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Chapter 1

Graphs

1.1 Rectangular Coordinates

 1. 0 3. d = 5 -(-3) = 5 + 3 = 8 = 8 5. quadrants 7. x 9. False 11. (a) Quadrant II (b) Positive x-axis (c) Quadrant III (d) Quadrant I (e) Negative y-axis (f) Quadrant IV 13. The points will be on a vertical line that is two units to the right of the y-axis. 15. d(P 1 ,P 2 ) = (2 -0) 2 + (1-0) 2 = 2 2 +1 2 = 4 +1 = 5 17. d(P 1 ,P 2 ) = ( -2 -1) 2 + (2 -1) 2 = (-3) 2 +1 2 = 9 +1 = 10 19. d (P 1 ,P 2 ) = (5 - 3) 2 + (4 - (- 4)) 2 = 2 2 + 8 2 = 4 + 64 = 68 = 2 17 21. d (P 1 ,P 2 ) = ( 6 - (-3)) 2 + (0 - 2) 2 = 9 2 + (-2) 2 = 81 + 4 = 85

Chapter 1

Graphs

23.

d (P 1 ,P 2 ) =

(6 - 4) 2 + (4 - (-3)) 2

= 2 2 + 7 2
=
4 + 49 =
53 25.
d(P 1 ,P 2 ) =
(2.3-(-0.2)) 2 + (1.1-0.3) 2 = (2.5) 2 + (0.8) 2
=
6.25 + 0.64 =
6.89
27.
d (P 1 ,P 2 ) =
(0 - a) 2 + (0 - b) 2
=
a 2 + b 2
29.
A =
( -2,5
) ,
B = 1,3 ) ,
(
C =
(
-1,0
)
d(A,B) =
(
1-(-2) ) 2 + (3-5) 2 =
3 2 + (-2) 2
=
9 + 4 =
13
d(B,C) =
(
-1-1 ) 2 + (0 - 3) 2 =
(-2) 2 + (-3) 2
=
4 + 9 =
13
d(A,C) =
(-1-(-2)) 2 + (0- 5) 2 =
1 2 + (-5) 2
=
1 + 25 =
26

Verifying that ? ABC is a right triangle by the Pythagorean Theorem:

31.

[d(A,B)] 2 + [d(B,C)] 2 =[d(A,C)] 2 (
13 ) 2 +
(
13 ) 2 =
(
26
) 2

13 + 13 = 26 26 = 26

The area of a triangle is A =

2 1 bh. Here,

A = 2 [d(A,B)] [d(B,C)]= 2

1 1
13

2

13 = 1 13 = 13

2

square units

A =

d(A,B) =

=

d(B,C) =

=

d(A,C) =

=

-5,3

( ) ,
B =
( 6,0 ) ,
C =
(
5,5
)
(
6- (-5) ) 2 + (0 - 3) 2 =
11 2 + (-3) 2
121 + 9 =
130
(
5- 6 ) 2 + (5- 0) 2 =
(-1) 2 + 5 2
1 + 25 =
26
(5- (-5)) 2 + (5 - 3) 2 =
10 2 + 2 2
100 + 4 =
104 Section 1.1

Rectangular Coordinates

Verifying that ? ABC is a right triangle by the Pythagorean Theorem:

33.

[d(A,C)] 2 + [d(B,C)] 2 = [d(A,B)] 2 (
104 ) 2 +
(
26 ) 2 =
(
130
) 2

104 + 26 = 130 130 = 130

The area of a triangle is

1

A = 2 bh. Here,

1

A = 2 d(A,C) ] d(B,C)

[

[

] = 1
1
1
104
26 = 2
2704 = 2 52 = 26
2

square units

A =

d(A,B) =

=

d(B,C) =

=

d(A,C) =

=

4,-3

( ) ,
B =
( 0,-3 ) ,
C =
(
4,2
)
(0- 4) 2 + -3-(-3) ) 2 =
(
(-4) 2 + 0 2
16 + 0 =
16 = 4
(
4 -0 ) 2 +
(
2 -(-3) ) 2 =
4 2 + 5 2
16 + 25 =
41
(4 - 4) 2 + (2 -(-3)) 2 =
0 2 + 5 2
0 + 25 =
25 = 5 Verifying that ? ABC is a right triangle by the Pythagorean Theorem:

[d(A,B)] 2 + [d(A,C)] 2 = [d(B,C)] 2 4 2 + 5 2 =
(
41 ) 2 ﬁ 16 + 25 = 41 ﬁ 41 = 41
1
The area of a triangle is
A = 2 bh.
Here,
1
1
A = 2 d(A,B) ] d(A,C)
[
[
] =
2 4 5 = 10 square units

35.

All points having an x-coordinate of 2 are of the form (2, y). Those which are 5 units from (–2, –1) are: (2 -(-2)) 2 + (y - (-1)) 2 = 5 ﬁ
4 2 + (y +1) 2 = 5
Squaring both sides
:
4 2 + (y +1) 2 = 25

37.

16 + y 2 + 2y + 1 = 25

y 2 + 2y -8 = 0

(y + 4)( y - 2) = 0 y = - 4 Therefore, the points are (2, –4) and (2, 2).

or

y = 2

All points on the x-axis are of the form (x, 0). Those which are 5 units from (4, –3) are: (x - 4) 2 + (0- (-3)) 2 = 5 ﬁ
(x - 4) 2 + 3 2 = 5
Squaring both sides
:
(x - 4) 2 + 9 = 25

Chapter 1

Graphs

39.

41.

43.

45.

47.

49.

x 2 - 8x + 16 + 9 = 25

x 2 -8x = 0 x( x - 8) = 0 x = 0

or

x = 8

Therefore, the points are (0, 0) and (8, 0).

The coordinates of the midpoint are:

Ê x 1 + x 2 , y 1 + y 2 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

Ê 5 + 3 , - 4 + 2 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

Ë

Ê 2

8 , -2 ˆ

˜

(x,y) = Á

2

2

¯

2

2

¯

2

¯

= (4,-1)

The coordinates of the midpoint are:

(x,y) = Ê Á x 1 + x 2 , y 1 + y 2 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

2

2

¯

Ê -3+ 6 , 2 + 0 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

Ê 3

Ë 2 , 2 ¯

ˆ

˜

2

2

2

¯

=

ˆ

Ê 3

Á 2 ,1 ˜

Ë

¯

The coordinates of the midpoint are:

(x,y) = Ê Á x 1 + x 2 , y 1 + y 2 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

2

2

¯

Ê 4 + 6 , -3+1 ˆ ˜ = Á

Ë

Ë

Ê 10 , -2 ˆ ˜ = (5,-1)

¯

2

2

¯

2

2

The coordinates of the midpoint are:

Ê x 1 + x 2 , y 1 + y 2 ˆ

Ë

Ê -0.2 + 2.3 , 0.3+1.1 ˆ

2

2

Ê 2.1 , 1.4 ˆ

2

2

(x,y) = Á

2

2

˜ = Á

Ë

¯

˜ = Á

¯

Ë

˜ = (1.05, 0.7)

¯

The coordinates of the midpoint are:

Ê x 1 + x 2 , y 1 + y 2 ˆ

Ë

Ê a + 0 , b+ 0 ˆ

2

2

Ê a

b ˆ

˜

(x,y) = Á

2

2

˜ = Á

Ë

¯

˜ = Á

Ë

¯

2 , 2 ¯

The midpoint of AB is:

D =

Ê 0+ 0 , 0 + 6 ˆ

Á

Ë

˜ ¯ = (0, 3)

2

2 The midpoint of AC is:
E =
Ê 0 + 4 , 0 + 4 ˆ
Ë Á
˜
= (2, 2)
2
2
¯
Ê 0+ 4 , 6+ 4 ˆ
The midpoint of BC is:
F =
˜
= (2, 5)
Ë Á
2
2
¯
d(C,D) =
(0 - 4) 2 + (3- 4) 2 =
(-4) 2 + (-1) 2 =
16 +1 =
17
d(B,E) =
( 2 -0 ) 2 + (2 -6) 2 =
2 2 + (-4) 2 =
4 +16 =
20 = 2
5
d(A,F) =
(2 -0) 2 + (5 -0) 2 =
2 2 + 5 2 =
4 + 25 =
29

51. d(P 1 ,P 2 ) =
(-4 -2) 2 + (1-1) 2 =
(-6) 2 + 0 2 =
36 = 6
d(P 2 ,P 3 ) =
(-4 -(-4)) 2 + (-3-1) 2 =
0 2 + (-4) 2 =
16 = 4
d(P 1 ,P 3 ) =
(-4 -2) 2 + (-3-1) 2 =
(-6) 2 + (-4) 2 =
36 + 16 =
52 = 2
13
Since
[
d(P 1 ,P 2 ) ] 2 + d(P 2 ,P 3 ) ] 2 = d(P 1 ,P 3 )
[
[
] 2 , the triangle is a right triangle.

Section 1.1

Rectangular Coordinates

53.

55.

59.

61. d(P 1 ,P 2 ) =
(0 -(-2)) 2 + (7 -(-1)) 2 =
2 2 + 8 2 =
4 + 64 =
68 = 2
17
d(P 2 ,P 3 ) =
(3-0) 2 + (2- 7) 2 =
3 2 + (-5) 2 =
9 + 25 =
34
d(P 1 ,P 3 ) =
(3-(-2)) 2 + (2 -(-1)) 2 =
5 2 + 3 2 =
25 + 9 =
34

Since d(P 2 ,P 3 ) = d(P 1 ,P 3 ) , the triangle is isosceles.

Since

Therefore, the triangle is an isosceles right triangle.

[

d(P 1 ,P 3 ) ] 2 + d(P 2 ,P 3 ) ] 2 = d(P 1 ,P 2 )

[

[

] 2 , the triangle is also a right triangle. P 1 =
( 1,3
) ; P 2 =
(
5,15
)
d (
,P 2
)=
(5 -1) 2 + (15 - 3) 2
P 1
=
(
4 ) 2 +
(
12
) 2
=
16 + 144
=
160 = 4
10

57. P 1 = -4,6
(
) ; P 2 =
(
4,-8
)
d P 1 ,P 2 ) =
(
(
4 -
(
-4 )) 2 +
(
-8- 6
) 2
= (8) 2 + (-14) 2
= 64 + 196
= 260 = 2
65

Plot the vertices of the square at (0, 0), (0, s), (s, s), and (s, 0). y
(0,s)
(s,s)
(s,0)
x
(0,0)

Find the midpoints of the diagonals.

M 1 = Ê Á 0 + s , 0+ s ˆ

˜

Ê s

= Á

Ë

Ê

= Á

Ë

s

s ˆ

˜

s

˜

Ë

Ê

Á

Ë

2

2

2

0

¯

ˆ

˜

2 , 2 ¯

ˆ

0 + s , s +

2

M 2 =

¯

Since the coordinates of the midpoints are the same, the diagonals of a square intersect at their midpoints.

2 , 2 ¯

Using the Pythagorean Theorem:

90 2 + 90 2 = d 2

8100 + 8100 = d 2 16,200 = d 2
d =
16,200 = 90 2 ª 127.28 feet 90
90
d
90
90

Chapter 1

Graphs

63.

65.

(a)

First: (90, 0), Second: (90, 90) Third: (0, 90)

y (0,90)

(90,90) x (0,0)

(90,0) (b)
Using the distance formula:
d
=
(310 - 90) 2 + (15 - 90) 2
=
220 2 + (-75) 2
=
54,025 ª 232.4 feet
(c)
Using the distance formula: d
=
(300 - 0) 2 + (300 - 90) 2
=
300 2 + 210 2
=
134,100 ª 366.2 feet

The Intrepid heading east moves a distance 30t after t hours. The truck heading south moves a distance 40t after t hours. Their distance apart after t hours is:

d = (30t) 2 + (40t) 2
= 900t 2 + 1600t 2
= 2500t 2
= 50t

40t 30t
d

Chapter 1

Graphs

1.2 Graphs of Equations; Circles

 1 add, 4 3. intercepts 5 (3,–4) 7. True 9 11. 13 15. 17 19 (a) (–1, 0), (1, 0) (b) symmetric with respect to the x-axis, y-axis, and origin

Chapter 1

Graphs

21.

