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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS - I

CREDIT HOURS: THEORY = 3 HRS


COURSE OUTLINE

Strength of materials
Andrew Pytel
Ferdinand L. Singer
TENTATIVE COURSE SCHEDULE

WEEK No. LECTURE TOPIC


1 Simple stress: Normal stresses
2 Simple stress: Shear stress
3 Thin-walled pressure vessels
4 Simple strain: Stress-strain diagram
5 Simple strain: Hooke’s law: Axial and shearing deformations
6 Simple strain: Poisson’s ratio: Biaxial and triaxial deformations
7 Thermal stresses
8 Thermal stresses
Mid Term Exam
9 Torsion
10 Torsion
11 Shear and moment in beams
12 Shear and moment in beams
13 Stresses in beams
14 Stresses in beams
15 Beam deflections
16 Beam deflections
STUDENT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION / GRADING

• Assignments, Quizzes, Mid Term and the Final examination will evaluate student
progress.

FINAL GRADE

The final grade will be determined by averaging each section and assigning them the
following weights:

Quizzes ............................12.5%
Assignments………………12.5%
Mid Term Examination……25%
Final Examination .............50%
---------------------------------------------------------
Total ............................. 100%
PARTICIPATION

The course consists of a three-hour lecture per week.


Attendance for all lectures is strongly advised.
Any student whose attendance is less than 75% will be dropped
from the course for insufficient participation.
What is Mechanics?

Mechanics is the branch of physical science which deals with the


state of rest or motion of bodies that are subjected to the action of
forces.

Mechanics is the study of forces that act on bodies and the resultant
motion that those bodies experience.

With roots in physics and mathematics, Engineering Mechanics is


the basis of all the mechanical sciences.

Physical science is the study of the physical world around you.


Any of several branches of science, such as physics, chemistry, and
astronomy, that study the nature and properties of energy and
nonliving matter.
Mechanics
Applied Mechanics is subdivided into two parts:

1. SOLID MECHANICS
Solid mechanics is usually subdivided into further two streams i.e.
a) Mechanics of rigid bodies (i.e. objects that do not get deformed when forces are applied)
Mechanics of rigid bodies is further divided into two parts:
i) Statics
ii) Dynamics
Statics deals with bodies at rest.
Dynamics deals with objects in motion.
b) Mechanics of deformable bodies
The mechanics of deformable solids which is branch of applied mechanics is known by several names i.e. strength
of materials, mechanics of materials etc.

2. FLUID MECHANICS
Rigid body

• The term "rigid body" refers to a system with any number of


particles, but which are constrained not to move relative to each
other. That is, a rigid body does not deform.

• All particles in a rigid body remain at a fixed distance from one


another even after applying forces.

• A rigid body is nothing but a solid body of finite size in which change
in original shape (deformation in other words) is not allowed.
Introduction to Mechanics of Materials
Definition: Mechanics of materials is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with
the behaviour of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.

Compression Tension (stretched) Bending Torsion (twisted) Shearing

Most fundamental concepts in Mechanics of Materials are stress and strain.


Mechanics of materials
The fundamental areas of engineering mechanics are

1. Statics

2. Dynamics

3. Strength of materials (Mechanics of materials)

Statics and dynamics are devoted primarily to the study of the external effects of forces on rigid bodies i.e. bodies for which
the change in shape (deformation) can be neglected.

In contrast, strength of materials deals with the relation between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies.
Moreover, the bodies are no longer assumed to be rigid; the deformations, however small, are of major interest.

The purpose of studying strength of materials is to ensure at that the structure used will be safe against the maximum internal
effects that may be produced by any combination of loading.

The main objective of the study of the mechanics of materials is to provide the future engineer with the mean of analyzing
and designing various machines and load-bearing structures.

Both the analysis and the design of a given structure involve the determination of stress and deformations.

An understanding of how bodies respond to applied loads is the main area of emphasis in the Mechanics of materials.
STRESS
• Stress can be defined as a measure of the internal reaction to an externally applied
force. It is due to the internal resistance of particles inside the body.
• When some external forces are applied to a body, then the body offers internal
resistance to these forces. This internal opposing force per unit area is called 'stress'.
It is denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma) and its formula is as following

(External)

(Geometry)
The unit of stress is the units of force divided by the units of area.

In SI, force is measured in newtons (N) and area is measured in


square meters (m2). Thus the units for stress are newtons per square
meter (N/m2). Frequently, one newton per square meter is referred to
as one Pascal (Pa).

In US customary units, force is measured in pounds (lb). With area


measured in square inches, the units for stress are pounds per
square inch (lb/in2), frequently abbreviated as psi.

Since kip is often used to represent kilopound (1 kip = 1000 lb, 2 kips
= 2000 lb etc). ksi is used an abbreviation for 1 kip per square inch
(1000 lb/in2), for example, 8 ksi = 8000 psi.
Area &Volume

Here is a cube which is being cut across. Such a


‘cut-across’ is called a cross section.
Concept of Stress
The fundamental concepts of stress can be illustrated by considering a straight bar with a constant cross-sectional area A that
is loaded by axial forces F at the ends, as shown in the Figure.

The external load causes internal forces called stresses. To investigate the internal stresses produced in the bar by the axial
forces, we make an imaginary cut at section c-c. This section is taken perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar.

We now isolate the part of the bar to the left of the cut as a free body. The tensile load F acts at the left hand end of the free
body; at the other end are forces representing the action of the removed part of the bar upon the part that remains.
These forces are continuously distributed over the cross section. The intensity of force (that is, the force per unit area) is called
the stress and is commonly denoted by the Greek letter ζ (sigma). Assuming that the stress has a uniform distribution over the
cross section (see Figure), we can readily see that its resultant is equal to the intensity ζ times the cross-sectional area A of
the bar.

Furthermore, from the equilibrium (balancing of forces) of the body shown in Figure, it is also evident that this resultant must
be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the applied load F. Hence, we obtain
Strength
It is a material property which defines the maximum stress a body can
withstand before failure occurs.
It is the resistance offered by a material when subjected to external loading.
So, stronger the material the greater the load it can withstand.
Depending upon the type of load applied the strength can be tensile,
compressive, shear or torsional.
Sample Problem #01 Axial loading - The applied forces are
collinear with the longitudinal axis of
the member. The forces cause the
member to either stretch or shorten.

To calculate the stresses, we must first determine the axial load in each section.

In order to determine the stresses we first choose an imaginary cut perpendicular to the axis of the
bar.

The free-body diagrams have been drawn by isolating the portion of the bar lying to the left of
imaginary cutting planes.

Identical results would be obtained if portion lying to the right of the cutting planes had been
considered.
( ) R x  Fx  9000  4000  5000( )

( ) R x  Fx  9000  2000  4000  7000()


Sample Problem #02

6 1mm  10 3 m
AAB  800mm  800 10 m
2 2

(1mm) 2  (10 3 mm) 2


6
AAC  400mm  400  10 m
2 2
1mm2  10 6 m 2

M aximum safe value of W  ?

 AB  110MPa  110 106 N / m 2


 AC  120MPa  120 106 N / m 2
Sample Problem #02
PAC Cos 60  PAB Cos 40  0..........1)
Method-1
PAC Sin 60  PAB Sin 40  W  0.....2)

1)  PAC Cos 60  PAB Cos 40


PAB Cos 40
PAC  ..............3)
Cos 60

Putting value of PAC from equation - 3 into equation - 2


2)  PAC Sin 60  PAB Sin 40  W  0
PAC Sin 60  PAB Sin 40  W
PAB Cos 40
Sin 60  PAB Sin 40  W
Cos 60 Cos 40  0.766
PAB (
Cos 40
Sin 60  Sin 40)  W Cos 60  0.5
Cos 60
Cos 40 Sin 60  Sin 40Cos 60
Sin 40  0.642
PAB ( ) W
Cos 60 Sin 60  0.866
0.766  0.866  0.642  0.5
PAB ( ) W
0. 5
0.663  0.32
PAB ( ) W
0. 5 PAB Cos 40
0.983 3)  PAC 
PAB ( ) W Cos 60
0. 5
PAB (1.966)  W 0.508W  0.766
W PAC 
PAB  0.5
1.966
PAB  0.508W PAC  0.778W
PAC Cos 60  PAB Cos 40  0..........1)
Method-2
PAC Sin 60  PAB Sin 40  W  0.....2)
In order to cancel out PAB , multiply equation 1) by Sin40 and equation 2) by cos40,
and then add equation 1) and equation 2).

1)  Sin 40  ( PAC Cos60  PAB Cos 40)  0  PAC Sin 40Cos60  PAB Sin 40Cos 40  0

2)  Cos 40  ( PAC Sin60  PAB Sin 40  W )  0  PAC Sin60Cos 40  PAB Sin 40Cos 40  WCos40  0

PAC Sin60Cos 40  PAC Sin 40Cos60  WCos40  0

PAC (Sin60Cos 40  Sin 40Cos60)  WCos40

PAC (0.866  0.766  0.648  0.5)  W  0.766

PAC (0.663  0.324)  W  0.766

PAC (0.987)  W  0.766


0.766
PAC  W 
0.987
PAC  0.778W
Revision

Circumference = 2 • π • radius = π • diameter


Circle Area = π • r² = ¼ • π • d²
Sample Problem #03

P  400kN  400 103 N


N N
  120M 2  120 106 2
m m
Inside diameter  d 2  100mm  100 10 3 m
Outside diameter  d1  ?

SOLUTION :

P

A
400 103
120  10  6

  
A d12  d 22  (d12  d 22 )
4 4 4
SOLUTION :
P
 From figure, we have
A
  
400 103 A d12  d 22  (d12  d 22 )
120 10 
6
4 4 4
A
400  103
120  10  6

(d12  d 22 )
4
400  103
120  10 6 

[d12  (100  10 3 ) 2 ]
4
400  103
120  10  6

[d12  0.01]
4
400  103
d12  0.01 

(120  10 6 )
4
400  103
d12   0.01

(120  10 ) 6

4
d12  0.0424  0.01
d12  0.0524
 
A d12  d 22
4 4

A (d12  d 22 )
4

3.333 10 3  [d12  (100 10 3 ) 2 ]
4

3.333 10 3  [d12  0.01]
4
4
(3.333  10 3 )  d12  0.01

4
d12  (3.333 10 3 )  0.01

d12  0.0142
d1  0.119m
Sample Problem #04

Homogeneous bar : Material should be same throughout all


parts of the bar

m  800kg
 Br  90 MPa
 St  120 MPa
LBr  4m
LSt  3m
ABr  ?
AS t  ?
SOLUTION:
To find forces PA and PB, we consider the free body diagram

 Fy  0 MA  0
PA  PB  W W (5)  PB (10)  0
PA  PB  (800  9.8) N PB  5 W  5 (800  9.8)  3920 N
10 10
PA  PB  W
PA  W  PB
PA  (800  9.8)  3920
PA  7840  3920
PA  3920 N

PA PB
 Br   St 
ABr ASt
PA 3920 N PB 3920 N
ABr    43.6 10 6 m 2 ASt    32.7 10 6 m 2
 Br 90 106 N  St 120 106
N
m2 m2
ABr  43.6mm2 ASt  32.7mm2
Sample Problem #05

P  3000lb
LSt  2 ft
LAl  3 ft
LBr  2.5 ft
A  0.5in 2
 St  ?
 Al  ?
 Br  ?
First we consider the Steel section. The axial load is 4P(Tension)

PSt  4P  4(3000)  12000lbs

PSt
 St 
ASt
12000
 St   24000 Psi
0.5
For Aluminum section. The axial load is also 4P(Tension)

PAl  4P  4(3000)  12000lbs


PAl
 Al 
AAl
12000
 Al   24000 Psi
0.5
For Bronze section. The axial load is also 3P(Tension)
PBr  3P  3(3000)  9000lbs
PBr
 Br 
ABr
9000
 Al   18000 Psi
0.5
Types of stresses
When we apply some external force on the body, some amount of internal force which is equal but opposite in direction is
generated, this internal force per unit area is called stress. We denote this by Greek symbol ζ and its formula is as following
ζ = F/A
In SI, the units are Pascal (Pa).

The important types of simple stresses are


1. Tensile stress
2. Compressive stress
3. Shear stress

Tensile and compressive stress is causes by forces perpendicular to the areas on which they act.
For this reason, tensile and compressive stresses are frequently called normal stresses.

When we apply two equal forces but opposite in direction on a rod towards outside, it elongates and the type of stress
generate at that time is called tensile stress.

When we apply two equal forces but opposite in direction on a rod in such a way that it compresses the rod, then the type of
stress generates at that time is called compressive stress.
Shear stress
Shear stress is caused by forces acting along or parallel to the area resisting the forces.

For this reason, a shearing stress may be called a tangential stress.

A shearing stress is produced whenever the applied loads cause one section of a body to tend to slide past its adjacent
section.
Shear stress is denoted by Greek letter τ and the formula is as following

τ =Tangential force/ Resisting area


Several examples are shown in Figure 1-11.

In (a) the rivet resists shear across its cross-sectional area, whereas in the clevis at (b) the bolt resists shear across two
cross-sectional areas;

Case (a) may be called single shear and case (b) double shear.

In (c) a circular slug is about to be punched out of a plate; the resisting area is similar to the milled edge of a coin. In each
case, the shear occurs over an area parallel to the applied load. This may be called direct shear in contrast to the induced
shear that may occur over sections inclined with the resultant load, as was illustrated in Figure 1-4a.
Consider the effect of applying a force F to the bar in Fig. a.
If the supports are considered rigid, and F is large enough, it will
cause the material of the bar to deform and fail along the planes
identified by AB and CD.
A free-body diagram of the unsupported center segment of the
bar, Fig. b, indicates that the shear force V = F/2 must be applied
at each section to hold the segment in equilibrium.
The average shear stress distributed over each sectioned area
that develops this shear force is defined by
Shear : load parallel to area

Normal : load perpendicular to area


.
A shearing stress is produced whenever the applied loads cause one section of a body to tend to slide past its adjacent section
Rivets resist shear across its cross-sectional area.
In Figure (c) a circular slug is about to be punched out of a plate; the resisting
area is similar to the milled edge of a coin. In this case, the shear occurs over
an area parallel to the applied load.

Die

Slug

Slug: a piece of metal shaped like a coin


Sample Problem #06

d  Diameter of hole  20mm  20 10 3 m


t  Thickness of plate  25mm  25 10 3 m
  Shear strength  350MN / m 2
v  Shear force  ?

SOLUTION :
v
 Shear area =
A Circumference of the
punched circle multiplied by
the specimen thickness
Area  Circumfere nce  Thickness
A  d  t

v v
 
A dt
 v  dt 
v   (20 10 3 )(25 10 3 )(350 106 )
v  549778.7 N  550kN
Sample Problem #07

  Shear strength  40ksi


M aximum compressive stress    50ksi
Thickness of plate  t  ?
Diameter of hole  d  ?
a) t  ? for d  2.5 inch
b) d  ? for t  0.25 inch Slug
a) t  ? for d  2.5 inch

v A  dt
  v  A
A
v   (dt )

P
  P  A d 2
A A P
4
d 2
P 
4
v

Pv
d 2
  dt
4
 d 2  4dt
 d 2 d 50  2.5
t     0.78inch
4d 4 4  40
b) d  ? for t  0.25 inch

v A  dt
  v  A
A
v   (dt )

P
  P  A d 2
A A P
4
d 2
P 
4
v

Pv
d 2
  dt
4
 d 2  4dt
4t 4(40)(0.25)
d    0.8inch
 50
Sample Problem #08

P  400kN
  300 MPa
d ?

P 
 A d2
2A 4

P P
 
 
2 d2 d2
4 2
2P
 2
d
d 2  2 P Clevis: A U-shaped metal piece with holes in each end through
2P 2(400 10 ) 3 which a pin or bolt is run, used as a fastening device.
d2    0.848 10 3
  (300 10 )
6
The bolt is subjected to shear by the tensile forces in the flat
bar and the clevis.
d  0.848 10 3  0.0291m The bolt resists shear across two cross-sectional areas; it may
be called double shear.
Strain
Whenever a force is applied to a body, it will tend to change the body’s shape and size.
These changes are referred to as deformation.

Load will cause all material bodies to deform and, as a result, points in the body will
undergo displacements or changes in position.

Normal strain is a measure of the elongation or contraction of a small line segment in the
body.

To obtain the unit of deformation or strain ε, we divide the elongation δ by the length L in
which it was measured, thereby obtaining
The Tension and Compression Test
To properly design a structure or mechanical component, the engineer must understand
and work within the characteristics and limitation of the material used in the component.

Material such as steel, aluminum, plastics and wood respond uniquely to applied load
and stresses. To determine the strength and characteristics of materials such as these
requires laboratory testing.

One of the simplest and most effective laboratory tests to obtain engineering design
information about a material is called the tension test.
One of the simplest tests for determining mechanical properties of a material is the
tensile test. In this test, a load is applied along the longitudinal axis of a circular test
specimen.

The applied load and the resulting elongation of the member are measured.

To perform a tension or compression test a specimen of the material is made into a


standard shape and size.

Before testing, two small punch marks are identified along the specimen’s length.
Measurements are taken of both the specimen’s initial cross-sectional area, Aₒ, and the
gauge-length distance Lₒ between the punch marks.

For example, when a metal specimen is used in a tension test it generally has an initial
diameter of dₒ = 13 mm and a gauge length of Lₒ = 50 mm.
In order to apply an axial load with no bending of the specimen, the ends are usually are
gripped between the jaws of a testing machine.

A testing machine like the one shown in figure is used to stretch the specimen at a very
slow, constant rate until it reaches the breaking point. The machine is designed to read
the load required to maintain this uniform stretching.

At frequent interval during the test, data is recorded of the applied load P, as read on the
dial of the machine or taken from a digital readout.

Also, the elongation δ = L – Lₒ between the punch marks on the specimen may be
measured using a caliper or a mechanical or optical device called an extensometer.

For example:
specimen

An extensometer is a device that is


used to measure changes in the length
of an object.

Electronic Extensometer

Machine
Stress-Strain Diagram
From the data of a tension or compression test, it is possible to compute various values
of the stress and corresponding strain in the specimen and then plot the results. The
resulting curve is called the stress-strain diagram.

Using the recorded data, we can determine the nominal or engineering stress by
dividing the applied load P by the specimen’s original cross-sectional area Aₒ. This
calculation assumes that the stress is constant over the cross section and throughout the
region between the gauge points, we have

Likewise, the nominal or engineering strain is found directly from the stain gauge
reading or by dividing the change in the specimen’s gauge length by the specimen’s
original length Lₒ. Here the strain is assumed to be constant throughout the region
between the gauge points. Thus
A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having an original
diameter of 12.5 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. Using the data listed in the
table, plot the stress–strain diagram
The corresponding values are plotted as a graph, for which the vertical axis is
the stress and horizontal axis is the strain, the resulting curve is called a
conventional stress-strain diagram. This diagram is very important in
engineering since it provides the means for obtaining data about a material’s
tensile or compressive strength without regard for the material’s physical size
or shape i.e. its geometry.

No two stress-strain diagrams for a particular material will be exactly the same, since the results
depend on such variables as the material’s composition, microscopic imperfections, the way it is
manufactured, the rate of loading, and the temperature during the time of the test.
We will now discuss the characteristics of the conventional stress-strain curve as it pertains to steel, a commonly used material for
fabricating both structural members and mechanical elements.

From this curve we can identify four different ways in which the material behaves, depending on the amount of strain induced in
the material.

1) Elastic behavior
2) Yielding
3) Strain hardening
4) Necking

Other concepts developed from the stress-strain curve are the following:

1) Proportional limit
2) Elastic limit
3) Yield Point
4) Ultimate stress or Ultimate strength
5) Rupture strength
 Elastic Limit
 Elastic Limit
 Elastic Limit
Proportional Limit
From the origin O to a point called the proportional limit shows that stress-strain diagram is a straight line.

From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated by Rober Hook in 1678, that Stress is proportional to strain.

In this range, the stress and strain are proportional to each other, so that any increase in stress will result in a proportionate
increase in strain.

Beyond this point, the stress is no longer proportional to strain.

Stress-strain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension (not to scale)


Elastic limit
If the stress slightly exceeds the proportional limit, the material may still respond
elastically; however, the curve tends to bend and flatten out as shown. This continues
until the stress reaches the elastic limit. Upon reaching this point if the load is removed
the specimen will still return to its original shape.

The point beyond which the material will not return to its original shape when unloaded
but will retain a permanent deformation called permanent set.

Maximum stress to which a material may be subjected and still return to its original
length upon release of the load.
Notice elastic limit and proportionality limits are different! Some materials are still
elastic beyond the linear (proportional) section of the curve.
But in all practical cases they are same.
Yielding
A slight increase in stress above the elastic limit will result in permanent deformation.
This behavior is called yielding for ductile materials.

The stress that causes yielding is called the yield stress or yield point and the
deformation that occurs is called the plastic deformation.

Once the yield point is reached, the specimen will continue to elongate (strain) with any
increase in load.

It is a point on stress-strain curve at which there is a sudden increase in strain without a


corresponding increase in stress.

Not all materials have a yield point.


Strain Hardening
When yielding has ended, a further load can be applied to the specimen, resulting in a
curve that rises continuously but becomes flatter until it reaches a maximum stress
referred to as the ultimate stress or Ultimate strength. The rise in the curve in this
manner is called strain hardening.

Throughout the test, while the specimen is elongating, its cross-sectional area will
decrease. This decrease in area is fairly uniform over the specimen’s gauge length, even
up to the strain corresponding to the ultimate stress.
Necking
At the ultimate stress, the cross-sectional area begins to decrease in a localized region of
the specimen, instead of over its entire length.

As a result, a constriction or ‘neck’ gradually tends to form in this region as the specimen
elongates further.

Since the cross-sectional area within this region is continually decreasing, the smaller the
area can only carry an ever-decreasing load. Hence the stress-strain diagram tends to
curve downward until the specimen breaks at the fracture stress.
Rupture Strength
The rupture strength is the stress at failure.

For structural steel it is somewhat lower than ultimate strength because the rupture strength is computed by dividing the rupture
load by the original cross-sectional area, which, although convenient, is incorrect. The error is caused by a phenomenon known
as necking.

For a ductile material, up to the ultimate strength, the deformation is uniform along the length of the bar. At the maximum stress
localized deformation or necking occurs in the specimen and the load falls off as the area decreases. This necking elongation is
non uniform deformation and occurs rapidly to the point of failure.

The breaking strength which is determined by dividing the breaking load by the original cross-sectional area is always less than
the ultimate strength.

For a brittle material, the ultimate strength and breaking strength coincide.

Stress-Strain Diagram
The Load-deformation plot does not provide material properties.
• But, when converted to stress-strain plot it provides all the information
needed. Notice elastic limit and proportionality limits are different! Some materials are still
elastic beyond the linear (proportional) section of the curve.
But in all practical cases they are same.
Notice ultimate stress is higher than
fracture stress. This is because this
graph do not plot the true stress
accounting for the reduction in area
due to necking. This is called
engineering stress. The true stress
actually is higher at fracture.
Working stress and factor of safety
The working stress σw , also called the allowable stress, is the maximum safe axial stress used
in design. In most designs, the working stress should be limited to values not exceeding the
proportional limit so that the stresses remain in the elastic range (the straight-line portion of
the stress-strain diagram). However, because the proportional limit is difficult to determine
accurately, it is customary to base the working stress on either the yield stress σyp or the
ultimate stress σult , divided by a suitable number N, called the factor of safety. Thus,
Hooke’s Law: Axial Deformations
Let us now return to a consideration of the striaght-line portion of the stress-strain diagram as shown in figure.

From the origin O to a point called the proportional limit shows that stress-strain diagram is a straight line.

From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated by Rober Hook in 1678, that Stress is proportional to
strain.

The slope of that line is the ratio of stress to strain. It is called the modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E.

which is usually written in the form


  E
In this form it is known as Hooke’s law.

Modulus of elasticity E is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension
or compression.
  E
A convenient relation of Hooke’s law is obtained by replacing ζ by its equivalent P/A and replacing ε by δ/L.

The above equation expresses the relation among the total deformation δ, the applied load P, the length L, the cross sectional
area A, and the modulus of elasticity E.

Note that the above equation is subject to the following restrictions:

•The load must be axial.


•The bar must have a constant cross-section and be homogeneous.
•The stress must not exceed the proportional limit.
We already know Hooke’s law, but what does it tell us?

