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5/6/2013

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5/6/2013

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS MOST COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION.

Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency
Renewable Energy
Energy Efficiency
IS MOST COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION. Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Carbon Reduction Cost

Carbon Reduction

Cost

IS MOST COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION. Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Carbon Reduction Cost

The most important lesson you need to learn today….

There is No Magic Silver Bullet for Energy Efficiency in Building

lesson you need to learn today…. There is No Magic Silver Bullet for Energy Efficiency in

5/6/2013

Holistic Approach Required Block F Simulated BEI Potential 200 180 160 140 120 100 80
Holistic Approach Required
Block F Simulated BEI Potential
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
% Accumulated Energy Reduction
60%
50%
Results from
Energy
Efficiency
Study for JKR
Block F, Jalan
Salahuddin,
K.L.
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
B0 C1 C3 C5 C7 C9 C11C13C15C17C19C21C23C25C27C29C31C33C35C37C39C41C43C45C47C49C51
‐ 10%
kWh/m2/year
B0
C1
C3
C5
C7
C9
C11
C13
C15
C17
C19
C21
C23
C25
C27
C29
C31
C33
C35
C37
C39
C41
C43
C45
C47
C49
C51

The 8 Steps Approach

Energy Index 8 Energy Management! 150.0 2 1 worst 130.0 3 base 110.0 mewc 90.0
Energy Index
8
Energy Management!
150.0
2
1
worst
130.0
3
base
110.0
mewc
90.0
4
Chiller Energy Breakdown
70.0
50.0
6
5
30.0
7
10.0
‐10.0
‐30.0
kWh/m2/year
Fan Energy
Small
Power
Lighting
Chiller
Energy
Fan Gain
Lighting
Gain
Small
Power Gain
Solar Gain
Ext
Conduction
Gain
Ppl Gain
Dehumid
Ppl Latent
Gain
Dehumid
Fresh Air
Fresh Air
Gain

5/6/2013

5/6/2013 1 s t Law of Thermodynamic • Energy can be change from one form into

1 st Law of Thermodynamic

Energy can be change from one form into another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

Thermodynamic • Energy can be change from one form into another, but it cannot be created

5/6/2013

Question 1.

100 Watt fluorescent lamp.

Conversion efficiency is 20%.

How much heat is produced in the room by the lamp?

A. 20 watt

• How much heat is produced in the room by the lamp? A. 20 watt B.

B. 80 watt

C. 100 watt

D. None of the above

Question 2.

In your house, the ceiling fan consumes 100 watt electricity when it is running.

The motor have a conversion efficiency of 50%

How much heat is produced in the room by the fan?

A. 200 watt

B. 50 watt

C. 100 watt

D. 0 watt – because a ceiling fan cools a room, does not heat it.

5/6/2013

1 st Law of Thermodynamics

Energy In = Energy Out

Has never been proven wrong in any case or situation!

As a reasonably logical, sane person we have to place our trust in this law.

Basic Air Properties

5/6/2013

Dry Bulb Temperature & Wet Bulb Temperature

Dry Bulb Temperature & Wet Bulb Temperature

Relative Humidity & Moisture Content

Relative Humidity & Moisture Content Air at High Temperature can store more water (moisture) than Air

Air at High Temperature can store more water (moisture) than Air at Low Temperature.

5/6/2013

Heat

Heat

2 Types of Heat

Sensible Heat

Latent Heat

2 Types of Heat • Sensible Heat • Latent Heat
2 Types of Heat • Sensible Heat • Latent Heat

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Basic Heat Transfer

Convection

Conduction

Evaporation

Radiation

Basic Heat Transfer • Convection • Conduction • Evaporation • Radiation
Basic Heat Transfer • Convection • Conduction • Evaporation • Radiation
Basic Heat Transfer • Convection • Conduction • Evaporation • Radiation
Basic Heat Transfer • Convection • Conduction • Evaporation • Radiation

Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort

5/6/2013

Operative Temperature

Operative Temperature = Average of Dry Bulb Air Temperature and Mean Radiant Temperature

Recommended

< 25°C

Air

Mean

Operative

Temperatu

Radiant

Temperatu

re (°C)

Temperatur

re (°C)

e (°C)

22

28

25

23

27

25

24

26

25

25

25

25

26

24

25

27

23

25

28

22

25

Thermal Comfort Fanger’s Comfort Model

Fanger’s Comfort Model (ISO

7730)

