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WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?

 The word “administration” ordinarily connotes the “machinery” of an


organization and its functions.
 It refers in general to the “plan” of the organization and how such organization
is controlled and operated.
 It involves: direction, control, and operation of the organization.
 Is responsible in directing performance or the execution of policy.
 Provides conditions “favorable” to “good teaching” and “effective learning” by
furnishing teachers and learners the ‘PROPER TOOLS” AND ENVIRONMENT for
work.
ORGANIZATION is the channel through which the work of administration is accomplished. It is
an ordering of the behavior of individuals which enables the performance of tasks and the
accomplishment of purpose.
As a result of an administrative organization, “expectancy” is defined, a system of
communication and influence exists, both authority and responsibility are established.
Responsibility of Administration.
 The attainment of organizational aims and objectives.
 The survival and maintenance of the organization coupled with directions of the
people’s activities, so that goals are achieve.
 The effectiveness of such responsibility is reflected by the quality of JOB
PERFORMANCE.
 Concerned not only with organization and procedure, but also with the
“practices” by which processes are adopted and instituted. It is more than
management.
School Administration therefore, refers to the school system as an organization and its
functions. It is not an “end’ in itself, but as a means to achieve the goals of instruction.
 It is essentially a service activity, a tool or agency by which the aims of education maybe
fully and efficiently realized.
 In other words, school administration is the act of getting things done, of seeing that
process and methods which assure “actions” are employed, and of obtaining
consecrated action from different individuals.
Whatever “division of labor” occur, there “arises” the need for someone to
coordinate the activities of the different people working together.
COVERAGE/SCOPE OF ADMINISTRATION
 The School Plant (buildings, ground & equipment)
 The teaching personnel and staff
 Child accounting
 School curriculum
 Finance
 Guidance and counseling
 School-community relationship/public relation
What is School Management?
Makes the plan works, keep things going. Its goal is effective performance of
educational program. Smaller in scope than administration.
3 CYCLE-PROCESS OF ADMINISTRATION
PLANNING
MANAGEMENT
EVALUATION
We plan, put Plan in operation, and measure our progress.
School Administrator****is responsible in “expediting” a process which brings all the
persons with legitimate interests in the program into “effective” collaboration in planning.
Whatever “division of labor” occur, there “arises” the need for someone to
coordinate the activities of the different people working together.

CONCLUSION: Too many cases of planning is now “sporadic”, evaluation is


“incidental” and management monopolizes the “time and energy” of the school
administrator and the supervisor.

What is SUPERVISION?
 Ordinarily implies to the “improvement” of the “total teaching-learning situation
and the conditions that affect teaching-learning” program.
 An “expert” technical service(specialized) primarily concerned with studying and
improving conditions that surrounds learning and learner’s growth.
 Refers to the instructional phases of the school plan and activities.
 Means criticizing, evaluating, appraising and praising.
 Is a skill in: leadership, human relation, group process, personnel
administration, evaluation.
 Refers to the process of coordinating group activity in such a way as to “attain”
desirable goals.
*The fundamental purpose of any supervisory activity: guidance toward
improvement in the attitude of the one being supervised(learner-teacher).
 Is a school service designed to improve the teaching-learning situations and the
conditions that affect teaching and learning.
 It more of an expert service which is provided on a consultation basis.
 Supervision is best termed as consulatation.
Modern Purpose of Supervision
 To supply the leadership which will help the staff members “improve” the
instructional situation and in doing that, to “grow” professionally themselves.
 Instead of showing or telling the teachers how to do their jobs better, the
supervisor or principal works with them in the study and analysis of the total
learning situation.
 Thus, the purpose of supervision is to “IMPROVED INSTRUCTION” through proper:
direction, guidance, and stimulation of teachers.
 School Principals and Supervisors served as skilled resource persons possessing
skills which aid : administrators, teachers, parents and learners in providing
education program which will essentially improve the quality of living in the
communities in which they live and work.
 The improvement of teachers is NOT on the number of times a supervisor
supervise but on how the supervisor address the situations that surrounds the
“key factors” of teaching-learning process, say, it’s the supervisor that must
cooperate.
 Modern supervision must HOLD that INDIVIDUALS are :unique, dynamic,
purposeful, and he learns and reacts as a WHOLE to those things identified with
his own purpose.
 Since, improvement of instruction is the primary reason in supervision, and this
improvement lies on the teacher, hence, it follows that the teacher is the “key”
participant in supervisory program.