Pl  l 
  P 
AE  AE 
Modulus of elasticity is a mechanical property that indicates the stiffness of a material.
Materials that are very stiff, such as steel, have large values of E (Est = 200 GPa), whereas
spongy materials such as vulcanized rubber may have low values (Er = 0.70 MPa).

The property of a material by virtue of which a body returns to its original shape after
removal of the load is called elasticity.

It must always be remembered, though, E can be used only if a material has linear-
elastic behavior. Also, if the stress in the material is greater than proportional limit, the
stress-strain diagram ceases to be a straight line and   E is no longer valid.
Hooke’s Law: Shearing Deformations
An element subject to tension undergoes an increase in length, whereas an element subject to shear does not change
the length of its sides, but undergoes a change in shape form a rectangle to a parallelogram.

s
The average shearing strain is found by dividing δs by L. tan 
L
s
For very small angle tan    
L
More precisely, the shearing strain is defined as the change in angle measured between two lines which were initially
perpendicular.

The relation between shearing stress and shearing strain assuming Hooke’s law to apply to shear is

G = Modulus of elasticity in shear, more commonly called the modulus of rigidity

Modulus of elasticity in shear G is the ratio of unit shear stress to unit strain with the proportional limit of a material in
shear.
We can define shear strain exactly the way we do longitudinal strain: the ratio of
deformation to original dimensions.

In the case of shear strain, though, it's the amount of deformation perpendicular to a
given line rather than parallel to it.

The ratio turns out to be tanɣ, where ɣ is the angle the sheared line makes with its
original orientation.

Note that if ɣ equals 90 degrees, the shear strain is infinite.


Length , L  30'  30  12  360"

Load , P  500lb

 max  20ksi  20 103 psi

Elongation ,  max  0.20"

E  29 10 6 psi

Diameter , d  ?
Solution :

Area of Steel wire :



A d2
4
4A
d2 

4A
d

First we find the area for maximum allowable stress, so we have


P

A
P
A

500
A
20 103
A  0.025inch 2
To find the area for maximum allowable elongation
  E
P 
E
A L
PL
A
E
500  360
A
0.20  29 106
A  0.031inch 2

 A  0.031inch 2

4A
d

4(0.031)
d

d  0.1986inch
A  0.5inch 2
E  10 106 psi
 ?
Solution :
We first compute the deformation separately in all sections.
Consider the left section.
The axial load in this section is 6000lb (Tension). So the deformation will be increase in length
and may be taken as positive.

PL
1 
AE
6000(3 12)
1 
0.5 10 106
1  4.32 10 3 inch
The axial load for middle section is 1000lb compression. So the deformation will be decrease
in length and may be taken as negative.

PL
 2  ( )
AE
1000(5 12)
 2  ( )
0.5 10 106
 2  0.012inch
The axial load for section-3 is 4000lb tension. So the deformation will be increase
in length and may be taken as positive.

PL
3 
AE
4000(4 12)
3 
0.5 10 106
 3  3.84 10 3 inch

So the total deformation is

  1   2   3
  4.32 10 3  0.012  3.84 10 3
  3.84 10 3 inch
ABr  650mm 2 AAl  320mm2
ASt  480mm 2

EBr  83GPa E Al  70GPa


ESt  200GPa
LBr  2m LAl  1.5m
LSt  1m
( Br ) max  120 MPa ( Al ) max  80 MPa
( St ) max  140 MPa

 t  3mm
P?
First we find the deformation in each section in term of P

For steel the axial load is P (Tension)


PL AAl  320mm2
 St   ASt  480mm2 ABr  650mm2
AE E Al  70GPa
ESt  200GPa EBr  83GPa
P (1) LAl  1.5m
 St  6
LSt  1m LBr  2m
480 10  200 109 ( Al ) max  80 MPa
( St ) max  140 MPa ( Br ) max  120 MPa
P
 St 
96000  103
 St  (1.04 10 8 P)m

For Bronze the load is 2P( Compression)


PL
 Br  
AE
2 P(2)
 Br  
650 10 6  83 109
 Br  (7.4 10 8 P)m

 t   St   Br   Al
For Aluminum the load is 2P (Tension)

 Al  
PL  t  (1.04  7.4  13.38) 10 8 P
AE
30 10 3
P
2 P(1.5)
 Al 
320 10 6  70 109
7.04 10 5
 Al  (13.39 10 8 P)m
P  4.2 10 4 N  42kN
For steel section : For Bronze section : For Aluminum section :
P P P
 St  ( ) St  Br  ( ) Br  Al  ( ) Al
A A A
P  (A) St 2 P  (A) Br 2 P  (A) Al
P  140 106  480  10 6 P
1
(120 106  650 10 6 ) P
1
(80 10 6  320 10 6 )
P  67.2kN 2 2
P  39kN P  12.8kN

So the smallest value of P is 12.8kN which will fulfill all the conditions.
Fortunately, many engineering materials exhibit a linear elastic range of response to loading. Also, many engineering materials
can be assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic within that linear range. Let us review the definitions of the terms above:

Linear - straight line relationship between load and deformation (or stress and strain),

Elastic - deformation is fully recoverable when the loading is removed,

Homogeneous - the structure or composition is uniform (constant) throughout the material,

Isotropic - the properties are the same in all directions.

Although most materials do not strictly satisfy the requirements to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic materials, many are
sufficiently close to allow us to assume they act that way. For example, steel has some directional properties imparted to it in the
rolling or drawing process yet we can generally assume it is essentially isotropic.

Materials which are assumed to satisfy the four definitions above are frequently referred to as simply "elastic" materials. Therefore
if no modifiers are added to the term we shall assume "elastic" implies that the material is a "homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic
material".

In the study of elastic materials, we find the material response equations (stress-strain equations, also called constitutive
equations) are generally given in terms of the elastic constants:

E = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus)


G = modulus of rigidity (shear modulus).

These elastic constants are usually defined under very simple loading conditions. A uniaxial stress state is used to define the
constants E and v, while pure shear is used to define G. However, these same constants appear in the more general stress-strain
relationships for elastic materials: the generalized Hooke's law.
Poisson's ratio
When a deformable body is subjected to an axial tensile force, not only does it elongate, but it also
contracts laterally.
For example, if a rubber band is stretched, it can be noted that both the thickness and width of the
band are decreased.
Likewise, compressive force acting on a body causes it to contract in the direction of the force yet
its sides expand laterally.
Poisson showed in 1811 that the ratio of the unit strains in these directions is constant for stresses
within proportional limit.
Accordingly, this ratio is named after him; it is denoted by nu and defined by

lateral strain

axial strain

The negative sign is used here since longitudinal elongation (positive strain)
causes lateral contraction (negative strain), and vice versa.
When a deformable body is subjected to an axial tensile force, not only
does it elongate, but it also contracts laterally.

lateral strain

axial strain
Likewise, compressive force acting on a body causes it to
contract in the direction of the force yet its sides expand laterally.

lateral strain

axial strain
Poisson’s Ratio
• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:

 x  E x  y   z  0

• The elongation in the x-direction is accompanied by a contraction


in the y and z directions. Assuming that the material is isotropic
(no directional dependence).
• No or zero stress in the y and z direction does not mean that
there will be no strain in the y and z direction.

y  z  0

• Poisson’s ratio is defined as


lateral strain y 
   z
axial strain x x
  y  v x

Slender: Having little width in proportion to


  z  v x
height or length; long and thin: a slender rod
Strain in x - direction due to  x is positive
 x  E x

 x  x
E

Strain in x - direction due to  y is negative


Lateral Strain 
  x
Longitudin al Strain y
y
 x   y  
E

Total Strain in x - direction  Strain in x - direction due to  x  Strain in x - direction due to  y


x y
x  
E E
Sample Problem #
A bar made of steel has the dimensions as shown in Figure - 1. If an axial force of
P = 80 kN is applied to the bar, determine the change in its length and the change
in the dimensions of its cross section after applying the load. The material behaves
elastically. Use ʋst =0.32 and Est = 200 GPa.