23.

25.

27.

29.

(a)

Ê

Á - p 2 ,0 ˜, Á 2 , 0 ˜, (0,1)

Ë

ˆ

Ê p

¯ Ë

ˆ

¯

 (a) (0, 0) (a) (1, 0) (a) (–1, 0), (1, 0), (0, –1) (a) none
 (b) symmetric with respect to the y-axis (b) symmetric with respect to the x-axis (b) not symmetric with respect to x-axis, y-axis, or origin (b) symmetric with respect to the y-axis (b) symmetric with respect to the origin

31.

33.

 y = x 4 - x 0 0 = 0 4 - 1=1 4 - 1 0 = 0 1 0 (0, 0) is on the graph of the equation. y 2 = x 2 + 9 3 2 = 0 2 + 9 0 2 = 3 2 + 9 9 = 9 0 18

(0, 3) is on the graph of the equation. 35.
x 2 + y 2 = 4
0 2 + 2 2 = 4
4 = 4
(0, 2) and
(
2,
2

(-2) 2 + 2 2 = 4

8 4

) are on the graph of the equation. 0
= (-1) 4 -
-1
0
1-
-1 0 2 = (-3) 2 + 9
0 18
(
2 ) 2 +
(
2 ) 2 = 4
4 = 4
 37. x 2 = y y - intercept : Let x = 0, then 0 2 = y ﬁ y = 0 (0,0) x - intercept : Let y = 0, then x 2 = 0 ﬁ x = 0 (0,0) Test for symmetry: x - axis : Replace y by - y : x 2 = - y, which is not equivalent to x 2 = y. y - axis : Replace x by - x : (- x) 2 = y or x 2 = y, which is equivalent to x 2 = y. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by - y : (- x) 2 = -y or x 2 = -y,

which is not equivalent to

x 2 = y.

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the y - axis .

39.

y = 3x

 y - intercept : Let x = 0, then y = 3 (0,0) x - intercept : Let y = 0, 0 = 0 x = 0 then 3 x = 0 ﬁ (0,0)

Section 1.2

Graphs of Equations; Circles

Test for symmetry:

 x - axis : Replace y by - y : - y = 3x, which is not equivalent to y = 3 x. y - axis : Replace x by - x : y = 3(- x ) or y = -3x, which is not equivalent to y = 3x. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by which is equivalent to - y - y = 3(- x) or y = 3x, y = 3 x. :

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.

41.

x 2 + y - 9 = 0

 y - intercept : Let x = 0, then 0 + y - 9 = 0 ﬁ y = 9 x - intercept : Let y = 0, then x 2 - 9 = 0 ﬁ x = ±3

(0,9)

(-3,0),(3,0)

Test for symmetry:

x - axis :

Replace y by

- y

:

x 2 + (-y)- 9 = 0 or x 2 - y - 9 = 0,

which is not equivalent to

x 2 + y -9 = 0.

 y - axis : Replace x by - x : (- x) 2 + y - 9 = 0 or x 2 + y -9 = 0, which is equivalent to x 2 + y -9 = 0. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by - y : (- x) 2 + (-y)- 9 = 0 or x 2 - y -9 = 0,

which is not equivalent to

x 2 + y - 9 = 0.

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.

43.

9 x 2 + 4 y 2 = 36

 y - intercept : Let x = 0, then x - intercept : Let y = 0, then

4 y 2 = 36 y 2 = 9

9x 2 = 36 x 2 = 4

 ﬁ y = ±3 (0,-3),(0,3) ﬁ x = ±2 (-2,0),(2,0)

Test for symmetry:

x - axis :

Replace y by

:

9 x 2 + 4(-y) 2 = 36 or 9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36,

9 x 2 + 4y 2 = 36.

- y

which is equivalent to

 y - axis : Replace x by - x : 9(-x ) 2 + 4y 2 = 36 or 9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36, which is equivalent to 9 x 2 + 4y 2 = 36. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by - y : 9(- x) 2 + 4(-y) 2 = 36 or 9 x 2 + 4y 2 = 36,

which is equivalent to

9 x 2 + 4y 2 = 36.

