stress a body can

withstand before failure occurs.

It is the resistance offered by a material when subjected to external loading.

So, stronger the material the greater the load it can withstand.

Depending upon the type of load applied the strength can be tensile,

compressive, shear or torsional.

Sample Problem #01 Axial loading - The applied forces are

collinear with the longitudinal axis of

the member. The forces cause the

member to either stretch or shorten.

To calculate the stresses, we must first determine the axial load in each section.

In order to determine the stresses we first choose an imaginary cut perpendicular to the axis of the

bar.

The free-body diagrams have been drawn by isolating the portion of the bar lying to the left of

imaginary cutting planes.

Identical results would be obtained if portion lying to the right of the cutting planes had been

considered.

( ) R x Fx 9000 4000 5000( )

Sample Problem #02

6 1mm 10 3 m

AAB 800mm 800 10 m

2 2

6

AAC 400mm 400 10 m

2 2

1mm2 10 6 m 2

AC 120MPa 120 106 N / m 2

Sample Problem #02

PAC Cos 60 PAB Cos 40 0..........1)

Method-1

PAC Sin 60 PAB Sin 40 W 0.....2)

PAB Cos 40

PAC ..............3)

Cos 60

2) PAC Sin 60 PAB Sin 40 W 0

PAC Sin 60 PAB Sin 40 W

PAB Cos 40

Sin 60 PAB Sin 40 W

Cos 60 Cos 40 0.766

PAB (

Cos 40

Sin 60 Sin 40) W Cos 60 0.5

Cos 60

Cos 40 Sin 60 Sin 40Cos 60

Sin 40 0.642

PAB ( ) W

Cos 60 Sin 60 0.866

0.766 0.866 0.642 0.5

PAB ( ) W

0. 5

0.663 0.32

PAB ( ) W

0. 5 PAB Cos 40

0.983 3) PAC

PAB ( ) W Cos 60

0. 5

PAB (1.966) W 0.508W 0.766

W PAC

PAB 0.5

1.966

PAB 0.508W PAC 0.778W

PAC Cos 60 PAB Cos 40 0..........1)

Method-2

PAC Sin 60 PAB Sin 40 W 0.....2)

In order to cancel out PAB , multiply equation 1) by Sin40 and equation 2) by cos40,

and then add equation 1) and equation 2).

1) Sin 40 ( PAC Cos60 PAB Cos 40) 0 PAC Sin 40Cos60 PAB Sin 40Cos 40 0

2) Cos 40 ( PAC Sin60 PAB Sin 40 W ) 0 PAC Sin60Cos 40 PAB Sin 40Cos 40 WCos40 0

0.766

PAC W

0.987

PAC 0.778W

Revision

Circle Area = π • r² = ¼ • π • d²

Sample Problem #03

N N

120M 2 120 106 2

m m

Inside diameter d 2 100mm 100 10 3 m

Outside diameter d1 ?

SOLUTION :

P

A

400 103

120 10 6

A d12 d 22 (d12 d 22 )

4 4 4

SOLUTION :

P

From figure, we have

A

400 103 A d12 d 22 (d12 d 22 )

120 10

6

4 4 4

A

400 103

120 10 6

(d12 d 22 )

4

400 103

120 10 6

[d12 (100 10 3 ) 2 ]

4

400 103

120 10 6

[d12 0.01]

4

400 103

d12 0.01

(120 10 6 )

4

400 103

d12 0.01

(120 10 ) 6

4

d12 0.0424 0.01

d12 0.0524

A d12 d 22

4 4

A (d12 d 22 )

4

3.333 10 3 [d12 (100 10 3 ) 2 ]

4

3.333 10 3 [d12 0.01]

4

4

(3.333 10 3 ) d12 0.01

4

d12 (3.333 10 3 ) 0.01

d12 0.0142

d1 0.119m

Sample Problem #04

parts of the bar

m 800kg

Br 90 MPa

St 120 MPa

LBr 4m

LSt 3m

ABr ?

AS t ?

SOLUTION:

To find forces PA and PB, we consider the free body diagram

Fy 0 MA 0

PA PB W W (5) PB (10) 0

PA PB (800 9.8) N PB 5 W 5 (800 9.8) 3920 N

10 10

PA PB W

PA W PB

PA (800 9.8) 3920

PA 7840 3920

PA 3920 N

PA PB

Br St

ABr ASt

PA 3920 N PB 3920 N

ABr 43.6 10 6 m 2 ASt 32.7 10 6 m 2

Br 90 106 N St 120 106

N

m2 m2

ABr 43.6mm2 ASt 32.7mm2

Sample Problem #05

P 3000lb

LSt 2 ft

LAl 3 ft

LBr 2.5 ft

A 0.5in 2

St ?

Al ?

Br ?

First we consider the Steel section. The axial load is 4P(Tension)

PSt

St

ASt

12000

St 24000 Psi

0.5

For Aluminum section. The axial load is also 4P(Tension)

PAl

Al

AAl

12000

Al 24000 Psi

0.5

For Bronze section. The axial load is also 3P(Tension)

PBr 3P 3(3000) 9000lbs

PBr

Br

ABr

9000

Al 18000 Psi

0.5

Types of stresses

When we apply some external force on the body, some amount of internal force which is equal but opposite in direction is

generated, this internal force per unit area is called stress. We denote this by Greek symbol ζ and its formula is as following

ζ = F/A

In SI, the units are Pascal (Pa).

1. Tensile stress

2. Compressive stress

3. Shear stress

Tensile and compressive stress is causes by forces perpendicular to the areas on which they act.

For this reason, tensile and compressive stresses are frequently called normal stresses.

When we apply two equal forces but opposite in direction on a rod towards outside, it elongates and the type of stress

generate at that time is called tensile stress.

When we apply two equal forces but opposite in direction on a rod in such a way that it compresses the rod, then the type of

stress generates at that time is called compressive stress.

Shear stress

Shear stress is caused by forces acting along or parallel to the area resisting the forces.

A shearing stress is produced whenever the applied loads cause one section of a body to tend to slide past its adjacent

section.

Shear stress is denoted by Greek letter τ and the formula is as following

Several examples are shown in Figure 1-11.

In (a) the rivet resists shear across its cross-sectional area, whereas in the clevis at (b) the bolt resists shear across two

cross-sectional areas;

Case (a) may be called single shear and case (b) double shear.

In (c) a circular slug is about to be punched out of a plate; the resisting area is similar to the milled edge of a coin. In each

case, the shear occurs over an area parallel to the applied load. This may be called direct shear in contrast to the induced

shear that may occur over sections inclined with the resultant load, as was illustrated in Figure 1-4a.

Consider the effect of applying a force F to the bar in Fig. a.

If the supports are considered rigid, and F is large enough, it will

cause the material of the bar to deform and fail along the planes

identified by AB and CD.

