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5/7/2013

LIGHTING
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN LIGHTING

2 KEY STRATEGIES

1. Low Installed Lighting Power Density.

2. Ensure lighting is switched off when it


is not in use.

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LIGHTING POWER DENSITY


RECOMMENDATION

For Office Spaces with an Average of Typical Efficient Lighting


350 lux Power Density (W/m²)
Lighting Fittings that follows Ceiling Grid 7 to 9 W/m²
Lighting Fittings that does not need to
4 to 6 W/m²
follow Ceiling Grid

USEFUL LIGHTING
TERMINOLOGIES

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CANDELA

• Defined as a power level of 1/683 watt (1.46 x 10 -3


W) per steradian at a frequency of 540 terahertz.

• For lay persons like us… it is equivalent to

LUMEN

• A measure of the total "amount" of visible light emitted


by a source.

.
Where,
cd = candela, sr = steradian (measurement of an unit
angle in 3D spherical coordinate system)

• A Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube provides 2550 lumen…





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LUX

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MS 1525, RECOMMENDATIONS
Task Illuminance Example of Applications
(Lux)

Lighting for 100 Interior walkway and car-park


infrequently used
area
100 Entrance hall, lobbies, waiting room

Lighting for 200 Infrequent reading and writing


working interiors
300 – 400 General offices, shops and stores,
reading and writing
200 Restaurant, Canteen, Cafeteria
100 Toilet
100 Bedroom
300 – 500 Class room, Library
200 – 750 Shop / Supermarket/Department store
300 Museum and gallery

LUMINOUS EFFICACY

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ST PUBLICATION: 15 MARCH 2013

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COLOUR RENDERING INDEX (CRI)

CRI Importance Typical Usage


accurate colour Galleries, medical examinations,
90 to 100
matching colour mixing, retail.
accurate colour
80 to 90 Home, hotels, offices, schools
judgment
moderate colour
60 to 80 Industry, offices, schools
rendering
accurate colour
40 to 60 rendering is of little Industry, sports halls
importance
accurate colour
20 to 40 rendering is of no Street lighting
importance

LAMP

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LUMINAIRES

• Housing for Lamp…

LUMINAIRE LIGHT OUTPUT RATIO

• Ranges from 30% to 100%.

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http://www.conceptlighting.co.nz/services/sustainable_design.h
tml

PHOTOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION
(POLAR CURVE)

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GLARE INDEX

• Unified Glare Rating (UGR)

• Where:




CIE RECOMMENDATIONS

Working area Maximum allowed UGR


Drawing rooms 16
Offices 19
Industrial work, fine 22
Industrial work, medium 25
Industrial work, coarse 28

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LIGHTING POWER DENSITY




MS 1525 Allowable LPD Max. lighting power density
W/m2

Offices 15

Supermarkets/ Department Stores/ Shops


25
Stores/ Warehouses/ Stairs/ Corridors/
Lavatories 10

Car Parks
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LIGHTING POWER DENSITY

Lighting
Energy
Efficiency
Considerati
on

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ACHIEVABLE LIGHTING POWER


DENSITIES

For Office Spaces with an Average of Typical Efficient Lighting


350 lux Power Density (W/m²)
Lighting Fittings that follows Ceiling Grid 7 to 9 W/m²
Lighting Fittings that does not need to
4 to 6 W/m²
follow Ceiling Grid

LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY

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INCANDESCENT BULB

To be ban in many
countries soon!

HALOGEN LAMP

• Incandescent bulb with in-filled gas

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FLUORESCENT LAMP

• gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite


mercury vapor, T8, T5, etc.

BALLAST

• Electronic Gear.
• 2 Types
• Magnetic
• Standard
• Low-Lost Ballast
• Electronic
• Certain high performance T8 with
Low Lost Magnetic ballast have
lower lighting power density than
standard T5 with electronic ballast.

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SOLID-STATE LIGHT (SSL)/LIGHT


EMITTING DIODE (LED)

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ST PUBLICATION: 15 MARCH 2013

PHILIPS’ LED BREAKTHROUGH

1. 200 lm/watt

2. In Market by 2015

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HEAT DISSIPATION FOR LED LAMPS

Main Impact on the life span of LED Lamps

INDUCTION LAMP

• Longer Life-Span

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Luminous Working
Type of Lamps Efficacy* CRI* Hours*
Incandescent 15 100 1,000
Halogen 18 100 2,000
Compact Fluorescent 60 82 10,000
Fluorescent (T8) 70 90 10,000
LED (2012) 80 85 50,000
Induction Lamps 85 85 85,000
Fluorescent (T5) 90 90 10,000
Ceramic Metal-Halide 95 96 10,000
Direct Sunshine 100 100 4.6 billion
Diffuse Daylight 130 100 years
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) 140 24 16,000
Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) 160 10 12,000
Cool Daylight
(diffuse daylight filtered by 4.6 billion
200 100 years
spectrally selective
glazing)
LED Potential 280 100 100 000

SPECULARITY AND REFLECTIVITY


OF REFLECTORS

Material Reflection Type Typical


Reflectance
Glossy white Enamelled Steel Mixed specular 0.85
Anodised Al Specular 0.75
Stainless Steel Mixed specular 0.60
Silver (polished and anodized) Specular 0.90
Aluminised Plastic Specular 0.85
Super-purity Aluminium Specular 0.95
White plastic Glossy white Diffuse 0.90

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REFLECTOR DESIGN

Patented reflector design…


http://www.google.com/patents/EP2325550A1?cl=en

PENDANT LIGHT FOR OFFICES

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INTERIOR DESIGN

Dark Coloured Interior absorb light.

LIGHTING CONTROL

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MANUAL SWITCHES

• Light Circuiting to allow lights to be switched off


when not required.

AWARENESS TRAINING

• In small offices, very easy to train employees to


switch off lights when
• Daylight is adequate or
• When the space is empty

• In large offices, may have to rely on automation


• Occupancy sensor
• Photocell sensor

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OCCUPANCY SENSOR

• Also known as Motion Sensor


• Passive InfraRed (PIR)
• Ultrasonic

• Sensitivity, increases price.

PASSIVE INFRARED (PIR) &


ULTRASONIC DETECTION MODE

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DAYLIGHT SENSOR

• Photocell sensor

• “auto-off and manual-


on” procedure

TIME DELAY SWITCH

• Keep Lights On for


1-5 minutes.

• Useful for
• Vanity mirror in toilets
• Closets
• Rarely used corridors

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CENTRALIZED TIME/DAY
CONTROLLED LIGHTING
• Part of Building
Management
System in Large
Buildings

LOW AMBIENT LIGHT LEVEL &


TASK LIGHT
Low
Existing ambient/ Reducti
Descriptions lighting task lighting on %
Installed ambient lighting power density
13.2 6.0 54%
(W/m²)
Installed task lighting power density (W/m²) 1.0 1.1 -11%
Total installed lighting power density (W/m²) 14.2 7.1 50%
Lighting energy use intensity (kWh/m²/yr) 42.0 18.3 56%
Peak lighting load (W/m²) 13.6 7.0 48%

Heschong Mahone Group, Large Office (“Ziggurat” Building) Site Report,


High Efficiency Office: Low Ambient/Task Lighting Pilot Project, Pacific Gas
and Electric Company, 2009.

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MALAYSIAN SCENARIO

Descriptions MS 1525 Low Ambient / Task


Light
Ambient Light 400 lux = 15 W/m2 200 lux = 7.5 W/m2
Task Light Not used 11 Watt per person
@ 10 m²/person
= 1.1 W/m2
Total Lighting Power 15 W/m2 8.6 W/m2
Density
Lighting Power Reduction 43% reduction

PLAN FOR NIGHT LIGHTING CIRCUIT

• 1 or 2 office staffs
working late……

• Do we need the
entire floor lights to
be switched on?

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FAÇADE LIGHTING

The Shanghai Bund

Ashrae 90.1,
maximum
allowable 2 W/m2
of façade.

2 KEY STRATEGIES

1. Low Installed Lighting Power Density.

2. Ensure lighting is switched off when it


is not in use.

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END OF CHAPTER 2

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