P  80kN  80  103 N Figure - 1

  0.32
ESteel  200GPa  200 109 N / m 2
Lx  100mm  100  10 3 m
Ly  50mm  50  10 3 m
Lz  1.5m
z  ?
x  ?
y  ?
The normal stress in the bar is

P 80 103
z   3 3
 16 106 N / m 2
A (50 10 )(100 10 )

  E


E
z 16 106
z    8  10 5

Esteel 200 109



L
  L
 z   z Lz  8 10 5 1.5  1.2 10  4 m
x y
 
z z
 x   z  0.32(8 10 5 )  2.56 10 5
 y   z  0.32(8 10 5 )  2.56 10 5



L
  L
 x   x Lx  (2.56 10 5 )(100 10 3 )  2.56 10 6 m
 y   y Ly  (2.56 10 5 )(50 10 3 )  1.28 10 6 m
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels
• Pressure vessels are the containers for fluids under high pressure.
• Cylindrical or spherical vessels are commonly used in industry to serve as boilers or
tanks. When under pressure, the material of which they are made are subjected to a
loading from all directions.
• They are used in a variety of industries like:
• Petroleum refining
• Chemical
• Power
• Food & beverage
• Pharmaceutical
Thin wall pressure vessels (TWPV) are widely used in industry for storage and
transportation of liquids and gases when configured as tanks.

Spherical Cylindrical
A gauge pressure (pressure above
atmospheric pressure) P is developed
within the vessel by a contained gas or
fluid, which is assumed to have negligible
weight.
Here only the loadings in
the horizontal direction
are shown.

(The internal gauge pressure


developed by the contained gas or
fluid)
F F
p 
A A
F  pA F  A
Sum of All Horizontal Forces (FH) = 0
This stress is called the longitudinal stress because it acts parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the cylinder.
t

t
F F
p 
A A
F  pA F  A
This stress is usually called the tangential stress because it acts tangent to the surface of
the cylinder; other common names are circumferential stress, hoop stress, girth stress.
Girth: The distance around something; the circumference. Hoop: A circular or ring like object
Comparing the equations for longitudinal and tangential stress shows
that the longitudinal stress in one-half the value of the tangential stress.

pD 1 pD 1
l   ( )  t
4t 2 2t 2
  t  2 l
Spherical Pressure Vessel
Using an analysis similar to that for cylinders, we can easily derive the expression for the
stress in the wall of a thin-walled spherical pressure vessel.

Sphere: A three-dimensional
surface, all points of which are
equidistant from a fixed point.
Sample Problem #09

D  400mm  400 10 3 m


t  20mm  20 10 3 m
p  4.5MN / m 2
a ) t  ?  l  ?
b) p  ?
c)

pD pD
t  l 
2t 4t
4.5  400 10 3 4.5  400 10 3
t   45MPa l   22.5MPa
2  20 10 3 4  20 10 3
Sample Problem #10
Sample Problem #11
Sample Problem #12

D  450mm  450 10 3 m


t  20mm  20 10 3 m
l  2m
p?
 l  140 MPa
 t  60 MPa

pD
t  t 
pD
2t 4t
p  450 10 3 p  450 10 3
60  3
 5.33MPa 140   24.89MPa
2  20 10 4  20 10 3
Mid Term Exam - Paper Pattern
First attempt Q. # 1 (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken
back after 20 minutes.

Q. 1 Multiple Choice Questions (20 MCQS)

Q. 2 + Q.3 + Q.4
Stresses
Strains
Hooke’s law: Axial and shearing deformations,
Poisson’s ratio
Thin-walled pressure vessel
Do not forget to write your
Serial number on both the
MCQS as well as on the
Answer Book.

Continuation sheet is not allowed in


the paper of MOM-1. Ten marks will be
deducted for each continuation sheet.
INSTRUCTIONS:
1) Start every question from a new page.

2) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q.


No. in the Question Paper. Do not copy out the question.

3) Use of Scientific Calculator is allowed.

4) Mobile phones and other electronic devices are not allowed in the
examination hall.

5) You must write in only blue or black ink. Pencil may be used only for
diagrams.

6) Rough working may be done in the answer sheet. Clearly cross out rough
working before handing in your answer sheet. The use of scrap paper is
not permitted.
Thermal Stresses
All of the members and structures that we have considered so far were assumed to
remain at the same temperature while they were being loaded. We are now going to
consider various situations involving changes in temperature.

If the temperature increases, generally a material expands, whereas if the temperature


decreases, the material contract.

Ordinarily, this expansion or contraction is linearly related to the temperature increase


or decrease that occurs.

If this is the case, and the material is homogeneous and isotropic, it has been found
from experiment that the deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated
using the formula
Coefficient of linear expansion
To understand thermal expansion, consider a simple model of a solid, the atoms of which are held together in a regular array.

As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy in


vibration of the atoms and molecules also increases. The
increased vibration makes each particle take up a little
more space, causing thermal expansion.

The forces between atoms can be compared to the forces that would be exerted by an array of springs connecting the atoms
together. At any temperature above absolute zero (–273.15°C), the atoms of the solid vibrate.

When the temperature is increased, the amplitude of the vibrations increases, and the average distance between atoms
increases. This leads to an expansion of the whole body as the temperature is increased. The change in length that arises from
a change in temperature (ΔT) is designated by δT.

Through experimentation, we find that the change in length δT is proportional to the change in temperature ΔT and the original
length L. Thus,

where α is called the coefficient of linear expansion.

It can be defined as the fractional change in length per unit change in temperature. This coefficient has different values for
different materials.

A larger value means that the material expands more over a set temperature rise than a material with a lower coefficient.
Thermal Stresses

At room temperature 

After raising the


temperature by DT

• A temperature change results in a change in length or thermal strain. There


is no stress associated with the thermal strain unless the elongation is
restrained by the supports.
Thermal Stresses
If temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely, no load or stress will
be induced in the structure.

But in some cases it may not be feasible to permit these temperature


deformations; the result is that internal forces are created that resist them.
The stresses caused by these internal forces are known as thermal stresses.

For a homogeneous rod mounted between unyielding supports as shown, the


thermal stress is computed as:
Redundant :
1. Exceeding
Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of what is necessary
or natural
superposition. 2. Needlessly
repetitive

Deformation due to temperature changes; T  LDT

PL L
Deformation due to equivalent axial stress; P  
AE E
The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must
be compatible.  T P

L
LDT 
E
  T  EDT
Long structures such as railway tracks and
pipelines can fail from buckling instability by such
stresses. In the picture shown, a worker inspects
a buckled railway track that has failed from the
action of heat. The rail component - which is
welded at both ends to the next bit of track - is
constrained to the original length and so the
thermal expansion, in turn, introduces a
compressive stress along its length. When this
stress becomes too large, the rail cannot sustain
it in its original shape and it buckles sideways as
shown.
This process is highly unstable and can lead to
unsafe designs if the mechanics of this type of
system are not well understood. It can be seen in
the photograph that the buckling is localized to
one section of track, this is an important and
generic characteristic of long structures that have
some sort of support along their length.
Railway track: Railway tracks are an example where the concept of thermal expansion is used.
Space is left between railway tracks as an allowance for their expansion when temperature
increases, otherwise the rails may buckle.

Gaps between successive lengths of rails


Thermal stresses can cause the failure of machine components, buildings, and
structural members. Expansion joints and other means, including gaps between
successive lengths of rails, gaps between the blocks of a dam, and rollers on
bridge supports, are used to prevent such failures.

Bridges have expansion joints to allow for


thermal expansion of concrete.
Most bridges are built with gaps that allow the bridge to expand
without cracking the material.
Greek letters :

Change in length,   Delta


Normal stress,  Sigma
Normal strain,   Epsilon
Sample Problem #
Additional examples

T   F
L
LDT 
E
  EDT
  (29 103 )(6.60 10 6 )(120  60)
  11.5ksi
Sample Problem #

L  2 .5 m
Ti  20o C
P0
T f  20 o C
A  1200mm2
 m m
  11.7 o  11.7 10 6 o
m. C m. C
E  200GPa  200  109 N / m 2

 ?
Sample Problem #

A  0.25inch 2
Ti  70 o F
P  1200lb
inch
  6.5 10 6
inch o F
E  29  10 6 psi
a )  ? at Tf  0
b)T f  ? at   0
Solution:

As the temperature is decreasing , therefore the temperature stresses are also tensile.
 Total   P   T
P Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is
  EDT
A compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion
1200 has been constrained.
   (6.5 10 6 )(29 106 )(70)
0.25 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress
  4800  13195 will be imposed(ζ > 0).
  17995 psi  17.995ksi
  18ksi
If the stresses become zero, then
 Total   P   T
0   P T
Upon heating (Tf  Ti ), the stress will be compressive (  0),
since rod expansion has been constrained.
0   P  ( T )
 T   P
P
EDT 
A
P
DT  Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is
A E
compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion
1200
DT  has been constrained.
0.25  6.5  10 6  29  106
1200 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress
DT  will be imposed(ζ > 0).
47.125
DT  25.46
T f  Ti  25.46
T f  25.46  Ti
T f  25.46  70
T f  95.5o F
Ti  20 o C
T f  20 o C
P  5000 N
 max  130 MPa
m
  11.7 10 6
m oC
E  200  109 N / m 2

d min  ?
As the temperature of the rod is decreasing , therefore the temperature stresses will be tensile.
 Total   P   T
P
  EDT
A
5000
130 106   (11.7 10 6 )(200 109 )(40)
A
5000
130 106   93.6 106 Upon heating (Tf > Ti ), the stress is
A
compressive (ζ < 0), since rod expansion
5000
 130 10  93.6 10
6 6
has been constrained.
A
5000
 36 106 If the rod is cooled(Tf < Ti ), a tensile stress
A will be imposed(ζ > 0).
5000  (36 10 ) A
6

5000 d 2
A 3 6
 0.1373  10  137.3 10 m  137.3mm
2 2
 A
36 106 4
d 2
137.3 
4
4(137.3)
d2   174.8

d  13.2mm
L  10m
Ti  15o C
m m
  11.7 o
 11.7 10 6
mC m oC
E  200GPa  200 109 N / m 2
a )T f  ? If  T  3mm  3 10 3 m
b) T ? If DT  25.6

Solution :
a ) T  LDT
3 10 3  11.7 10 6  10  DT
3 10 3 b) T  EDT
 DT 
11.7 10 6 10
 T  (200 109 )(11.7 10 6 )  25.6
DT  25.6
 T  59.9 106
If we increase the temperature of rail.
 T  60MPa
The rail will expand and will fill the gap.
So the final temperature may be found as
T f  Ti  DT
T f  15  25.6  40.6 o C
Torsion
So far we studied how to calculate the stresses and strains in structural members subjected
to axial loading i.e. to forces directed along the axis of the member.

We are now going to consider various structural members and machine parts that are in
torsion.

Torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque.


Torsion, the stress produced in a body when it is twisted. The twist in the body
is produced by torque. A body such as a cylindrical rod or a structural beam is
in torsion when one end is held stationary while the other end is rotated at right
angles to a line (the longitudinal axis) running the length of the rod or beam.
Torsion also results when the two ends of a body are twisted in opposite
directions.

A body will, within limits, tend to resist being in torsion; it will tend to snap back
to its original condition when the torque is removed. Devices such as helical
(spiral) springs, and toy airplanes powered by twisted rubber bands, are based
on this characteristic. Torsion bars, which act as springs in automobiles, are
also applications of torsion.

When torsion exceeds a body's ability to withstand it, the body will shear or
break. Structural beams, gear shafts, and other objects that are, or may be,
subjected to torque must be designed to withstand the torsion that will be
produced in them.
Members in torsion are encounter in many
engineering applications.

The most common application is provided


by transmission shafts, which is used to
transmit power from one point to another.

For example:

•Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft

•Shaft transmits the torque to the generator

•Generator creates an equal and opposite


torque T
Torsion of Circular Shafts
To better understand the behavior of a torsion
member, a grid will be superimposed on the surface
of a shaft to help illustrate the deformation of the
shaft in response to an applied torque T.

When a circular shaft is subjected to torsion, every


cross section remains plane and undistorted. In
other words, while the various cross sections along
the shaft rotate through different amount, each
cross section rotates as a solid rigid slab.
Imagine the shaft to consist of innumerable thin
slices, each of which are rigid and joined to adjacent
slices by elastic fibers.

Slice 2 will rotate past slice 1 until the elastic fibers


joining them are deformed enough to create a
resisting torque that balances the applied torque.

When this happens, slice 1 and 2 act as a rigid unit


and transmit the torque to slice 3; this slice will rotate
enough so that the elastic fibers joining it and slice 2
develop a resisting torque equal to the applied torque.

This type of deformation proceeds throughout the


length L of the shaft.
Derivation of Torsion Formulas
To examine the stresses and deformations of a torsion member, we will consider
a circular shaft of length L and radius r that is attached to a fixed support at one
r end.

If a torque T is applied to the other end, the shaft will twist, with its free end
 rotating through an angle  called the angle of twist.

Consider now any internal fiber located a radial distance  (rho) from the axis of
the shaft.

A fiber AB on the outside surface, which is originally straight will be twisted into a
helix A'B as the shaft is twisted through the angle  .

We consider the small square element formed by two adjacent circles and two
adjacent straight lines traced on the surface of the cylinder before any load is
applied.

As the shaft is subjected to a torsional load, the element deforms into a


parallelogram.

Since the circles defining two of the sides of the element considered here remain
unchanged, the shearing strain must be equal to the angle between lines AB and

A'B.
We observe from Figure 3.13c that, for small values of  , we can
express the arc length AA' as AA' = L
DABA '
But, on other hand we have AA' = 
P AA ' AA '
It follows that tan    
B AB L
L   '
 AA
  
L L
AA  L
'

Where  and  are both expressed in radians.

The shearing strain  at a given point of a shaft in torsion is proportional to


the angle of twist .

It also shows that  is proportional to the distance  from the axis of the
shaft to the point under consideration.

Thus, the shearing strain in a circular shaft varies linearly with the distance
from the axis of the shaft.

Recalling Hooke’s law for shearing stress and strain,   G


The equation obtained shows that, as long as the yield strength (or proportional limit) is not
exceeded in any part of a circular shaft, the shearing stress in the shaft varies linearly with the
distance  from the axis of the shaft. Figure 3.14a shows the stress distribution in a solid
circular shaft of radius r, and Fig. 3.14b in a hollow circular shaft of inner radius r and outer
radius R.

r R
Relationship between Torque and Shear stress
To determine the relationship between the torque transmitted by the shaft and the shear
stress that is developed internally in the shaft material.

Considering a shaft AB subjected at A and B to equal and opposite torques T and T',
we pass a section perpendicular to the axis of the shaft through some arbitrary point C.

The shaft is divided into two segments by the cutting plane. Consider free body
diagram of portion BC of the shaft.

Figure 3.4 shows a cross section of the shaft containing a differential element of area
dA located at the radial distance  from the axis of the shaft which carries the
differential resisting load d P.

Summing the contributions of all the differential elements across the cross-sectional
area A and equating the result to the internal torque yields
G
  G 
L
T G
 
J L
The Polar Moment of inertia is the property of an area which measures
resistance of that area to torsion.

The Polar Moment of Inertia is a geometric property of a cross section.


Physically, it is a measure of how difficult it is to turn a cross-section about an
axis perpendicular to it (the inherent rotational stiffness of the cross-section).
This means:

The greater the Polar Moment of Inertia, the more torque is require to turn the
shaft by a certain angle.

The greater the Polar Moment of Inertia, the smaller the Shear Stress required
to produce a given torque.
Power transmission
In many practical applications, shafts are used to transmit power. The power P transmitted by
a torque T rotating at the angular speed ω is given by

P  T

where ω is measured in radians per unit time.


If the shaft is rotating with a frequency of f revolutions per unit time, then ω=2πf , which
gives
P  T (2f )

Therefore, the torque can be expressed as

P
T
2f
Sample Problem #

Alu min um Steel


Lal  6 ft  (6 12)" LSt  3 ft  (3 12)"
d al  3
" d St  2"
Gal  4 106 psi GSt  12 106 psi

T  10kip  inch
( max ) al  ?
( max ) St  ?
Lal  6 ft  (6 12)"
d al  3"
Gal  4 106 psi

LSt  3 ft  (3 12)"
d St  2"
GSt  12 106 psi
Example:

L  3'  3  12  36"
d  4"
d
r   2"
2
T  15kip. ft
G  12  10 6 psi
 max  ?
 ?
Solution : Tr
 max 
J

d 4
J
32
 (4) 4
J  25.13inch 4
32
Tr
 max 
J

(15 103 12)  2


 max   14325.51 psi
25.13
 max  14.325 103 psi
 max  14.325ksi

TL 180  radian

JG 180
1radian 
15 103 12  (3 12) 

25.13  (12 106 ) 0.0215 180
0.0215radian 
  0.0215rad 
  1.23  0.0215radian  1.23
Example:

3
 max  3  radian 180  radian
180

L  6m 1  radian
180
T  12kNm
N
G  83  109
m2
d min  ?
 max  ?
Solution :


TL d 4
J
JG 32

TL

d 4
G
32

32TL

d 4G

32TL
d4 
G

32(12 103 )(6)


d 
4
3
( )(83 109 )
180
d 4  10875m 4
d  0.1139m
d  113.9mm
d 4 d
 max 
Tr
J d  2r  r 
J 2
32

d
T
 max  24
d
32
Td 32
 max  
2 d 4
16T
 max  3
d

16  (12 103 )
 max 
 (0.1339)3
 max  41.277 Mpa
Example:

D  100mm
d  80mm
 max  60MPa
 max L L  L
 max  0.5 deg/ m   0.5    0.5  L  ( )   (  )rad  ( )radian
L 2 2 180 360
N
G  83 109
m2
T ? 180  radian

1  radian
180
Based on maximum allowable shearing stress :
TR
 max 
J
D
T
  2
max

(D4  d 4 )
32
16TD
 max 
 (D4  d 4 )

 max  ( D 4  d 4 )
T
16 D
 (60 106 ){(0.1) 4  (0.08) 4 }
T
16(0.1)
T  6955 N  m
Based on maximum allowable angle of twist :

TL

JG

L TL

360 JG
L TL

360 G  ( D 4  d 4 )
32
 2G ( D 4  d 4 )
T
360  32
 2 (83 109 ){(0.1) 4  (0.08) 4 }
T
360  32
T  4198.283 N  m

Use the smaller torque, T = 4 198.28 N·m.


Example:

d  40mm  40 10 3 m  0.04m


D  60mm  60 10 3 m  0.06m
L  1.5m
 max  120MPa  120 106 N / m 2
T ?
TR
 max  d  2r  r 
d
J 2
TD
 max 
2J
2 J max
T
D

 
J (D4  d 4 )  {(0.06) 4  (0.04) 4 }  1.02 106 m 4
32 32

2 J max
T
D
2 1.02 10 6 120 106
T
0.06
T  4.08 103 N  m
T  4.08KN  m
Example:
Bending
So far we studied how to calculate the stresses and strains in prismatic
members subjected to axial loads or to twisting couples.

We are now going to analyze the stresses and strains in prismatic members
subjected to bending.

Bending is a major concept used in the design of many machine and structural
components, such as beams.
The way a part is loaded determines whether it is called a tensile or compressive
member, a torsional shaft, or a beam.

If you take a ½ inch diameter steel rod and pull it lengthwise, the rod will develop a
tensile stress ζ = P / A, where A is the cross-sectional area of the rod.

Loading the rod in tension parallel to its axis makes the rod a tensile member; loading
it in compression parallel to its axis makes it a compressive member.

If you twist the steel rod with torque T, then we call it a torsional shaft.

If loading is perpendicular (transverse) to its axis so that the rod bends, then the rod
called a beam. You can load a beam with point loads, uniformly distributed loads, or
non uniformly distributed loads.
Shear and Moment in Beams
Beams are important structural and mechanical elements in engineering.

Beams are structural members which offer resistance to bending due to applied
loads.

In this chapter, we will determine the stress in these members caused by bending.

Members that are slender and support loadings that are applied perpendicular to
their longitudinal axis are called beams.

In general, beams are long, straight bars having a constant cross-sectional area.

Examples include members used to support the floor of a building, the deck of a
bridge, or the wings of an aircraft.

Also, the axle of an automobile, the boom of a crane etc.

Slender: Having little


width in proportion to
height or length
Boom of a crane

Wings of an aircraft
Wing of a commercial airplane. Aircraft wings can be analyzed for stresses and
deformations by modeling them as cantilever beams.
Deck of a bridge

Axle of an automobile
Power-generating turbines on a
wind farm.

The supporting columns can be


modeled as beams subjected to
wind loading.

The determination of shear forces


and bending moments in beams
caused by various load conditions
is the topic of this chapter.
Because of the applied loadings, beams develop an internal shear force and bending
moment that, in general, vary from point to point along the axis of the beam.

In order to properly design a beam, it is first necessary to determine the maximum shear
and moment in the beam.

One way to do this is to express V and M as functions of the arbitrary position x along the
beam’s axis. These shear and moment functions can then be plotted and represented by
graphs called shear and moment diagrams. The maximum values of V and M can then
be obtained from these graphs.

Also, since the shear and moment diagrams provide detailed information about the
variation of the shear and moment along the beam’s axis, they are often used by
engineers to decide where to place reinforcement materials within the beam or how to
proportion the size of the beam at various points along its length.
TYPES OF BEAMS
Beams are classified according to their supports.

A simply supported beam, shown in Fig. 4.1(a), has a pin support at one end and a roller support at the
other end. The pin support prevents displacement of the end of the beam, but not its rotation. The term roller support
refers to a pin connection that is free to move parallel to the axis of the beam; hence, this type of support suppresses
only the transverse displacement.

A cantilever beam is built into a rigid support at one end, with the other end being free, as shown in
Fig. 4.1(b). The built-in support prevents displacements as well as rotations of the end of the beam.

An overhanging beam, illustrated in Fig. 4.1(c), is supported by a pin and a roller support, with one or both ends of the
beam extending beyond the supports. The three types of beams are statically determinate because the support
reactions can be found from the equilibrium equations.
Types of Loading
A concentrated load, such as P in Fig. 4.1(a), is an approximation of a force that acts
over a very small area.

In contrast, a distributed load is applied over a finite area. If the distributed load acts on
a very narrow area, the load may be approximated by a line load. The intensity w of this
loading is expressed as force per unit length (lb/ft, N/m, etc.).

The load distribution may be uniform, as shown in Fig. 4.1(b), or it may vary with
distance along the beam, as in Fig. 4.1(c).

The weight of the beam is an example of distributed loading, but its magnitude is usually
small compared to the loads applied to the beam.
Compute the support reactions from the FBD of the entire beam.
   Fy  0
Free Body Diagram
RA  RD  14  28  0..............1)

M A  0
RD (7)  28(5)  14(2)  0
28(5)  14(2)
RD 
7
RD  24kN

Substituting value of R D in eq - 1
RA  24  14  28  0
RA  18kN
An imaginary section, indicated by the dashed line,
is passed through the beam anywhere within region
AB, cutting it into two parts and analyze the portion
of the beam to the left of this section.
The analysis of the part to the left of section 2
gives
Analyzing the portion of the beam to the left
of section 3 , we obtain
To draw the Moment Diagram:

The equation MAB  18x is linear whi ch produces a straight line between A and B, at x  0, MAB  0 and at x  2 m, MAB  36 kN·m.

The equation MBC  4x  28 is also linear. At x  2 m, MBC  36 kN·m and at x  5 m, MBC  48 kN·m.

M CD  – 24x  168 is again linear. At x  5 m, M CD  48 kNm and at x  7 m, M CD  0.


Computing the reactions
from the equilibrium
equations
M A  0
RC ( L)  C  0
C
RC 
L
M C  0
 RA ( L)  C  0
C
RA  
L
To draw the Moment Diagram:
C x
The equation MAB = - L is linear which
produces a straight line between A and
B.
At x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 3L4 , MAB = - 3C 

4
To draw the Moment Diagram:
Co
The equation MBC = - x  Co is also linear.
L

3L 1
At x = 4 , MBC = 4
Co and

at x = L, MBC = 0.
Computing the reactions from the equilibrium equations

R B  R C - 200 - 1200  0(1)

 MB  0
R C (10) – 1200(5)  200(4)  0
 200(4)  1200(5)
RC 
10
R C  520 lb

Substituting value of R C in eq. 1, we get


R B  520 - 200 - 1200  0
R B  880 lb
Figure (c) shows the FBD of the portion of the beam that lies to the left of section 1 .
(The part of the beam lying to the right of the section could also be used.)