A free-body diagram of the unsupported center segment of the

bar, Fig. b, indicates that the shear force V = F/2 must be applied

at each section to hold the segment in equilibrium.

The average shear stress distributed over each sectioned area

that develops this shear force is defined by

Shear : load parallel to area

.

A shearing stress is produced whenever the applied loads cause one section of a body to tend to slide past its adjacent section

Rivets resist shear across its cross-sectional area.

In Figure (c) a circular slug is about to be punched out of a plate; the resisting

area is similar to the milled edge of a coin. In this case, the shear occurs over

an area parallel to the applied load.

Die

Slug

Sample Problem #06

t Thickness of plate 25mm 25 10 3 m

Shear strength 350MN / m 2

v Shear force ?

SOLUTION :

v

Shear area =

A Circumference of the

punched circle multiplied by

the specimen thickness

Area Circumfere nce Thickness

A d t

v v

A dt

v dt

v (20 10 3 )(25 10 3 )(350 106 )

v 549778.7 N 550kN

Sample Problem #07

M aximum compressive stress 50ksi

Thickness of plate t ?

Diameter of hole d ?

a) t ? for d 2.5 inch

b) d ? for t 0.25 inch Slug

a) t ? for d 2.5 inch

v A dt

v A

A

v (dt )

P

P A d 2

A A P

4

d 2

P

4

v

Pv

d 2

dt

4

d 2 4dt

d 2 d 50 2.5

t 0.78inch

4d 4 4 40

b) d ? for t 0.25 inch

v A dt

v A

A

v (dt )

P

P A d 2

A A P

4

d 2

P

4

v

Pv

d 2

dt

4

d 2 4dt

4t 4(40)(0.25)

d 0.8inch

50

Sample Problem #08

P 400kN

300 MPa

d ?

P

A d2

2A 4

P P

2 d2 d2

4 2

2P

2

d

d 2 2 P Clevis: A U-shaped metal piece with holes in each end through

2P 2(400 10 ) 3 which a pin or bolt is run, used as a fastening device.

d2 0.848 10 3

(300 10 )

6

The bolt is subjected to shear by the tensile forces in the flat

bar and the clevis.

d 0.848 10 3 0.0291m The bolt resists shear across two cross-sectional areas; it may

be called double shear.

Strain

Whenever a force is applied to a body, it will tend to change the body’s shape and size.

These changes are referred to as deformation.

Load will cause all material bodies to deform and, as a result, points in the body will

undergo displacements or changes in position.

Normal strain is a measure of the elongation or contraction of a small line segment in the

body.

To obtain the unit of deformation or strain ε, we divide the elongation δ by the length L in

which it was measured, thereby obtaining

The Tension and Compression Test

To properly design a structure or mechanical component, the engineer must understand

and work within the characteristics and limitation of the material used in the component.

Material such as steel, aluminum, plastics and wood respond uniquely to applied load

and stresses. To determine the strength and characteristics of materials such as these

requires laboratory testing.

One of the simplest and most effective laboratory tests to obtain engineering design

information about a material is called the tension test.

One of the simplest tests for determining mechanical properties of a material is the

tensile test. In this test, a load is applied along the longitudinal axis of a circular test

specimen.

The applied load and the resulting elongation of the member are measured.

standard shape and size.

Before testing, two small punch marks are identified along the specimen’s length.

Measurements are taken of both the specimen’s initial cross-sectional area, Aₒ, and the

gauge-length distance Lₒ between the punch marks.

For example, when a metal specimen is used in a tension test it generally has an initial

diameter of dₒ = 13 mm and a gauge length of Lₒ = 50 mm.

In order to apply an axial load with no bending of the specimen, the ends are usually are

gripped between the jaws of a testing machine.

A testing machine like the one shown in figure is used to stretch the specimen at a very

slow, constant rate until it reaches the breaking point. The machine is designed to read

the load required to maintain this uniform stretching.

At frequent interval during the test, data is recorded of the applied load P, as read on the

dial of the machine or taken from a digital readout.

Also, the elongation δ = L – Lₒ between the punch marks on the specimen may be

measured using a caliper or a mechanical or optical device called an extensometer.

For example:

specimen

used to measure changes in the length

of an object.

Electronic Extensometer

Machine

Stress-Strain Diagram

From the data of a tension or compression test, it is possible to compute various values

of the stress and corresponding strain in the specimen and then plot the results. The

resulting curve is called the stress-strain diagram.

Using the recorded data, we can determine the nominal or engineering stress by

dividing the applied load P by the specimen’s original cross-sectional area Aₒ. This

calculation assumes that the stress is constant over the cross section and throughout the

region between the gauge points, we have

Likewise, the nominal or engineering strain is found directly from the stain gauge

reading or by dividing the change in the specimen’s gauge length by the specimen’s

original length Lₒ. Here the strain is assumed to be constant throughout the region

between the gauge points. Thus

A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having an original

diameter of 12.5 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. Using the data listed in the

table, plot the stress–strain diagram

The corresponding values are plotted as a graph, for which the vertical axis is

the stress and horizontal axis is the strain, the resulting curve is called a

conventional stress-strain diagram. This diagram is very important in

engineering since it provides the means for obtaining data about a material’s

tensile or compressive strength without regard for the material’s physical size

or shape i.e. its geometry.

No two stress-strain diagrams for a particular material will be exactly the same, since the results

depend on such variables as the material’s composition, microscopic imperfections, the way it is

manufactured, the rate of loading, and the temperature during the time of the test.

We will now discuss the characteristics of the conventional stress-strain curve as it pertains to steel, a commonly used material for

fabricating both structural members and mechanical elements.

From this curve we can identify four different ways in which the material behaves, depending on the amount of strain induced in

the material.

1) Elastic behavior

2) Yielding

3) Strain hardening

4) Necking

Other concepts developed from the stress-strain curve are the following:

1) Proportional limit

2) Elastic limit

3) Yield Point

4) Ultimate stress or Ultimate strength

5) Rupture strength

Elastic Limit

Elastic Limit

Elastic Limit

Proportional Limit

From the origin O to a point called the proportional limit shows that stress-strain diagram is a straight line.

From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated by Rober Hook in 1678, that Stress is proportional to strain.

In this range, the stress and strain are proportional to each other, so that any increase in stress will result in a proportionate

increase in strain.

Elastic limit

If the stress slightly exceeds the proportional limit, the material may still respond

elastically; however, the curve tends to bend and flatten out as shown. This continues

until the stress reaches the elastic limit. Upon reaching this point if the load is removed

the specimen will still return to its original shape.

The point beyond which the material will not return to its original shape when unloaded

but will retain a permanent deformation called permanent set.

Maximum stress to which a material may be subjected and still return to its original

length upon release of the load.