Air Temperature

Mean Radiant Temperature

Humidity

Air Flow Rate

Clothing

Type of Work Doing

Recm’d Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD)

< 10%, ISO 7730

< 20%, Ashrae 55

Doing • Recm’d Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) • < 10%, ISO 7730 • < 20%, Ashrae

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Fanger’s PPD – Naturally Ventilated Space (Daytime)

Air T = 29° C

M Radiant T = 29° C

Humidty = 65%

Air Vel = 0.5 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 28%

Slightly warm

Air T = 29° C

M Radiant T = 29° C

Humidty = 65%

Air Vel = 0.35 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Shorts & Singlets

PPD = 9%

Neutral

Fanger’s PPD – Air Conditioned Space

Air T = 24° C

M Radiant T = 28 °C

Humidty = 50%

Air Vel = 0.1 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 7%

Neutral

Air T = 27° C

M Radiant T = 25 °C

Humidty = 50%

Air Vel = 0.1 m/s

Activity = Typing

Clothing = Light Office Wear

PPD = 8%

Neutral

5/6/2013

Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort

Adaptive Thermal Comfort

Adaptive Thermal Comfort

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End of Chapter 1
End of Chapter 1
5/6/2013 End of Chapter 1 13

5/6/2013

Source of Weather Data

Based on 21 years (1975 to 1995) of weather data from the Malaysian Meteorological Station in Subang, Klang Valley, Selangor.

Developed in University Teknologi Malaysia (UiTM) under DANCED (Danish International Assistant) project for Energy Simulations for Buildings in Malaysia.

Global Positioning

Locations

 

Latitude

Longitude

Solar Noon

 

(°N)

(°E)

1.

Kuala

Lumpur

   

13:11

(Subang)

3.12

101.55

2. Penang

 

5.30

100.27

13:16

3. Johor Bharu

 

1.48

103.73

13:02

4. Kota Bharu

 

6.17

102.28

13:08

5. Kuching

 

1.48

110.33

12:36

6. Kota Kinabalu

5.93

116.05

12:13

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SunPath

SunPath

Dry Bulb Temperature

Average Minimum Maximum 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 Degree Celcius 2:00:00
Average
Minimum
Maximum
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
Degree Celcius
2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
2:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
2:00:00 AM

Natural Ventilation Potential.

5/6/2013

Wet BulbTemperature

Average Minimum Maximum 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 Degree Celcius 12:00:00 AM 3:00:00
Average
Minimum
Maximum
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
Degree Celcius
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Evaporative Cooling Potential.

Moisture Content

Average Minimum Maximum 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 g/kg 2:00:00 AM 3:00:00 AM
Average
Minimum
Maximum
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
g/kg
2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
1 2:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
2:00:00 AM

Condensate Water Recovery Potential.

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Relative Humidity

Average Minimum Maximum 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50
Average
Minimum
Maximum
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
percentage (%)
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Indicates how well evaporative cooling will work.

Dew Point Temperature

Average Minimum Maximum 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 Degree Celcius 1 2:00:00 AM
Average
Minimum
Maximum
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
Degree Celcius
1 2:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
1 2:00:00 AM

Condensation Potential.

5/6/2013

Dew Point Temperature

45% 41.0% 40% 35% 30% 25% 22.7% 22.5% 20% 15% 10% 7.0% 4.0% 5% 0.0%
45%
41.0%
40%
35%
30%
25%
22.7%
22.5%
20%
15%
10%
7.0%
4.0%
5%
0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 1.9%
0.3% 0.0% 0.0%
0%
% of Hours in a Year
0.1% 0.5% 1.9% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0% % of Hours in a Year Dew Point Temperature

Dew Point Temperature (degree Celcius)

Condensation Potential.

Average Daily Radiation

Global Direct Diffuse 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 watt/m2 12:00:00 AM 3:00:00
Global
Direct
Diffuse
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
watt/m2
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

More direct radiation in the morning. More diffuse radiation in the afternoon. Indicates the effectiveness of solar shading devices.

5/6/2013

Cloud Cover

Cloud Cover

Cloud Cover

Average Minimum Maximum 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Oktas 12:00:00 AM
Average
Minimum
Maximum
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Oktas
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Very Cloudy Skies. Cloudy Skies are brighter than Clear Blue Skies. Potential for daylight harvesting from cloud diffused light is very high.