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the x-axis, the y-axis, and the origin.

45.

y = x 3 - 27

 y - intercept : Let x = 0, then y = 0 3 - 27 ﬁ y = -27 (0,-27) x - intercept : Let y = 0, then 0 = x 3 - 27 ﬁ x 3 = 27 ﬁ x = 3 (3,0)

Chapter 1

Graphs

Test for symmetry:

 x - axis : Replace y by - y : - y = x 3 - 27, which is not equivalent to y = x 3 - 27. y - axis : Replace x by - x : y = (- x) 3 - 27 or y = -x 3 - 27, which is not equivalent to y = x 3 - 27. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by - y : - y = (- x) 3 - 27 or

y = x 3 + 27, which is not equivalent to

y = x 3 - 27.

Therefore, the graph is not symmetric with respect to the x-axis, the y-axis, or the origin.

 47. y = x 2 - 3x - 4 y - intercept : Let x = 0, then y = 0 2 - 3(0) - 4 ﬁ y = -4 (0,-4) x - intercept : Let y = 0, then 0 = x 2 - 3x - 4 ﬁ ( x - 4)( x +1) = 0 ﬁ x = 4, x = -1 (4,0), (-1,0) Test for symmetry: x - axis : Replace y by - y : - y = x 2 - 3x - 4, which is not equivalent to y = x 2 - 3x - 4. y - axis : Replace x by - x : y = (- x) 2 - 3(-x) - 4 or y = x 2 + 3x - 4, which is not equivalent to y = x 2 - 3x - 4. Origin : Replace x by - x and y by - y : - y = (- x) 2 - 3(-x) - 4 or y = -x 2 - 3 x + 4, which is not equivalent to y = x 2 - 3x - 4. Therefore, the graph is not symmetric with respect to the x-axis, the y-axis, or the origin. 3x 49. y = x 2 + 9
 y - intercept : Let x = 0, x - intercept : Let y = 0, Test for symmetry: x - axis : Replace y by

then y =

then 0 =

+ 0 9 = 0

0

(0,0)

3x 9 3x = 0 x = 0 x 2 +

- y

:

- y =

3x + 9 , which is not x 2

(0, 0)

y - axis :

Origin :

equivalent to

Replace x by

- x

:

3x

y =

y =

x 2 + 9 .

3(-x)

(

-x

) 2 +

9

which is not equivalent to

or y =

-3x

x 2 + 9 ,

y =

3x

x 2 + 9 .

Replace x by

- x

and y by

- y

:

- y =

y =

3x + 9 , which is equivalent to x 2

-3x

(-x) 2 + 9 or

y =

3x

x 2 + 9 .

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.

Section 1.2

Graphs of Equations; Circles

51.

y =

-x 3

x 2 -9

y

- intercept :

Let x = 0,

then

0

y = -9 = 0

(0,0)

x

- intercept :

Let y = 0,

Test for symmetry:

then 0 =

3

-x -9 ﬁ -x 3 = 0 x = 0

x 2

(0,0)

x - axis :

y - axis :

 Replace y by - y : Replace x by - x :

- y =

3

-x -9 , which is not equivalent to x 2

y =

-(-x) 3

(-x) 2 - 9

or y =

x 3

x 2 -9 ,

Origin :

which is not equivalent to

Replace x by

- x

and y by

- y :

-x 3

y =

- y =

x 2 -9 . -(-x)

3

(-x) 2

-9 or

-

y =

x 3 9 , which is equivalent to x 2 -

y =

-x 3

x 2 -9 .

y =

-x 3

x 2 -9 .

Therefore, the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.

53.

57.

 y = x 3 55 x y = y = 3x + 5 59 2 x + 3 y = 6

2 = 3a + 5 3a = - 3 a = -1

2a+ 3b = 6 b = 2- 2

3 a

Chapter 1

Graphs

 61. Center = (2, 1) 63. Radius = distance from (0, 1) to (2,1) = (2 -0) 2 + (1-1) 2 = 4 = 2 (x - 2) 2 + (y -1) 2 = 4 65. ( x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = r 2 (x - 0) 2 + (y - 0) 2 x 2 + y 2 = 2 2 = 4 General form: x 2 + y 2 - 4 = 0 67. ( x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = r 2 69.