Notice elastic limit and proportionality limits are different! Some materials are still

elastic beyond the linear (proportional) section of the curve.

But in all practical cases they are same.

Yielding

A slight increase in stress above the elastic limit will result in permanent deformation.

This behavior is called yielding for ductile materials.

The stress that causes yielding is called the yield stress or yield point and the

deformation that occurs is called the plastic deformation.

Once the yield point is reached, the specimen will continue to elongate (strain) with any

increase in load.

corresponding increase in stress.

Strain Hardening

When yielding has ended, a further load can be applied to the specimen, resulting in a

curve that rises continuously but becomes flatter until it reaches a maximum stress

referred to as the ultimate stress or Ultimate strength. The rise in the curve in this

manner is called strain hardening.

Throughout the test, while the specimen is elongating, its cross-sectional area will

decrease. This decrease in area is fairly uniform over the specimen’s gauge length, even

up to the strain corresponding to the ultimate stress.

Necking

At the ultimate stress, the cross-sectional area begins to decrease in a localized region of

the specimen, instead of over its entire length.

As a result, a constriction or ‘neck’ gradually tends to form in this region as the specimen

elongates further.

Since the cross-sectional area within this region is continually decreasing, the smaller the

area can only carry an ever-decreasing load. Hence the stress-strain diagram tends to

curve downward until the specimen breaks at the fracture stress.

Rupture Strength

The rupture strength is the stress at failure.

For structural steel it is somewhat lower than ultimate strength because the rupture strength is computed by dividing the rupture

load by the original cross-sectional area, which, although convenient, is incorrect. The error is caused by a phenomenon known

as necking.

For a ductile material, up to the ultimate strength, the deformation is uniform along the length of the bar. At the maximum stress

localized deformation or necking occurs in the specimen and the load falls off as the area decreases. This necking elongation is

non uniform deformation and occurs rapidly to the point of failure.

The breaking strength which is determined by dividing the breaking load by the original cross-sectional area is always less than

the ultimate strength.

For a brittle material, the ultimate strength and breaking strength coincide.

•

Stress-Strain Diagram

The Load-deformation plot does not provide material properties.

• But, when converted to stress-strain plot it provides all the information

needed. Notice elastic limit and proportionality limits are different! Some materials are still

elastic beyond the linear (proportional) section of the curve.

But in all practical cases they are same.

Notice ultimate stress is higher than

fracture stress. This is because this

graph do not plot the true stress

accounting for the reduction in area

due to necking. This is called

engineering stress. The true stress

actually is higher at fracture.

Working stress and factor of safety

The working stress σw , also called the allowable stress, is the maximum safe axial stress used

in design. In most designs, the working stress should be limited to values not exceeding the

proportional limit so that the stresses remain in the elastic range (the straight-line portion of

the stress-strain diagram). However, because the proportional limit is difficult to determine

accurately, it is customary to base the working stress on either the yield stress σyp or the

ultimate stress σult , divided by a suitable number N, called the factor of safety. Thus,

Hooke’s Law: Axial Deformations

Let us now return to a consideration of the striaght-line portion of the stress-strain diagram as shown in figure.

From the origin O to a point called the proportional limit shows that stress-strain diagram is a straight line.

From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated by Rober Hook in 1678, that Stress is proportional to

strain.

The slope of that line is the ratio of stress to strain. It is called the modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E.

E

In this form it is known as Hooke’s law.

Modulus of elasticity E is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension

or compression.

E

A convenient relation of Hooke’s law is obtained by replacing ζ by its equivalent P/A and replacing ε by δ/L.

The above equation expresses the relation among the total deformation δ, the applied load P, the length L, the cross sectional

area A, and the modulus of elasticity E.

•The bar must have a constant cross-section and be homogeneous.

•The stress must not exceed the proportional limit.

We already know Hooke’s law, but what does it tell us?

Pl l

P

AE AE

Modulus of elasticity is a mechanical property that indicates the stiffness of a material.

Materials that are very stiff, such as steel, have large values of E (Est = 200 GPa), whereas

spongy materials such as vulcanized rubber may have low values (Er = 0.70 MPa).

The property of a material by virtue of which a body returns to its original shape after

removal of the load is called elasticity.

It must always be remembered, though, E can be used only if a material has linear-

elastic behavior. Also, if the stress in the material is greater than proportional limit, the

stress-strain diagram ceases to be a straight line and E is no longer valid.

Hooke’s Law: Shearing Deformations

An element subject to tension undergoes an increase in length, whereas an element subject to shear does not change

the length of its sides, but undergoes a change in shape form a rectangle to a parallelogram.

s

The average shearing strain is found by dividing δs by L. tan

L

s

For very small angle tan

L

More precisely, the shearing strain is defined as the change in angle measured between two lines which were initially

perpendicular.

The relation between shearing stress and shearing strain assuming Hooke’s law to apply to shear is

Modulus of elasticity in shear G is the ratio of unit shear stress to unit strain with the proportional limit of a material in

shear.

We can define shear strain exactly the way we do longitudinal strain: the ratio of

deformation to original dimensions.

In the case of shear strain, though, it's the amount of deformation perpendicular to a

given line rather than parallel to it.

The ratio turns out to be tanɣ, where ɣ is the angle the sheared line makes with its

original orientation.

Length , L 30' 30 12 360"

Load , P 500lb

E 29 10 6 psi

Diameter , d ?

Solution :

A d2

4

4A

d2

4A

d

P

A

P

A

500

A

20 103

A 0.025inch 2

To find the area for maximum allowable elongation

E

P

E

A L

PL

A

E

500 360

A

0.20 29 106

A 0.031inch 2

A 0.031inch 2

4A

d

4(0.031)

d

d 0.1986inch

A 0.5inch 2

E 10 106 psi

?

Solution :

We first compute the deformation separately in all sections.

Consider the left section.

The axial load in this section is 6000lb (Tension). So the deformation will be increase in length

and may be taken as positive.

PL

1

AE

6000(3 12)

1

0.5 10 106

1 4.32 10 3 inch

The axial load for middle section is 1000lb compression. So the deformation will be decrease

in length and may be taken as negative.

PL

2 ( )

AE

1000(5 12)

2 ( )

0.5 10 106

2 0.012inch

The axial load for section-3 is 4000lb tension. So the deformation will be increase

in length and may be taken as positive.

PL

3

AE

4000(4 12)

3

0.5 10 106

3 3.84 10 3 inch

1 2 3

4.32 10 3 0.012 3.84 10 3

3.84 10 3 inch

ABr 650mm 2 AAl 320mm2

ASt 480mm 2

ESt 200GPa

LBr 2m LAl 1.5m

LSt 1m

( Br ) max 120 MPa ( Al ) max 80 MPa

( St ) max 140 MPa

t 3mm

P?