5/6/2013

Night Sky

Night Sky

Effective Sky Temperature

Average Minimum Maximum 30 25 20 15 10 5 Degree Celsius 12:00:00 AM 3:00:00 AM
Average
Minimum
Maximum
30
25
20
15
10
5
Degree Celsius
12:00:00 AM
3:00:00 AM
6:00:00 AM
9:00:00 AM
12:00:00 PM
3:00:00 PM
6:00:00 PM
9:00:00 PM
12:00:00 AM

Colder effective sky temperature allowed it to absorb heat from objects on the ground.

5/6/2013

 

Ground Temperature

 
 

Computed from the TRY using Kasuda’s equation at 1 meter depth Kasuda, T., and Archenbach, P.R. 1965.

 

Constant @ 26.9°C

 
26.9 °C
26.9 °C

In Open system:

 
 

High moisture risk

 

Wind Speed

 
 
  Average Minimum Maximum

Average

  Average Minimum Maximum

Minimum

  Average Minimum Maximum

Maximum

 

9

8

8

7

meter/second

 

6

5

4

3

2

 

1

0

 

1 2:00:00 AM

3:00:00 AM

6:00:00 AM

9:00:00 AM

1 2:00:00 PM

3:00:00 PM

6:00:00 PM

9:00:00 PM

1 2:00:00 AM

 

Wind is blowing when the air temperature is hot.

 

5/6/2013

Hours of Wind Direction in TRY North 1200 1000 North ‐West North ‐East 800 600
Hours of Wind Direction in TRY
North
1200
1000
North
‐West
North
‐East
800
600
400
200
West
0
East
South
‐West
South
‐East
South
All Temperature
< 29 deg

Air Temperature < 29°C

Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C

5/6/2013

Air Temperature < 29°C

Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C
Air Temperature < 29°C
End of Chapter 2
End of Chapter 2

5/6/2013

5/6/2013 Most Efficient Building Form? 24

Most Efficient Building Form?

Most Efficient Building Form?

5/6/2013

Building Form, Core Location and Orientation BEI (kWh/m2/year) % Increase 226.0 8.0% 7.2% 224.0 7.0%
Building Form, Core Location and Orientation
BEI (kWh/m2/year)
% Increase
226.0
8.0%
7.2%
224.0
7.0%
6.6% 6.7%
%
222.0
6.0%
I
220.0
5.0%
4.8% 4.8% 4.9%
n
B
4.2%
218.0
4.0%
c
E
3.5% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8%
3.1%
r
216.0
3.0%
I
e
2.2% 2.4%
214.0
2.0%
a
212.0
1.1% 1.4% 1.6% 1.6%
1.0%
s
e
210.0
0.0%
0.0%
208.0
‐ 1.0%
C4
C6
C3
C5
C7
C11
C13
C18
C12
C15
C16
C0
C17
C9
C10
C14
C1
C8
C2
End of Chapter 3
End of Chapter 3

5/6/2013

5/6/2013 Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space. 26
5/6/2013 Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space. 26

Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space.

Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space.
Daylight space when done right is much nicer environment than electrical light space.

5/6/2013

Daylight is Cool & Free

Luminous Efficacy

280 280 230 200 180 160 140 130 130 100 90 80 70 80 15
280
280
230
200
180
160
140
130
130
100
90
80
70
80
15
18
30
20
HPS & LPS = Conventional
Street Lights Today
Efficacy lm/Watt

Useful Daylight

Dr. John Mardaljevic recommended Useful Daylight as

100 lux to 2,000 lux

Direct Sunlight

> 100,000 lux

Mardaljevic recommended Useful Daylight as – 100 lux to 2,000 lux • Direct Sunlight – >

5/6/2013

Daylight Factor

100%

Where, DF = Daylight Factor (%) E internal = Horizontal Illumination of reference point indoor (Lux) E external = Horizontal Illumination of unobstructed point outdoor in an overcast sky condition (Lux)

x t e r n a l = Horizontal Illumination of unobstructed point outdoor in an

Daylight Availability, 100 lux

% of Hours > 100 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

Daylight Factor (%)

8 ‐ 18 hours 18 hours

9 ‐ 17 hours 17 hours

5/6/2013

Daylight Availability, 300 lux

% of Hours > 300 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

Daylight Factor (%)

8 ‐ 18 hours 18 hours

9 ‐ 17 hours 17 hours

Daylight Availability, 2000 lux

% of Hours > 2,000 lux Level

(Diffuse Light Only)

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

8 ‐ 18 hours 18 hours

9 ‐ 17 hours 17 hours

456789

Daylight Factor (%)

5/6/2013

Key Principles of Daylight Harvesting

1. Solar Heat Gain Minimization

2. Glare Prevention

3. Deep Penetration Of Daylight

4. Uniform Daylight Distribution

5. Electrical Light Response To Daylight Harvested

6. Interior Design Colour

SOLAR HEAT GAIN MINIMISATION

Rule 1 – Avoid Direct Sunlight

Too much light, too much heat

Rule 2 – Make use of

Glazing Technologies,

External Blinds, and

Internal Blinds.

Chapter 5 & 6.

2 – Make use of – Glazing Technologies, – External Blinds, and – Internal Blinds. –

5/6/2013

Glare Prevention

Maximum 10% view of the sky.

0% of Direct Sunlight.

No Glare!
No Glare!

Deep Penetration of Daylight

Deep Penetration of Daylight

5/6/2013

Uniform Daylight Distribution

Uniform Daylight Distribution Descriptions Max. Brightness Contrast Ratio Between task and adjacent

Descriptions

Max. Brightness Contrast Ratio

Between task and adjacent surroundings

3

Daylight Responsive Lighting

Lighting Zone 1 Lighting Zone 2
Lighting Zone 1
Lighting Zone 2

Lighting Control

• Automatic off (light sensor and/or occupancy sensor)

• Manual on (people press the wall switch)

• Use task light (table lamp)

Task light

(example)

occupancy sensor) • Manual on (people press the wall switch) • Use task light (table lamp)

5/6/2013

Electrical Lights & Daylight

Electrical Lights & Daylight

Interior Design

Interior Design Dark Coloured Interior absorb daylight.
Interior Design Dark Coloured Interior absorb daylight.

Dark Coloured Interior absorb daylight.

5/6/2013

Design Tools

Manuals Tables and Charts

BRE Daylight Factor Protractors

Computer Simulation

Tables and Charts – BRE Daylight Factor Protractors • Computer Simulation – Dialux, Relux, etc. –

Dialux, Relux, etc.

Radiance

Tables and Charts – BRE Daylight Factor Protractors • Computer Simulation – Dialux, Relux, etc. –

Classic Daylight Harvesting

Classic Daylight Harvesting

5/6/2013

Malaysia Green Technology Center, Bangi, Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia Green Technology Center, Bangi, Kuala Lumpur

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in Golden, Colorado

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in Golden, Colorado
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in Golden, Colorado

5/6/2013

Right Sizing Windows Area on Facade

Provide glazing area adequate for uniform daylight harvesting.

More glazing area will provide more heat gain than energy saved through daylight harvesting.

harvesting. – More glazing area will provide more heat gain than energy saved through daylight harvesting.
harvesting. – More glazing area will provide more heat gain than energy saved through daylight harvesting.

Façade Daylight Harvesting

No Glare!
No Glare!
Façade Daylight Harvesting No Glare!

5/6/2013

Daylight Factor of 1% with Horizontal Blinds

Daylight Factor of 1% with Horizontal Blinds
<1m ~ 0.6 m No Glare!
<1m
~ 0.6 m
No Glare!
~ 1.5 m No Glare!
~ 1.5 m
No Glare!

5/6/2013

Daylight Factor with and without Furniture

Daylight Factor with and without Furniture

Roof lights

Roof lights Skylight. Not suitable for office space. Acceptable for public space. Saw Tooth Roof Light.

Skylight. Not suitable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

suitable for office space. Acceptable for public space. Saw Tooth Roof Light. Diffuse light only. Acceptable

Saw Tooth Roof Light. Diffuse light only. Acceptable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

Acceptable for office space. Acceptable for public space. Roof Monitor. Diffuse light only. Acceptable for office

Roof Monitor. Diffuse light only. Acceptable for office space. Acceptable for public space.

5/6/2013

Recommended Daylight Factor

Atrium Space. 1% to 6%.

1% is equivalent brightness to an office space.

6%, where 50% of the daytime hours, the lux level is above 2,000 from diffuse daylight.

4% where 0% of the hours, the lux level is above 2,000 from diffuse daylight.

Skylight Design

Skylight Design

5/6/2013

Low Rise Atrium: 2 Story height (8 m)

Large Roof (16m x 16m):

5% skylight = 4% DF ave.

10% skylight > 10%. DF ave.

Small Roof (8m x 8m):

5% skylight = 2% DF ave.

20% skylight = 6% DF ave.