SCHOOL SUPERVISION
 Is a specialized function which involves leadership in: studying, improving and
evaluating teaching-learning situations and the conditions that affect both
teaching and learning.
 A process of stimulating “GROWTH” as a means of helping teachers to help
themselves.
 For supervision to be adequate, ADEQUATE PROVISIONS essential to the
conditions which are “effective” to teaching-learning must surround both the
teacher and the learner.
Educational concepts as basis of Modern Supervision:
Instructional supervision is dynamic,
The aim of supervision is to offer Leadership in the improvement of
educational experiences for the learners.
Leadership is centered in a group, not in an individual. It is guided by the
spirit of cooperation rather than competition.
The type and quality of supervision are affected by the: situation &
organization.
The climate of human relationship within the group and the degree to
which the group are committed to group goals influence the degree of
change.
The primary goal of supervisory leader is to foster democratic leadership.

COVERAGE OF SUPERVISION
 The formulation of the: aims, objectives, and purposes to be achieved.
 The selection and organization of subject matter to be taught.
 The placement of teachers who will teach them.
 The selection of methods and techniques by which the subject matter is taught.
 The evaluation of the growth of the child and the improvement of the teacher.
ULTIMATE AIMS OF MODERN SUPERVISION
 To structure classroom environment for effective teaching and learning.
 To select and utilize methods and techniques and instructional materials which
will insure the steady growth of each learner.
 To help the teacher and learner formulate instructional goals to accomplished.
 To provide the school system with a clearly defined supervisory program.
 To formulate evaluative procedures to measure the effectiveness of the
supervisory program.
 To develop proper attitude in the entire teaching personnel that supervision is a
cooperative endeavor and that no teacher fulfills professional obligation unless
cooperation is practiced.
 To provide guidance to teachers and learners to meet their day to day problems.
 To develop the attitude that instructional improvement is closely related to
improvement.
 To develop a sound working relationship in which teachers feel secure and
confident.
 To promote goo school-community relationship essential to good teaching and
productive learning.
TYPES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
 AUTOCRATIC (Traditional)
Authority and responsibility are placed on the chief executive or single
individual.
Efficiency of operation is the chief goal.
It can be: extrinsic-dualistic, line-and-staff, laissez-faire
extrinsic-dualistic: no centralization of authority, no definition of lines, no
mechanism for cooperation.
line-and-staff: the authority is placed on the line officers, the supervisor
supervisors supply advice, information and technical assistance. Authority
is derived from the power of the LAW. It has two expression of principles:
Authority and Obedience. Ex. The Phil. School system.
laissez-faire: individual schools represent supreme authorities or
independence and function with little reference to any central unifying
organization. Ex. UP, PNU. They have complete independence and
function with little relationship with the DEPED.
 DEMOCRATIC (Modern)
The administrator’s position of leadership is derived from the position of
authority.
Authority is derived by persons from the situation and is shared by all who
participate in the planning.
Final authority is vested in the group.
Group process is utilized in formulating school policies.
Governed by the spirit of cooperation rather than competition.
The group, as well as the individual, is held responsible for its action.
Effective responsibility becomes possible only through an optimum level of
participation which is the requisite of freedom.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING DEMOCRATIC/MODERN
 Intelligence: Only people with ability or intelligence should participate in
the administration of the school. It calls for the use of intelligence rather
than emotions.
 Cooperation: Provides opportunity for cooperation. Group process in
used in this type.
 Participation: Recognizes the strength, participation and ability of each
individual.
 Individuality: Recognizes the uniqueness of an individual. His interests
are particular interests and his abilities are special abilities. These
differences are sources of STRENGHT.
TYPES OF SUPERVISION
 LAISSEZ-FAIRE: Uses inspectorial supervisory methods unaided by any objective
control, in which the teachers are observed but nothing is done to help them
improve the work they are doing. Teachers are left free, they are not to be
imposed upon or directed.
 COERCIVE/authoritative: The principal visits the teachers in order to observe
them. The teachers are required to follow a ready- made procedures or
standards prescribed by the principals, supervisors or superintendent.
 TRAINING & GUIDANCE: Emphasis is placed upon the improvement of the
improvement of the teacher, techniques through directions, training, and
guidance.
 DEMOCRATIC: Enlists the teacher’s cooperation in the formulation of policies,
plans, and procedures. The supervisor observes, with the aim to improve
teaching-learning situations, through cooperative process or group action. The
teachers, supervisors and administrators are regarded as co-workers in a
common tasks.
 CREATIVE: Based on the idea that supervision is an originating enterprise which
aims to provide environment in which teachers of high professional ideals may
live a wholesome and creative life, and may promote a potential powers of
creativity in the learners.
 ORGANISMIC: promotes the idea that the learner develops as an organic whole,
hence, teaching and learning should emphasize the unifying processes and
integrated outcomes.
 SCIENTIFIC: