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5/6/2013

5/6/2013

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS MOST COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION.

Renewable Energy
Energy Efficiency

Carbon Reduction

Cost

The most important lesson you need to learn today….

There is No Magic Silver Bullet for Energy Efficiency in Building

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Holistic Approach Required
Block F Simulated BEI Potential
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
% Accumulated Energy Reduction
60%
50%
Results from
Energy
Efficiency
Study for JKR
Block F, Jalan
Salahuddin,
K.L.
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
B0 C1 C3 C5 C7 C9 C11C13C15C17C19C21C23C25C27C29C31C33C35C37C39C41C43C45C47C49C51
‐ 10%
kWh/m2/year
B0
C1
C3
C5
C7
C9
C11
C13
C15
C17
C19
C21
C23
C25
C27
C29
C31
C33
C35
C37
C39
C41
C43
C45
C47
C49
C51

The 8 Steps Approach

Energy Index
8
Energy Management!
150.0
2
1
worst
130.0
3
base
110.0
mewc
90.0
4
Chiller Energy Breakdown
70.0
50.0
6
5
30.0
7
10.0
‐10.0
‐30.0
kWh/m2/year
Fan Energy
Small
Power
Lighting
Chiller
Energy
Fan Gain
Lighting
Gain
Small
Power Gain
Solar Gain
Ext
Conduction
Gain
Ppl Gain
Dehumid
Ppl Latent
Gain
Dehumid
Fresh Air
Fresh Air
Gain

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1 st Law of Thermodynamic

Energy can be change from one form into another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

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Question 1.

100 Watt fluorescent lamp.

Conversion efficiency is 20%.

How much heat is produced in the room by the lamp?

A. 20 watt

B. 80 watt

C. 100 watt

D. None of the above

Question 2.

In your house, the ceiling fan consumes 100 watt electricity when it is running.

The motor have a conversion efficiency of 50%

How much heat is produced in the room by the fan?

A. 200 watt

B. 50 watt

C. 100 watt

D. 0 watt – because a ceiling fan cools a room, does not heat it.

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1 st Law of Thermodynamics

Energy In = Energy Out

Has never been proven wrong in any case or situation!

As a reasonably logical, sane person we have to place our trust in this law.

Basic Air Properties

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Dry Bulb Temperature & Wet Bulb Temperature

Relative Humidity & Moisture Content

Air at High Temperature can store more water (moisture) than Air at Low Temperature.

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Heat

2 Types of Heat

Sensible Heat

Latent Heat

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Basic Heat Transfer

Convection

Conduction

Evaporation

Thermal Comfort

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Operative Temperature

Operative Temperature = Average of Dry Bulb Air Temperature and Mean Radiant Temperature

Recommended

< 25°C

 Air Mean Operative Temperatu Radiant Temperatu re (°C) Temperatur re (°C) e (°C) 22 28 25 23 27 25 24 26 25 25 25 25 26 24 25 27 23 25 28 22 25

Thermal Comfort Fanger’s Comfort Model

Fanger’s Comfort Model (ISO

7730)

Air Temperature

Humidity

Air Flow Rate

Clothing

Type of Work Doing

Recm’d Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD)

< 10%, ISO 7730

< 20%, Ashrae 55

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Fanger’s PPD – Naturally Ventilated Space (Daytime)

Air T = 29° C

M Radiant T = 29° C

Humidty = 65%

Air Vel = 0.5 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 28%

Slightly warm

Air T = 29° C

M Radiant T = 29° C

Humidty = 65%

Air Vel = 0.35 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Shorts & Singlets

PPD = 9%

Neutral

Fanger’s PPD – Air Conditioned Space

Air T = 24° C

M Radiant T = 28 °C

Humidty = 50%

Air Vel = 0.1 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 7%

Neutral

Air T = 27° C

M Radiant T = 25 °C

Humidty = 50%

Air Vel = 0.1 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 8%

Neutral

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Thermal Comfort

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End of Chapter 1

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Source of Weather Data

Based on 21 years (1975 to 1995) of weather data from the Malaysian Meteorological Station in Subang, Klang Valley, Selangor.

Developed in University Teknologi Malaysia (UiTM) under DANCED (Danish International Assistant) project for Energy Simulations for Buildings in Malaysia.

Global Positioning

 Locations Latitude Longitude Solar Noon (°N) (°E) 1. Kuala Lumpur 13:11 (Subang) 3.12 101.55 2. Penang 5.30 100.27 13:16 3. Johor Bharu 1.48 103.73 13:02 4. Kota Bharu 6.17 102.28 13:08 5. Kuching 1.48 110.33 12:36 6. Kota Kinabalu 5.93 116.05 12:13

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SunPath

Dry Bulb Temperature

Average
Minimum
Maximum
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
Degree Celcius
2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
2:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
2:00:00 AM

Natural Ventilation Potential.

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Wet BulbTemperature

Average
Minimum
Maximum
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
Degree Celcius
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Evaporative Cooling Potential.

Moisture Content

Average
Minimum
Maximum
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
g/kg
2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
1 2:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
2:00:00 AM

Condensate Water Recovery Potential.

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Relative Humidity

Average
Minimum
Maximum
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
percentage (%)
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Indicates how well evaporative cooling will work.

Dew Point Temperature

Average
Minimum
Maximum
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
Degree Celcius
1 2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
1 2:00:00 AM

Condensation Potential.

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Dew Point Temperature

45%
41.0%
40%
35%
30%
25%
22.7%
22.5%
20%
15%
10%
7.0%
4.0%
5%
0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 1.9%
0.3% 0.0% 0.0%
0%
% of Hours in a Year

Dew Point Temperature (degree Celcius)

Condensation Potential.

Global
Direct
Diffuse
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
watt/m2
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

More direct radiation in the morning. More diffuse radiation in the afternoon. Indicates the effectiveness of solar shading devices.

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Cloud Cover

Cloud Cover

Average
Minimum
Maximum
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Oktas
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Very Cloudy Skies. Cloudy Skies are brighter than Clear Blue Skies. Potential for daylight harvesting from cloud diffused light is very high.

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Night Sky

Effective Sky Temperature

Average
Minimum
Maximum
30
25
20
15
10
5
Degree Celsius
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Colder effective sky temperature allowed it to absorb heat from objects on the ground.

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 Ground Temperature • Computed from the TRY using Kasuda’s equation at 1 meter depth Kasuda, T., and Archenbach, P.R. 1965. • Constant @ 26.9°C 26.9 °C • In Open system: – High moisture risk Wind Speed Average Minimum Maximum 9 8 7 meter/second 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2:00:00 AM 3:00:00 AM 6:00:00 AM 9:00:00 AM 1 2:00:00 PM 3:00:00 PM 6:00:00 PM 9:00:00 PM 1 2:00:00 AM Wind is blowing when the air temperature is hot.

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Hours of Wind Direction in TRY
North
1200
1000
North
‐West
North
‐East
800
600
400
200
West
0
East
South
‐West
South
‐East
South
All Temperature
< 29 deg

Air Temperature < 29°C

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Air Temperature < 29°C

End of Chapter 2

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Most Efficient Building Form?

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Building Form, Core Location and Orientation
BEI (kWh/m2/year)
% Increase
226.0
8.0%
7.2%
224.0
7.0%
6.6% 6.7%
%
222.0
6.0%
I
220.0
5.0%
4.8% 4.8% 4.9%
n
B
4.2%
218.0
4.0%
c
E
3.5% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8%
3.1%
r
216.0
3.0%
I
e
2.2% 2.4%
214.0
2.0%
a
212.0
1.1% 1.4% 1.6% 1.6%
1.0%
s
e
210.0
0.0%
0.0%
208.0
‐ 1.0%
C4
C6
C3
C5
C7
C11
C13
C18
C12
C15
C16
C0
C17
C9
C10
C14
C1
C8
C2
End of Chapter 3

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Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space.

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Daylight is Cool & Free

Luminous Efficacy

280
280
230
200
180
160
140
130
130
100
90
80
70
80
15
18
30
20
HPS & LPS = Conventional
Street Lights Today
Efficacy lm/Watt

Useful Daylight

Dr. John Mardaljevic recommended Useful Daylight as

100 lux to 2,000 lux

Direct Sunlight

> 100,000 lux

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Daylight Factor

100%

Where, DF = Daylight Factor (%) E internal = Horizontal Illumination of reference point indoor (Lux) E external = Horizontal Illumination of unobstructed point outdoor in an overcast sky condition (Lux)

Daylight Availability, 100 lux

% of Hours > 100 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

Daylight Factor (%)

8 18 hours

9 17 hours

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Daylight Availability, 300 lux

% of Hours > 300 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

Daylight Factor (%)

8 18 hours

9 17 hours

Daylight Availability, 2000 lux

% of Hours > 2,000 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

8 18 hours

9 17 hours

456789

Daylight Factor (%)

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Key Principles of Daylight Harvesting

1. Solar Heat Gain Minimization

2. Glare Prevention

3. Deep Penetration Of Daylight

4. Uniform Daylight Distribution

5. Electrical Light Response To Daylight Harvested

6. Interior Design Colour

SOLAR HEAT GAIN MINIMISATION

Rule 1 – Avoid Direct Sunlight

Too much light, too much heat

Rule 2 – Make use of

Glazing Technologies,

External Blinds, and

Internal Blinds.

Chapter 5 & 6.

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Glare Prevention

Maximum 10% view of the sky.

0% of Direct Sunlight.

No Glare!

Deep Penetration of Daylight

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Uniform Daylight Distribution

Daylight Responsive Lighting

Lighting Zone 1
Lighting Zone 2

Lighting Control

• Automatic off (light sensor and/or occupancy sensor)

• Manual on (people press the wall switch)

• Use task light (table lamp)

(example)

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Electrical Lights & Daylight

Interior Design

Dark Coloured Interior absorb daylight.

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Design Tools

Manuals Tables and Charts

BRE Daylight Factor Protractors

Computer Simulation

Dialux, Relux, etc.

Classic Daylight Harvesting

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Malaysia Green Technology Center, Bangi, Kuala Lumpur

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in Golden, Colorado

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Right Sizing Windows Area on Facade

Provide glazing area adequate for uniform daylight harvesting.

More glazing area will provide more heat gain than energy saved through daylight harvesting.

No Glare!

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Daylight Factor of 1% with Horizontal Blinds

<1m
~ 0.6 m
No Glare!
~ 1.5 m
No Glare!

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Daylight Factor with and without Furniture

Roof lights

Skylight. Not suitable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

Saw Tooth Roof Light. Diffuse light only. Acceptable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

Roof Monitor. Diffuse light only. Acceptable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

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Recommended Daylight Factor

Atrium Space. 1% to 6%.

1% is equivalent brightness to an office space.

6%, where 50% of the daytime hours, the lux level is above 2,000 from diffuse daylight.

4% where 0% of the hours, the lux level is above 2,000 from diffuse daylight.

Skylight Design

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Low Rise Atrium: 2 Story height (8 m)

Large Roof (16m x 16m):

5% skylight = 4% DF ave.

10% skylight > 10%. DF ave.

Small Roof (8m x 8m):

5% skylight = 2% DF ave.

20% skylight = 6% DF ave.

End of Chapter 4

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Chapter 5

Glazing Properties

Solar Spectrum

UV

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Glazing Terminologies

Visible Light Transmission (VLT)

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or g value

Light to Solar Gain Ratio (LSG)

Uvalue (W/m²K)

Low Emissivity

Visible Light Transmission (VLT)

% of Light Transmitted Through Glazing

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Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)

Total amount of solar heat that passes through the glazing.

Light to Solar Gain Ratio (LSG)

Light to Solar Gain Ratio

Higher Value = More Light, Less Heat

Lower Value = Less Light, More Heat

% %

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Uvalue (W/m²K)

A measure of conduction heat gain through the glazing unit.

LowEmissivity (LowE)

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3 Types of LowE

High solar gain Low E

Low solar gain Low E (Solar IR absorbing)

Low solar gain Low E (Solar IR reflecting)

Single Glazing LowE

HardCoat metallic oxides.

Acceptable to be exposed to internal space.

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Double Glazing LowE

Soft Coat metallic oxides

Requires protection.

Glazing Selection for Tropical Climate

1. Choose the VLT requirement for your building.

2. Set the LSG values

Tinted: 0.5 ~ 0.85

Low E Single Glazing: 1.05 ~ 1.3

Low E Double Glazing: 1.10 ~ 2.05

% %

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 Financial Estimates – Reducing Window Areas Orientation North South East West Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction (kWh/m2 of glazing area reduced) 88.60 81.07 136.11 101.62 *RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction (RM/m2 of glazing area reduced) 31.01 28.38 47.64 35.57 **Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Reduction (W/m2 of glazing area reduced) 214.50 132.74 344.70 266.02 Table 5.6.1.1: Energy and Peak Load Impact of Reducing Glazing Area *A simplified energy tariff of RM 0.35 per kWh is used. ** Only applicable for buildings with glazing area distributed evenly on all orientation. Financial Estimates – Reducing SHGC Orientation North South East West Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (kWh/m2.shgc of glazing area) 115.54 100.69 150.14 130.56 *RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction Per SHGC Reduction (RM/m2.shgc of glazing area reduced) 40.44 35.24 52.55 45.70 **Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (W/m2.shgc of glazing area ) 267.86 144.14 310.24 355.82 Table 5.6.2.2: Energy and Peak Load Impact of Reducing SHGC *A simplified energy tariff of RM 0.35 per kWh is used. ** Only applicable for buildings with glazing area distributed evenly on all orientation.

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Financial Estimates Reducing U Value

Orientation

Average of All Orientation

Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per U value Reduction (kWh/m2.u value reduction)

*RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction Per SHGC Reduction (RM/m2.u value reduction)

**Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Per Uvalue Reduction (W/m2.u value reduction)

4.24

1.48

13.93

Financial Estimate Using OTTV

1000

 Where, ER is the energy reduction per year (kWh/year)

OTTV 1 is the computed OTTV based on option 1 (W/m²)

OTTV 2 is the computed OTTV based on option 2 (W/m²)

A

H

SCOP

is the area of walls (inclusive of glazing areas) (m²) is the Hours of airconditioning per year (approximately 2700 hours) is the AirConditioning System Coefficient of Performance Recommendation: 2.8 for Split Unit AC, 4.0 for Central Plant or Check with your HVAC engineer.

w

ac

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End of Chapter 5

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Solar Heat Reduction

 SHGC SHGC ext SHGC int Computed % SHGC Cases Descriptions shades glazing shades SHGC total reduction 1 Poorly designed façade 1.00 0.87 1.00 0.87 0% 2 Only 1 item done well 1.00 0.30 1.00 0.30 66% 3 Only 1 item done well 1.00 0.87 0.30 0.26 70% 4 Two (2) items done moderately well 0.70 0.50 1.00 0.35 60% 5 All 3 items done moderately well 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.25 72% 6 All 3 items done well 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.08 91%

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 Horizontal Shades 100 90 80 70 60 kWh/m2 50 Savings 40 30 20 10 0 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 R1 Ratio H.North H.South H.East H.West Vertical Shades 40 35 30 25 kWh/m2 20 Savings 15 10 5 0 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 R2 Ratio V.North V.South V.East V.West

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Glazing & Internal Blinds

White Blind

Black Blind

Which one Reduces Air Conditioning Load for the Building?

Science of Internal Blinds

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SHCG internal blind

Glazing Dependent

 SHGC Reflective Reflective Ashrea ID Descriptions VLT SHGC White Dark White White glazing Opaque Opaque Translucent Translucent + Glazing 1b Clear 88% 0.81 0.35 0.65 0.25 0.20 1d Bronze 54% 0.62 0.47 0.69 0.39 0.24 1f Green 76% 0.6 0.48 0.7 0.4 0.24 1h Grey 46% 0.59 0.49 0.7 0.41 0.24
Solar Protection Blinds Works!
But be aware that SGHC is always
provided for Clear Glazing!

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Financial Estimation

 Preferen Orientation Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (kWh/m2.shgc of glazing area) % Improvement ce Compared to South Orientation 1 East 150.14 49.1% 2 West 130.56 29.7% 3 North 115.54 14.7% 4 South 100.69 0.0%
End of Chapter 6

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Annual Energy Reduction

 Table 7.2.1.1 Ashrae U ‐ value (W/m²K) Wall Simplified Energy Index (kWh/year of m² of wall area) Cases Descriptions High Base Mid Base Low Base Load Load Load 1 Steel Sheet, 10mm 6.68 76.978 55.477 52.770 2 Concrete Wall, 100mm 3.40 54.604 32.182 28.282 3 Brick Wall, 115mm 2.82 52.259 29.542 25.415 4 Brick Wall, 220mm 2.16 49.938 27.171 22.194 5 Double Brick Wall with 50mm cavity, 300mm 1.42 47.784 24.659 19.601 6 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 100mm 1.25 46.788 23.614 18.274 7 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 150mm 0.94 45.253 21.874 16.679 8 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 200mm 0.75 44.488 21.590 15.754 9 Steel/Aluminum Composite Wall with 75mm Insulation 0.38 44.487 20.920 15.159

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 Peak Cooling Load Index Table 7.2.1.2 Cases Descriptions kWcooling/m² wall ton/m² wall 1 Steel Sheet, 10mm 1.673 0.4758 2 Concrete Wall, 100mm 1.607 0.4570 3 Brick Wall, 115mm 1.604 0.4561 4 Brick Wall, 220mm 1.600 0.4550 5 Double Brick Wall with 50mm cavity, 300mm 1.590 0.4522 6 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 100mm 1.583 0.4501 7 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 150mm 1.579 0.4492 8 Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 200mm 1.578 0.4488 9 Steel/Aluminum Composite Wall with 75mm Insulation 1.572 0.4472
End of Chapter 7

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Flat Roof Insulation

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 AC Hours 8am to 5:30 pm Building Budget for Energy Insulation with kWh/m² of kWh/m² RM/m² 15 years roof area reduction reduction Payback (RM/m² of roof area) Cases Flat Roof Descriptions per year per year per year 1 Base Flat Roof 135.06 ‐ 2 Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation 124.19 10.86 3.80 57.04 3 Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation 122.95 12.11 4.24 63.58 4 Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation 122.42 12.64 4.42 66.36 5 Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation 122.12 12.94 4.53 67.92 6 Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation 121.63 13.43 4.70 70.49 7 Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation 121.63 13.42 4.70 70.47 8 Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation 121.42 13.63 4.77 71.58 9 Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation 121.39 13.66 4.78 71.74
 AC Hours 24 Hours Daily Building Budget for Energy Insulation with kWh/m² of kWh/m² RM/m² 15 years roof area reduction reduction Payback (RM/m² Cases Flat Roof Descriptions per year per year per year of roof area) 1 Base Flat Roof 552.08 ‐ 2 Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation 522.65 29.43 10.30 154.50 3 Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation 518.42 33.66 11.78 176.71 4 Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation 516.72 35.36 12.38 185.66 5 Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation 515.79 36.29 12.70 190.51 6 Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation 514.31 37.77 13.22 198.29 7 Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation 513.79 38.29 13.40 201.03 8 Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation 513.52 38.56 13.50 202.43 9 Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation 513.36 38.72 13.55 203.28

5/6/2013

 AC Hours 2pm to 10pm Daily Building Budget for Energy Insulation with kWh/m² of kWh/m² RM/m² 15 years roof area reduction reduction Payback (RM/m² of roof area) Cases Flat Roof Descriptions per year per year per year 1 Base Flat Roof 181.22 ‐ 2 Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation 158.32 22.91 8.02 120.26 3 Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation 155.67 25.55 8.94 134.13 4 Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation 154.63 26.60 9.31 139.64 5 Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation 154.06 27.17 9.51 142.62 6 Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation 153.11 28.12 9.84 147.61 7 Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation 152.66 28.56 10.00 149.95 8 Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation 152.58 28.64 10.03 150.38 9 Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation 152.51