The equilibrium equations for this part of the beam yield


The FBD of the part of the beam
that lies to the left of section 2 is
shown in Fig. (d).

(The portion of the beam lying to


the right of the section could also
be used.)

Applying the equilibrium equations


to the beam segment, we obtain
To draw the Shear Diagram:
Segment AB

For segment AB, VAB = – 200 lb; at x = 0 ft, VAB = - 200 lb and at x = 4 ft, VAB = - 200 lb.

Segment BC

For segment BC, VBC = 1160 – 120x is linear; at x= 4 ft, VBC = 680 lb, at x = 14 ft,
VBC = –520 lb.
To draw the Moment Diagram:
Segment AB

The equation MAB = –200x is linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 4 ft, MAB = –200(4)= -800 lb-ft.

Segment BC

The equation MBC = -60x2 +1160x – 4480 lb.ft for segment BC is second degree curve; at x = 4 ft,
MBC = -800; at x = 14 ft, MBC = 0 lb.ft.
The highest point of
a curve has zero
slope.
Centroid Location Complex Shapes
Review: Calculating area of simple shapes

Area of a
square = Area of a rectangle =

Side2 Width * Height

Area of a triangle =
Area of
a circle =
πr2 ½ (base)(height)
Centroid of a Right Triangle
The centroid of a triangle is constructed by taking any given triangle and
connecting the midpoints of each leg of the triangle to the opposite vertex.
The line segment created by connecting these points is called the median.
You see the three medians as the dashed lines in the figure below.
No matter what shape your triangle is, the centroid will always be inside the
triangle.
The centroid is the center of a triangle that can be
thought of as the center of mass. It is the balancing
point to use if you want to balance a triangle on the
tip of a pencil.

For rectangle center of gravity is at the middle but in


case of triangle its 1/3 from the height.
Centroid Location
The centroid of a right triangle is located at a
distance of 1/3 its height and 1/3 its base.

B
Computing the reactions from the equilibrium equations
1000 + RB – 2160 = 0
RB = 1160 lb

 MA = 0 MB + 1160(12) - 2160(8) = 0

MB = 3360 lb-ft
Derivation of Flexure formula
The stresses caused by the bending moment are known as bending stresses, or flexure
stresses.

The relationship between these stresses and the bending moment is called the flexure
formula.
Figure 5-1a shows two adjacent sections ab and cd separated by the distance dx.

Because of the bending caused by load P, section ab and cd rotate relative to each
other by the amount dѳ as shown in Figure-b, but remain straight and undistorted.

Fiber ac at the top is shortened, and fiber bd at the bottom is lengthened.

Somewhere between them is located fiber ef, whose length is unchanged.


Drawing the line c'd' through f parallel to ab shows that fiber ac is shortened an
amount cc' and is in compression and that fiber bd is lengthened by an amount d'd
and is in tension.

The plane containing fiber like ef is called the neutral surface because such fiber
remain unchanged in length and hence carry no stress.

It will be shown shortly that this neutral surface contains the centroids of all
transverse sections.
Consider now the deformation of a typical longitudinal fiber gh located distance y units
below the neutral surface and on the tension side of the beam.

Its elongation hk is the arc of a circle of radius y subtended by the angle dѳ and is given
by
  hk  yd

The strain is found by dividing the deformation by the original length ef of the fiber:

 hk yd
  
L gh gh
If we denote the radius of curvature of the neutral surface by , the curved length ef is
equal to d , from which the strain becomes

 hk yd yd y
    
L gh ef d 
Assuming that the material is homogeneous and obeys Hooke’s law, the stress in fiber gh is
given by
y E
  E  E  ( )y
 
y E
  E  E  ( )y ……….a)
 

The above equation indicates that the normal stress in any longitudinal fiber varies
directly with its location y from the neutral surface, since it is assumed that the modulus
of elasticity E is equal in tension and compression and the radius of curvature of the
neutral surface is independent of the location y of the fiber.

However the stress must not exceed the proportional limit, for this would invalidate
Hooke’s law on which this stress variation is based.
To complete the derivation of the flexure formula,
we apply the condition of equilibrium.

Equilibrium requires that the resultant of the normal


stress distribution over the cross section must be equal
to the bending moment M acting about the neutral axis (z-axis).

Figure 5.3 shows a typical cross section of a beam.

The normal force acting on the infinitesimal area dA


of the cross section is
dP   dA

The resisting moment about the neutral axis of


a typicalelement of area dA is
M oment  Force  Perpendicular distance
Moment  dP( y )
Moment   x dA( y )

Summing the contributions of all the differential elements across


the cross - sectional area A and equating the result to the resisting moment yields
Resisting moment  M r   y x dA
To satify thecondition of static equlibrium , we apply  M Z  0,
or the fact that the applied moment M equals the resisting moment M r .
The resisting moment M r is the sum of the resisting moment developed by
all differential loads dP.

Applied moment  Resisting moment


M  Mr
M   y x dA

Ey  x  Ey / 
M y dA

E

M y dA 2

EI
M Moment of inertia, I   y 2 dA

EI

M

Ey EI Ey Ey
  a)    
 M  

My

I
My

I

This formula indicates that the flexure stress in any section varies directly with the distance
of the section from the neutral axis.

In a more common of the flexure formula, y is replaced by the distance c, which is defined
as the distance from the neutral axis to the remotest element.

With this change, the maximum flexure stress in any section is given by

Mc
 max 
I

If I/c is called the section modulus and denoted by S,


another common variation of the flexural formula is

M M
 max  
I c S

where S= I/c is called the section modulus of the beam.


The formulas for the section moduli of common cross
sections are given in Fig. 5.4.
I is the Moment of Inertia. For a rectangular beam .

Where S= I/C is called the section modulus of the beam.


The formulas for the section moduli of common cross sections are given
in Fig. 5.4.
Example:
Before we can find the maximum bending
stress in the beam, we must find the maximum
bending moment. We begin by computing the
external reactions at A and E; the results are
shown in Fig. (a). Then we sketch the shear
force and bending moment diagrams.
We see that the maximum bending moment is
Mmax =16 kN m, occurring at D.
We can also find the maximum bending
moment from the shear force diagram. The
shear force diagram shows that the shear force
becomes zero under the 15 kN load at x = 2m.
So the maximum bending moment is equal to
the shear area to the left of this section.
14  2
M max  ( )(2)  16kN.m
2
In this case, the neutral axis (NA) is an axis of symmetry of the cross
section, as shown in Fig. (a). The moment of inertia of the cross section
about the neutral axis
is
Example:

Before we can find the maximum bending stress in the beam,


we must find the maximum bending moment.
We begin by computing the external reactions R1 and R2 ; the
results are shown in Figure.
Then we sketch the shear force and bending moment
diagrams.
We see that the maximum bending moment is
Mmax = 4500 lb-ft =4500(12) lb-inch
bh3 (2)(4)3
I   10.66inch 4
12 12

M max c 4500 12  2


 max    10125 psi
I 10.66
Final Exam - Paper Pattern
First attempt Q.-I (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken back after 20
minutes.

Q. 1 Multiple Choice Questions (20 MCQS)

Q. 2 Thermal stresses

Q.3 Torsion

Q.4 Shear and Moment in beam

Q.5 Flexure formula

•The final exam paper will be a test not of your memory but a test of whether or not you
can apply the conceptual knowledge you have gained in the class to new situations.

•Questions in the exam will not be tougher than those taught in the class. So if you can
handle those, then you can definitely handle the exam paper.
INSTRUCTIONS:
1) Start every question from a new page.

2) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q.


No. in the Question Paper. Do not copy out the question.

3) Use of Scientific Calculator is allowed.

4) Mobile phones and other electronic devices are not allowed in the
examination hall.

5) You must write in only blue or black ink. Pencil may be used only for
diagrams.

6) Rough working may be done in the answer sheet. Clearly cross out rough
working before handing in your answer sheet. The use of scrap paper is
not permitted.
Do not forget to write your
serial number on both the
MCQS as well as on the
Answer Book.
Continuation sheet is not
allowed in the paper of MOM -1.
Ten marks will be deducted for
each continuation sheet.
Quiz# 01, 02, 03
Presentation
Date: 22-January-2019
Time: 10:30 am
Deadline for
submission of
Assignments

22-January-2019
Good Luck

Allah Bless You All