(x -1) 2 + (y

-(-1)) 2 =1 2

(x -1) 2 + (y +1) 2 =1

General form:

x 2 -2x +1+ y 2 + 2y +1=1

x 2 + y 2 - 2x + 2y

+1= 0 Center = midpoint of (1,2) and (4,2) Ê 1+ 4 , 2 + 2 ˆ
Ê 5
ˆ
= Á
˜
= Á 2 ,2 ˜
Ë
2
2
¯
Ë
¯
Ê 5
ˆ
Á 2 ,2 ˜ to (4, 2)
Ë
¯
2
=
Ê
Á 4 - 5 ˜
ˆ
+ (2 -2) 2
Ë 2 ¯
9
=
4 = 2 3
Ê
ˆ
Á x - 5 ˜ 2 + (y -2) 2 = 9
Ë
2 ¯
4 ( x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2

(x - 0) 2 + (y - 2) 2

x 2 + (y - 2) 2 General form:

= r 2

= 2 2 = 4

x 2 + y 2 - 4y + 4 = 4 x 2 + y 2 - 4y = 0 Section 1.2

Graphs of Equations; Circles

 71. ( x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = r 2 (x - 4) 2 + (y - (-3)) 2 = 5 2 (x - 4) 2 + (y + 3) 2 = 25 General form: x 2 - 8x + 16 + y 2 + 6y + 9 = 25 x 2 + y 2 - 8x + 6y = 0 75. ( x - h) 2 + (y -k) 2 = r 2 (x - 0) 2 + (y -(-3)) 2 = 3 2 x 2 + ( y + 3 ) 2 = 9 General form: x 2 + y 2 + 6y + 9 = 9 x 2 + y 2 + 6y = 0 77. x 2 + y 2 = 4 x 2 + y 2 = 2 2 (a) Center : (0,0); Radius = 2 (b) 73. ( x - h) 2 + (y -k) 2 = r 2 (x -(-3)) 2 + (y -(-6)) 2 = 6 2 ( x + 3 ) 2 + ( y + 6 ) 2 = 36 General form: x 2 + 6x + 9+ y 2 + 12y + 36 = 36 x 2 + y 2 + 6x +12 y + 9 = 0 (c) x-intercepts: y = 0 x 2 + 0 = 4 x = ±2

-2,0 ) , 2,0 y-intercepts: x = 0 0 + y 2 = 4 y = ±2

(

(

)

0,-2 ) , 0,2

(

(

)

Chapter 1

Graphs 79.
2(x - 3) 2 + 2y 2 = 8
(x
- 3) 2 +
y 2 = 4
(
x - 3 ) 2 +
y 2 = 2 2
(a)
(b)
81.
x 2 + y 2 + 4x - 4y -1 = 0

x 2 + 4x + y 2 - 4y =1

(x 2 + 4x + 4) + (y 2 - 4y + 4) =1+ 4 + 4

(x + 2) 2 + (y -2) 2 = 3 2

 (a) Center: (–2,2); Radius = 3 (b) (c)

x-intercepts: y = 0 (x - 3) 2 + 0 = 4

(x - 3) 2 = 4

x - 3 = ±2

x = 5,x =1

1,0 ) , 5,0 y-intercepts: x = 0 9 + y 2 = 4

(

(

y 2 = -5

)

no solution no y - intercepts

(c)

x-intercepts: y = 0 (x + 2) 2 + 4 = 9

(x + 2) 2 = 5 x + 2 = ±
5
x
=
5 - 2,x = -
5 - 2
(
-
5 -2,0 ) ,
(
5 -2,0
)

y-intercepts: x = 0 4 + (y
-2) 2 = 9
(y
-2) 2 = 5
y -2 = ±
5
y =
5 + 2,y = -
5 + 2
(
0,-
5 + 2 ) , 0,
(
5 + 2

)

Section 1.2

Graphs of Equations; Circles

 83. x 2 + y 2 - 2x + 4y - 4 = 0 (c) x 2 -2x + y 2 + 4y = 4 (x 2 -2x +1) + (y 2 + 4y + 4) = 4