First we find the deformation in each section in term of P

PL AAl 320mm2

St ASt 480mm2 ABr 650mm2

AE E Al 70GPa

ESt 200GPa EBr 83GPa

P (1) LAl 1.5m

St 6

LSt 1m LBr 2m

480 10 200 109 ( Al ) max 80 MPa

( St ) max 140 MPa ( Br ) max 120 MPa

P

St

96000 103

St (1.04 10 8 P)m

PL

Br

AE

2 P(2)

Br

650 10 6 83 109

Br (7.4 10 8 P)m

t St Br Al

For Aluminum the load is 2P (Tension)

Al

PL t (1.04 7.4 13.38) 10 8 P

AE

30 10 3

P

2 P(1.5)

Al

320 10 6 70 109

7.04 10 5

Al (13.39 10 8 P)m

P 4.2 10 4 N 42kN

For steel section : For Bronze section : For Aluminum section :

P P P

St ( ) St Br ( ) Br Al ( ) Al

A A A

P (A) St 2 P (A) Br 2 P (A) Al

P 140 106 480 10 6 P

1

(120 106 650 10 6 ) P

1

(80 10 6 320 10 6 )

P 67.2kN 2 2

P 39kN P 12.8kN

So the smallest value of P is 12.8kN which will fulfill all the conditions.

Fortunately, many engineering materials exhibit a linear elastic range of response to loading. Also, many engineering materials

can be assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic within that linear range. Let us review the definitions of the terms above:

Linear - straight line relationship between load and deformation (or stress and strain),

Although most materials do not strictly satisfy the requirements to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic materials, many are

sufficiently close to allow us to assume they act that way. For example, steel has some directional properties imparted to it in the

rolling or drawing process yet we can generally assume it is essentially isotropic.

Materials which are assumed to satisfy the four definitions above are frequently referred to as simply "elastic" materials. Therefore

if no modifiers are added to the term we shall assume "elastic" implies that the material is a "homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic

material".

In the study of elastic materials, we find the material response equations (stress-strain equations, also called constitutive

equations) are generally given in terms of the elastic constants:

G = modulus of rigidity (shear modulus).

These elastic constants are usually defined under very simple loading conditions. A uniaxial stress state is used to define the

constants E and v, while pure shear is used to define G. However, these same constants appear in the more general stress-strain

relationships for elastic materials: the generalized Hooke's law.

Poisson's ratio

When a deformable body is subjected to an axial tensile force, not only does it elongate, but it also

contracts laterally.

For example, if a rubber band is stretched, it can be noted that both the thickness and width of the

band are decreased.

Likewise, compressive force acting on a body causes it to contract in the direction of the force yet

its sides expand laterally.

Poisson showed in 1811 that the ratio of the unit strains in these directions is constant for stresses

within proportional limit.

Accordingly, this ratio is named after him; it is denoted by nu and defined by

lateral strain

axial strain

The negative sign is used here since longitudinal elongation (positive strain)

causes lateral contraction (negative strain), and vice versa.

When a deformable body is subjected to an axial tensile force, not only

does it elongate, but it also contracts laterally.

lateral strain

axial strain

Likewise, compressive force acting on a body causes it to

contract in the direction of the force yet its sides expand laterally.

lateral strain

axial strain

Poisson’s Ratio

• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:

x E x y z 0

in the y and z directions. Assuming that the material is isotropic

(no directional dependence).

• No or zero stress in the y and z direction does not mean that

there will be no strain in the y and z direction.

y z 0

lateral strain y

z

axial strain x x

y v x

z v x

height or length; long and thin: a slender rod

Strain in x - direction due to x is positive

x E x

x x

E

Lateral Strain

x

Longitudin al Strain y

y

x y

E

x y

x

E E

Sample Problem #

A bar made of steel has the dimensions as shown in Figure - 1. If an axial force of

P = 80 kN is applied to the bar, determine the change in its length and the change

in the dimensions of its cross section after applying the load. The material behaves

elastically. Use ʋst =0.32 and Est = 200 GPa.

0.32

ESteel 200GPa 200 109 N / m 2

Lx 100mm 100 10 3 m

Ly 50mm 50 10 3 m

Lz 1.5m

z ?

x ?

y ?

The normal stress in the bar is

P 80 103

z 3 3

16 106 N / m 2

A (50 10 )(100 10 )

E

E

z 16 106

z 8 10 5

L

L

z z Lz 8 10 5 1.5 1.2 10 4 m

x y

z z

x z 0.32(8 10 5 ) 2.56 10 5

y z 0.32(8 10 5 ) 2.56 10 5

L

L

x x Lx (2.56 10 5 )(100 10 3 ) 2.56 10 6 m

y y Ly (2.56 10 5 )(50 10 3 ) 1.28 10 6 m

Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

• Pressure vessels are the containers for fluids under high pressure.

• Cylindrical or spherical vessels are commonly used in industry to serve as boilers or

tanks. When under pressure, the material of which they are made are subjected to a

loading from all directions.

• They are used in a variety of industries like:

• Petroleum refining

• Chemical

• Power

• Food & beverage

• Pharmaceutical

Thin wall pressure vessels (TWPV) are widely used in industry for storage and

transportation of liquids and gases when configured as tanks.

Spherical Cylindrical

A gauge pressure (pressure above

atmospheric pressure) P is developed

within the vessel by a contained gas or

fluid, which is assumed to have negligible

weight.

Here only the loadings in

the horizontal direction

are shown.

developed by the contained gas or

fluid)

F F

p

A A

F pA F A

Sum of All Horizontal Forces (FH) = 0

This stress is called the longitudinal stress because it acts parallel to the

longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

t

t

F F

p

A A

F pA F A

This stress is usually called the tangential stress because it acts tangent to the surface of

the cylinder; other common names are circumferential stress, hoop stress, girth stress.

Girth: The distance around something; the circumference. Hoop: A circular or ring like object

Comparing the equations for longitudinal and tangential stress shows

that the longitudinal stress in one-half the value of the tangential stress.

pD 1 pD 1

l ( ) t

4t 2 2t 2

t 2 l

Spherical Pressure Vessel

Using an analysis similar to that for cylinders, we can easily derive the expression for the

stress in the wall of a thin-walled spherical pressure vessel.

Sphere: A three-dimensional

surface, all points of which are

equidistant from a fixed point.

Sample Problem #09

t 20mm 20 10 3 m

p 4.5MN / m 2

a ) t ? l ?

b) p ?

c)

pD pD

t l

2t 4t

4.5 400 10 3 4.5 400 10 3

t 45MPa l 22.5MPa

2 20 10 3 4 20 10 3

Sample Problem #10

Sample Problem #11

Sample Problem #12

t 20mm 20 10 3 m

l 2m

p?

l 140 MPa

t 60 MPa

pD

t t

pD

2t 4t

p 450 10 3 p 450 10 3

60 3

5.33MPa 140 24.89MPa

2 20 10 4 20 10 3

Mid Term Exam - Paper Pattern

First attempt Q. # 1 (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken

back after 20 minutes.

Q. 2 + Q.3 + Q.4

Stresses

Strains

Hooke’s law: Axial and shearing deformations,

Poisson’s ratio

Thin-walled pressure vessel

Do not forget to write your

Serial number on both the

MCQS as well as on the

Answer Book.

the paper of MOM-1. Ten marks will be

deducted for each continuation sheet.

INSTRUCTIONS:

1) Start every question from a new page.

No. in the Question Paper. Do not copy out the question.

4) Mobile phones and other electronic devices are not allowed in the

examination hall.

5) You must write in only blue or black ink. Pencil may be used only for

diagrams.

6) Rough working may be done in the answer sheet. Clearly cross out rough

working before handing in your answer sheet. The use of scrap paper is

not permitted.

Thermal Stresses

All of the members and structures that we have considered so far were assumed to

remain at the same temperature while they were being loaded. We are now going to

consider various situations involving changes in temperature.

decreases, the material contract.

or decrease that occurs.

If this is the case, and the material is homogeneous and isotropic, it has been found

from experiment that the deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated

using the formula

Coefficient of linear expansion

To understand thermal expansion, consider a simple model of a solid, the atoms of which are held together in a regular array.

vibration of the atoms and molecules also increases. The

increased vibration makes each particle take up a little

more space, causing thermal expansion.

The forces between atoms can be compared to the forces that would be exerted by an array of springs connecting the atoms

together. At any temperature above absolute zero (–273.15°C), the atoms of the solid vibrate.

When the temperature is increased, the amplitude of the vibrations increases, and the average distance between atoms

increases. This leads to an expansion of the whole body as the temperature is increased. The change in length that arises from

a change in temperature (ΔT) is designated by δT.

Through experimentation, we find that the change in length δT is proportional to the change in temperature ΔT and the original

length L. Thus,

It can be defined as the fractional change in length per unit change in temperature. This coefficient has different values for

different materials.

A larger value means that the material expands more over a set temperature rise than a material with a lower coefficient.

Thermal Stresses

At room temperature

temperature by DT

is no stress associated with the thermal strain unless the elongation is

restrained by the supports.

Thermal Stresses

If temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely, no load or stress will

be induced in the structure.

deformations; the result is that internal forces are created that resist them.

The stresses caused by these internal forces are known as thermal stresses.

thermal stress is computed as:

Redundant :

1. Exceeding

Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of what is necessary

or natural

superposition. 2. Needlessly

repetitive

PL L

Deformation due to equivalent axial stress; P

AE E

The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must

be compatible. T P

L

LDT

E

T EDT

Long structures such as railway tracks and

pipelines can fail from buckling instability by such

stresses. In the picture shown, a worker inspects

a buckled railway track that has failed from the

action of heat. The rail component - which is

welded at both ends to the next bit of track - is

constrained to the original length and so the

thermal expansion, in turn, introduces a

compressive stress along its length. When this

stress becomes too large, the rail cannot sustain

it in its original shape and it buckles sideways as

shown.

This process is highly unstable and can lead to

unsafe designs if the mechanics of this type of

system are not well understood. It can be seen in

the photograph that the buckling is localized to

one section of track, this is an important and

generic characteristic of long structures that have

some sort of support along their length.

Railway track: Railway tracks are an example where the concept of thermal expansion is used.

Space is left between railway tracks as an allowance for their expansion when temperature

increases, otherwise the rails may buckle.

Thermal stresses can cause the failure of machine components, buildings, and

structural members. Expansion joints and other means, including gaps between

successive lengths of rails, gaps between the blocks of a dam, and rollers on

bridge supports, are used to prevent such failures.

thermal expansion of concrete.

Most bridges are built with gaps that allow the bridge to expand

without cracking the material.

Greek letters :

Normal stress, Sigma

Normal strain, Epsilon

Sample Problem #

Additional examples

T F

L

LDT

E

EDT

(29 103 )(6.60 10 6 )(120 60)

11.5ksi

Sample Problem #

L 2 .5 m

Ti 20o C

P0

T f 20 o C

A 1200mm2

m m

11.7 o 11.7 10 6 o

m. C m. C

E 200GPa 200 109 N / m 2

?

Sample Problem #

A 0.25inch 2

Ti 70 o F

P 1200lb

inch

6.5 10 6

inch o F

E 29 10 6 psi

a ) ? at Tf 0

b)T f ? at 0

Solution:

As the temperature is decreasing , therefore the temperature stresses are also tensile.

Total P T

P Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is

EDT

A compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion

1200 has been constrained.

(6.5 10 6 )(29 106 )(70)

0.25 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress

4800 13195 will be imposed(ζ > 0).

17995 psi 17.995ksi

18ksi

If the stresses become zero, then

Total P T

0 P T

Upon heating (Tf Ti ), the stress will be compressive ( 0),

since rod expansion has been constrained.

0 P ( T )

T P

P

EDT

A

P

DT Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is

A E

compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion

1200

DT has been constrained.

0.25 6.5 10 6 29 106

1200 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress

DT will be imposed(ζ > 0).

47.125

DT 25.46

T f Ti 25.46

T f 25.46 Ti

T f 25.46 70

T f 95.5o F

Ti 20 o C

T f 20 o C

P 5000 N

max 130 MPa

m

11.7 10 6

m oC

E 200 109 N / m 2

d min ?

As the temperature of the rod is decreasing , therefore the temperature stresses will be tensile.

Total P T

P

EDT

A

5000

130 106 (11.7 10 6 )(200 109 )(40)

A

5000

130 106 93.6 106 Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is

A

compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion

5000

130 10 93.6 10

6 6

has been constrained.

A

5000

36 106 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress

A will be imposed(ζ > 0).

5000 (36 10 ) A

6

5000 d 2

A 3 6

0.1373 10 137.3 10 m 137.3mm

2 2

A

36 106 4

d 2

137.3

4

4(137.3)

d2 174.8

d 13.2mm

L 10m

Ti 15o C

m m

11.7 o

11.7 10 6

mC m oC

E 200GPa 200 109 N / m 2

a )T f ? If T 3mm 3 10 3 m

b) T ? If DT 25.6

Solution :

a ) T LDT

3 10 3 11.7 10 6 10 DT

3 10 3 b) T EDT

DT

11.7 10 6 10

T (200 109 )(11.7 10 6 ) 25.6

DT 25.6

T 59.9 106

If we increase the temperature of rail.

T 60MPa

The rail will expand and will fill the gap.

So the final temperature may be found as

T f Ti DT

T f 15 25.6 40.6 o C

Torsion

So far we studied how to calculate the stresses and strains in structural members subjected

to axial loading i.e. to forces directed along the axis of the member.

We are now going to consider various structural members and machine parts that are in

torsion.

Torsion, the stress produced in a body when it is twisted. The twist in the body

is produced by torque. A body such as a cylindrical rod or a structural beam is

in torsion when one end is held stationary while the other end is rotated at right

angles to a line (the longitudinal axis) running the length of the rod or beam.

Torsion also results when the two ends of a body are twisted in opposite

directions.

A body will, within limits, tend to resist being in torsion; it will tend to snap back

to its original condition when the torque is removed. Devices such as helical

(spiral) springs, and toy airplanes powered by twisted rubber bands, are based

on this characteristic. Torsion bars, which act as springs in automobiles, are

also applications of torsion.

When torsion exceeds a body's ability to withstand it, the body will shear or

break. Structural beams, gear shafts, and other objects that are, or may be,

subjected to torque must be designed to withstand the torsion that will be

produced in them.

Members in torsion are encounter in many

engineering applications.

by transmission shafts, which is used to

transmit power from one point to another.

For example:

torque T

Torsion of Circular Shafts

To better understand the behavior of a torsion

member, a grid will be superimposed on the surface

of a shaft to help illustrate the deformation of the

shaft in response to an applied torque T.

cross section remains plane and undistorted. In

other words, while the various cross sections along

the shaft rotate through different amount, each

cross section rotates as a solid rigid slab.

Imagine the shaft to consist of innumerable thin

slices, each of which are rigid and joined to adjacent

slices by elastic fibers.

joining them are deformed enough to create a

resisting torque that balances the applied torque.

and transmit the torque to slice 3; this slice will rotate

enough so that the elastic fibers joining it and slice 2

develop a resisting torque equal to the applied torque.

length L of the shaft.

Derivation of Torsion Formulas

To examine the stresses and deformations of a torsion member, we will consider

a circular shaft of length L and radius r that is attached to a fixed support at one

r end.

If a torque T is applied to the other end, the shaft will twist, with its free end

rotating through an angle called the angle of twist.

Consider now any internal fiber located a radial distance (rho) from the axis of

the shaft.

A fiber AB on the outside surface, which is originally straight will be twisted into a

helix A'B as the shaft is twisted through the angle .

We consider the small square element formed by two adjacent circles and two

adjacent straight lines traced on the surface of the cylinder before any load is

applied.

parallelogram.

Since the circles defining two of the sides of the element considered here remain

unchanged, the shearing strain must be equal to the angle between lines AB and

A'B.

We observe from Figure 3.13c that, for small values of , we can

express the arc length AA' as AA' = L

DABA '

But, on other hand we have AA' =

P AA ' AA '

It follows that tan

B AB L

L '

AA

L L

AA L

'

the angle of twist .

It also shows that is proportional to the distance from the axis of the

shaft to the point under consideration.

Thus, the shearing strain in a circular shaft varies linearly with the distance

from the axis of the shaft.

The equation obtained shows that, as long as the yield strength (or proportional limit) is not

exceeded in any part of a circular shaft, the shearing stress in the shaft varies linearly with the

distance from the axis of the shaft. Figure 3.14a shows the stress distribution in a solid

circular shaft of radius r, and Fig. 3.14b in a hollow circular shaft of inner radius r and outer

radius R.

r R

Relationship between Torque and Shear stress

To determine the relationship between the torque transmitted by the shaft and the shear

stress that is developed internally in the shaft material.

Considering a shaft AB subjected at A and B to equal and opposite torques T and T',

we pass a section perpendicular to the axis of the shaft through some arbitrary point C.

The shaft is divided into two segments by the cutting plane. Consider free body

diagram of portion BC of the shaft.

Figure 3.4 shows a cross section of the shaft containing a differential element of area

dA located at the radial distance from the axis of the shaft which carries the

differential resisting load d P.

Summing the contributions of all the differential elements across the cross-sectional

area A and equating the result to the internal torque yields

G

G

L

T G

J L

The Polar Moment of inertia is the property of an area which measures

resistance of that area to torsion.

Physically, it is a measure of how difficult it is to turn a cross-section about an

axis perpendicular to it (the inherent rotational stiffness of the cross-section).

This means:

The greater the Polar Moment of Inertia, the more torque is require to turn the

shaft by a certain angle.

The greater the Polar Moment of Inertia, the smaller the Shear Stress required

to produce a given torque.

Power transmission

In many practical applications, shafts are used to transmit power. The power P transmitted by

a torque T rotating at the angular speed ω is given by

P T

If the shaft is rotating with a frequency of f revolutions per unit time, then ω=2πf , which

gives

P T (2f )

P

T

2f

Sample Problem #

Lal 6 ft (6 12)" LSt 3 ft (3 12)"

d al 3

" d St 2"

Gal 4 106 psi GSt 12 106 psi

T 10kip inch

( max ) al ?

( max ) St ?

Lal 6 ft (6 12)"

d al 3"

Gal 4 106 psi

LSt 3 ft (3 12)"

d St 2"

GSt 12 106 psi

Example:

L 3' 3 12 36"

d 4"

d

r 2"

2

T 15kip. ft

G 12 10 6 psi

max ?

?

Solution : Tr

max

J

d 4

J

32

(4) 4

J 25.13inch 4

32

Tr

max

J

max 14325.51 psi

25.13

max 14.325 103 psi

max 14.325ksi

TL 180 radian

JG 180

1radian

15 103 12 (3 12)

25.13 (12 106 ) 0.0215 180

0.0215radian

0.0215rad

1.23 0.0215radian 1.23

Example:

3

max 3 radian 180 radian

180

L 6m 1 radian

180

T 12kNm

N

G 83 109

m2

d min ?

max ?

Solution :

TL d 4

J

JG 32

TL

d 4

G

32

32TL

d 4G

32TL

d4

G

d

4

3

( )(83 109 )

180

d 4 10875m 4

d 0.1139m

d 113.9mm

d 4 d

max

Tr

J d 2r r

J 2

32

d

T

max 24

d

32

Td 32

max

2 d 4

16T

max 3

d

16 (12 103 )

max

(0.1339)3

max 41.277 Mpa

Example:

D 100mm

d 80mm

max 60MPa

max L L L

max 0.5 deg/ m 0.5 0.5 L ( ) ( )rad ( )radian

L 2 2 180 360

N

G 83 109

m2

T ? 180 radian

1 radian

180

Based on maximum allowable shearing stress :

TR

max

J

D

T

2

max

(D4 d 4 )

32

16TD

max

(D4 d 4 )

max ( D 4 d 4 )

T

16 D

(60 106 ){(0.1) 4 (0.08) 4 }

T

16(0.1)

T 6955 N m

Based on maximum allowable angle of twist :

TL

JG

L TL

360 JG

L TL

360 G ( D 4 d 4 )

32

2G ( D 4 d 4 )

T

360 32

2 (83 109 ){(0.1) 4 (0.08) 4 }

T

360 32

T 4198.283 N m

Example:

D 60mm 60 10 3 m 0.06m

L 1.5m

max 120MPa 120 106 N / m 2

T ?

TR

max d 2r r

d

J 2

TD

max

2J

2 J max

T

D

J (D4 d 4 ) {(0.06) 4 (0.04) 4 } 1.02 106 m 4

32 32

2 J max

T

D

2 1.02 10 6 120 106

T

0.06

T 4.08 103 N m

T 4.08KN m

Example:

Bending

So far we studied how to calculate the stresses and strains in prismatic

members subjected to axial loads or to twisting couples.

We are now going to analyze the stresses and strains in prismatic members

subjected to bending.

Bending is a major concept used in the design of many machine and structural

components, such as beams.

The way a part is loaded determines whether it is called a tensile or compressive

member, a torsional shaft, or a beam.

If you take a ½ inch diameter steel rod and pull it lengthwise, the rod will develop a

tensile stress ζ = P / A, where A is the cross-sectional area of the rod.

Loading the rod in tension parallel to its axis makes the rod a tensile member; loading

it in compression parallel to its axis makes it a compressive member.

If you twist the steel rod with torque T, then we call it a torsional shaft.

If loading is perpendicular (transverse) to its axis so that the rod bends, then the rod

called a beam. You can load a beam with point loads, uniformly distributed loads, or

non uniformly distributed loads.

Shear and Moment in Beams

Beams are important structural and mechanical elements in engineering.

Beams are structural members which offer resistance to bending due to applied

loads.

In this chapter, we will determine the stress in these members caused by bending.

Members that are slender and support loadings that are applied perpendicular to

their longitudinal axis are called beams.

In general, beams are long, straight bars having a constant cross-sectional area.

Examples include members used to support the floor of a building, the deck of a

bridge, or the wings of an aircraft.

width in proportion to

height or length

Boom of a crane

Wings of an aircraft

Wing of a commercial airplane. Aircraft wings can be analyzed for stresses and

deformations by modeling them as cantilever beams.

Deck of a bridge

Axle of an automobile

Power-generating turbines on a

wind farm.

modeled as beams subjected to

wind loading.

and bending moments in beams

caused by various load conditions

is the topic of this chapter.

Because of the applied loadings, beams develop an internal shear force and bending

moment that, in general, vary from point to point along the axis of the beam.

In order to properly design a beam, it is first necessary to determine the maximum shear

and moment in the beam.

One way to do this is to express V and M as functions of the arbitrary position x along the

beam’s axis. These shear and moment functions can then be plotted and represented by

graphs called shear and moment diagrams. The maximum values of V and M can then

be obtained from these graphs.

Also, since the shear and moment diagrams provide detailed information about the

variation of the shear and moment along the beam’s axis, they are often used by

engineers to decide where to place reinforcement materials within the beam or how to

proportion the size of the beam at various points along its length.

TYPES OF BEAMS

Beams are classified according to their supports.

A simply supported beam, shown in Fig. 4.1(a), has a pin support at one end and a roller support at the

other end. The pin support prevents displacement of the end of the beam, but not its rotation. The term roller support

refers to a pin connection that is free to move parallel to the axis of the beam; hence, this type of support suppresses

only the transverse displacement.

A cantilever beam is built into a rigid support at one end, with the other end being free, as shown in

Fig. 4.1(b). The built-in support prevents displacements as well as rotations of the end of the beam.

An overhanging beam, illustrated in Fig. 4.1(c), is supported by a pin and a roller support, with one or both ends of the

beam extending beyond the supports. The three types of beams are statically determinate because the support

reactions can be found from the equilibrium equations.

Types of Loading

A concentrated load, such as P in Fig. 4.1(a), is an approximation of a force that acts

over a very small area.

In contrast, a distributed load is applied over a finite area. If the distributed load acts on

a very narrow area, the load may be approximated by a line load. The intensity w of this

loading is expressed as force per unit length (lb/ft, N/m, etc.).

The load distribution may be uniform, as shown in Fig. 4.1(b), or it may vary with

distance along the beam, as in Fig. 4.1(c).

The weight of the beam is an example of distributed loading, but its magnitude is usually

small compared to the loads applied to the beam.

Compute the support reactions from the FBD of the entire beam.

Fy 0

Free Body Diagram

RA RD 14 28 0..............1)

M A 0

RD (7) 28(5) 14(2) 0

28(5) 14(2)

RD

7

RD 24kN

Substituting value of R D in eq - 1

RA 24 14 28 0

RA 18kN

An imaginary section, indicated by the dashed line,

is passed through the beam anywhere within region

AB, cutting it into two parts and analyze the portion

of the beam to the left of this section.

The analysis of the part to the left of section 2

gives

Analyzing the portion of the beam to the left

of section 3 , we obtain

To draw the Moment Diagram:

The equation MAB 18x is linear whi ch produces a straight line between A and B, at x 0, MAB 0 and at x 2 m, MAB 36 kN·m.

The equation MBC 4x 28 is also linear. At x 2 m, MBC 36 kN·m and at x 5 m, MBC 48 kN·m.

Computing the reactions

from the equilibrium

equations

M A 0

RC ( L) C 0

C

RC

L

M C 0

RA ( L) C 0

C

RA

L

To draw the Moment Diagram:

C x

The equation MAB = - L is linear which

produces a straight line between A and

B.

At x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 3L4 , MAB = - 3C

4

To draw the Moment Diagram:

Co

The equation MBC = - x Co is also linear.

L

3L 1

At x = 4 , MBC = 4

Co and

at x = L, MBC = 0.

Computing the reactions from the equilibrium equations

MB 0

R C (10) – 1200(5) 200(4) 0

200(4) 1200(5)

RC

10

R C 520 lb

R B 520 - 200 - 1200 0

R B 880 lb

Figure (c) shows the FBD of the portion of the beam that lies to the left of section 1 .

(The part of the beam lying to the right of the section could also be used.)

The FBD of the part of the beam

that lies to the left of section 2 is

shown in Fig. (d).

the right of the section could also

be used.)

to the beam segment, we obtain

To draw the Shear Diagram:

Segment AB

For segment AB, VAB = – 200 lb; at x = 0 ft, VAB = - 200 lb and at x = 4 ft, VAB = - 200 lb.

Segment BC

For segment BC, VBC = 1160 – 120x is linear; at x= 4 ft, VBC = 680 lb, at x = 14 ft,

VBC = –520 lb.

To draw the Moment Diagram:

Segment AB

The equation MAB = –200x is linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 4 ft, MAB = –200(4)= -800 lb-ft.

Segment BC

The equation MBC = -60x2 +1160x – 4480 lb.ft for segment BC is second degree curve; at x = 4 ft,

MBC = -800; at x = 14 ft, MBC = 0 lb.ft.

The highest point of

a curve has zero

slope.

Centroid Location Complex Shapes

Review: Calculating area of simple shapes

Area of a

square = Area of a rectangle =

Area of a triangle =

Area of

a circle =

πr2 ½ (base)(height)

Centroid of a Right Triangle

The centroid of a triangle is constructed by taking any given triangle and

connecting the midpoints of each leg of the triangle to the opposite vertex.

The line segment created by connecting these points is called the median.

You see the three medians as the dashed lines in the figure below.

No matter what shape your triangle is, the centroid will always be inside the

triangle.

The centroid is the center of a triangle that can be

thought of as the center of mass. It is the balancing

point to use if you want to balance a triangle on the

tip of a pencil.

case of triangle its 1/3 from the height.

Centroid Location

The centroid of a right triangle is located at a

distance of 1/3 its height and 1/3 its base.

B

Computing the reactions from the equilibrium equations

1000 + RB – 2160 = 0

RB = 1160 lb

MA = 0 MB + 1160(12) - 2160(8) = 0

MB = 3360 lb-ft

Derivation of Flexure formula

The stresses caused by the bending moment are known as bending stresses, or flexure

stresses.

The relationship between these stresses and the bending moment is called the flexure

formula.

Figure 5-1a shows two adjacent sections ab and cd separated by the distance dx.

Because of the bending caused by load P, section ab and cd rotate relative to each

other by the amount dѳ as shown in Figure-b, but remain straight and undistorted.

Drawing the line c'd' through f parallel to ab shows that fiber ac is shortened an

amount cc' and is in compression and that fiber bd is lengthened by an amount d'd

and is in tension.

The plane containing fiber like ef is called the neutral surface because such fiber

remain unchanged in length and hence carry no stress.

It will be shown shortly that this neutral surface contains the centroids of all

transverse sections.

Consider now the deformation of a typical longitudinal fiber gh located distance y units

below the neutral surface and on the tension side of the beam.

Its elongation hk is the arc of a circle of radius y subtended by the angle dѳ and is given

by

hk yd

The strain is found by dividing the deformation by the original length ef of the fiber:

hk yd

L gh gh

If we denote the radius of curvature of the neutral surface by , the curved length ef is

equal to d , from which the strain becomes

hk yd yd y

L gh ef d

Assuming that the material is homogeneous and obeys Hooke’s law, the stress in fiber gh is

given by

y E

E E ( )y

y E

E E ( )y ……….a)

The above equation indicates that the normal stress in any longitudinal fiber varies

directly with its location y from the neutral surface, since it is assumed that the modulus

of elasticity E is equal in tension and compression and the radius of curvature of the

neutral surface is independent of the location y of the fiber.

However the stress must not exceed the proportional limit, for this would invalidate

Hooke’s law on which this stress variation is based.

To complete the derivation of the flexure formula,

we apply the condition of equilibrium.

stress distribution over the cross section must be equal

to the bending moment M acting about the neutral axis (z-axis).

of the cross section is

dP dA

a typicalelement of area dA is

M oment Force Perpendicular distance

Moment dP( y )

Moment x dA( y )

the cross - sectional area A and equating the result to the resisting moment yields

Resisting moment M r y x dA

To satify thecondition of static equlibrium , we apply M Z 0,

or the fact that the applied moment M equals the resisting moment M r .

The resisting moment M r is the sum of the resisting moment developed by

all differential loads dP.

M Mr

M y x dA

Ey x Ey /

M y dA

E

M y dA 2

EI

M Moment of inertia, I y 2 dA

EI

M

Ey EI Ey Ey

a)

M

My

I

My

I

This formula indicates that the flexure stress in any section varies directly with the distance

of the section from the neutral axis.

In a more common of the flexure formula, y is replaced by the distance c, which is defined

as the distance from the neutral axis to the remotest element.

With this change, the maximum flexure stress in any section is given by

Mc

max

I

another common variation of the flexural formula is

M M

max

I c S

The formulas for the section moduli of common cross

sections are given in Fig. 5.4.

I is the Moment of Inertia. For a rectangular beam .

The formulas for the section moduli of common cross sections are given

in Fig. 5.4.

Example:

Before we can find the maximum bending

stress in the beam, we must find the maximum

bending moment. We begin by computing the

external reactions at A and E; the results are

shown in Fig. (a). Then we sketch the shear

force and bending moment diagrams.

We see that the maximum bending moment is

Mmax =16 kN m, occurring at D.

We can also find the maximum bending

moment from the shear force diagram. The

shear force diagram shows that the shear force

becomes zero under the 15 kN load at x = 2m.

So the maximum bending moment is equal to

the shear area to the left of this section.

14 2

M max ( )(2) 16kN.m

2

In this case, the neutral axis (NA) is an axis of symmetry of the cross

section, as shown in Fig. (a). The moment of inertia of the cross section

about the neutral axis

is

Example:

we must find the maximum bending moment.

We begin by computing the external reactions R1 and R2 ; the

results are shown in Figure.

Then we sketch the shear force and bending moment

diagrams.

We see that the maximum bending moment is

Mmax = 4500 lb-ft =4500(12) lb-inch

bh3 (2)(4)3

I 10.66inch 4

12 12

max 10125 psi

I 10.66

Final Exam - Paper Pattern

First attempt Q.-I (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken back after 20

minutes.

Q. 2 Thermal stresses

Q.3 Torsion

•The final exam paper will be a test not of your memory but a test of whether or not you

can apply the conceptual knowledge you have gained in the class to new situations.

•Questions in the exam will not be tougher than those taught in the class. So if you can

handle those, then you can definitely handle the exam paper.

INSTRUCTIONS:

1) Start every question from a new page.

No. in the Question Paper. Do not copy out the question.

4) Mobile phones and other electronic devices are not allowed in the

examination hall.

5) You must write in only blue or black ink. Pencil may be used only for

diagrams.

6) Rough working may be done in the answer sheet. Clearly cross out rough

working before handing in your answer sheet. The use of scrap paper is

not permitted.

Do not forget to write your

serial number on both the

MCQS as well as on the

Answer Book.

Continuation sheet is not

allowed in the paper of MOM -1.

Ten marks will be deducted for

each continuation sheet.

Quiz# 01, 02, 03

Presentation

Date: 22-January-2019

Time: 10:30 am

Deadline for

submission of

Assignments

22-January-2019

Good Luck

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