End of Chapter 4
End of Chapter 4

5/6/2013

Chapter 5 Glazing Properties

Chapter 5

Glazing Properties

Solar Spectrum

UV
UV

5/6/2013

Glazing Terminologies

Visible Light Transmission (VLT)

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or g value

Light to Solar Gain Ratio (LSG)

Uvalue (W/m²K)

Low Emissivity

Visible Light Transmission (VLT)

% of Light Transmitted Through Glazing

Visible Light Transmission (VLT) • % of Light Transmitted Through Glazing

5/6/2013

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)

Total amount of solar heat that passes through the glazing.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) • Total amount of solar heat that passes through the glazing.

Light to Solar Gain Ratio (LSG)

Light to Solar Gain Ratio

Higher Value = More Light, Less Heat

Lower Value = Less Light, More Heat

% %

5/6/2013

Uvalue (W/m²K)

A measure of conduction heat gain through the glazing unit.

U ‐ value (W/m²K) • A measure of conduction heat gain through the glazing unit.

LowEmissivity (LowE)

Low Radiation Heat Transfer

Low ‐ Emissivity (Low ‐ E) • Low Radiation Heat Transfer
Low ‐ Emissivity (Low ‐ E) • Low Radiation Heat Transfer
Low ‐ Emissivity (Low ‐ E) • Low Radiation Heat Transfer

5/6/2013

3 Types of LowE

High solar gain Low E

Low solar gain Low E (Solar IR absorbing)

Low solar gain Low E (Solar IR reflecting)

E • Low solar gain Low ‐ E (Solar IR absorbing) • Low solar gain Low
E • Low solar gain Low ‐ E (Solar IR absorbing) • Low solar gain Low

Single Glazing LowE

HardCoat metallic oxides.

Acceptable to be exposed to internal space.

Single Glazing Low ‐ E • Hard ‐ Coat metallic oxides. • Acceptable to be exposed

5/6/2013

Double Glazing LowE

Soft Coat metallic oxides

Requires protection.

Double Glazing Low ‐ E • Soft ‐ Coat metallic oxides • Requires protection.

Glazing Selection for Tropical Climate

1. Choose the VLT requirement for your building.

2. Set the LSG values

Tinted: 0.5 ~ 0.85

Low E Single Glazing: 1.05 ~ 1.3

Low E Double Glazing: 1.10 ~ 2.05

% %

5/6/2013

Financial Estimates Reducing Window Areas

 

Orientation

North

South

East

West

Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction (kWh/m2 of glazing area reduced)

88.60

81.07

136.11

101.62

*RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction (RM/m2 of glazing area reduced)

31.01

28.38

47.64

35.57

**Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Reduction (W/m2 of glazing area reduced)

214.50

132.74

344.70

266.02

Table 5.6.1.1: Energy and Peak Load Impact of Reducing Glazing Area *A simplified energy tariff of RM 0.35 per kWh is used. ** Only applicable for buildings with glazing area distributed evenly on all orientation.

 

Financial Estimates Reducing SHGC

Orientation

North

South

East

West

Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (kWh/m2.shgc of glazing area)

115.54

100.69

150.14

130.56

*RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction Per SHGC Reduction (RM/m2.shgc of glazing area reduced)

40.44

35.24

52.55

45.70

**Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (W/m2.shgc of glazing area )

267.86

144.14

310.24

355.82

Table 5.6.2.2: Energy and Peak Load Impact of Reducing SHGC *A simplified energy tariff of RM 0.35 per kWh is used. ** Only applicable for buildings with glazing area distributed evenly on all orientation.

 

5/6/2013

Financial Estimates Reducing U Value

Orientation

Average of All Orientation

Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per U value Reduction (kWh/m2.u value reduction)

*RM Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Reduction Per SHGC Reduction (RM/m2.u value reduction)

**Peak Cooling Load Reduction Per Glazing Area Per Uvalue Reduction (W/m2.u value reduction)

4.24

1.48

13.93

Financial Estimate Using OTTV

1000

Where,

ER

is the energy reduction per year (kWh/year)

OTTV 1 is the computed OTTV based on option 1 (W/m²)

OTTV 2 is the computed OTTV based on option 2 (W/m²)

A

H

SCOP

is the area of walls (inclusive of glazing areas) (m²) is the Hours of airconditioning per year (approximately 2700 hours) is the AirConditioning System Coefficient of Performance Recommendation: 2.8 for Split Unit AC, 4.0 for Central Plant or Check with your HVAC engineer.

w

ac

5/6/2013

End of Chapter 5
End of Chapter 5
5/6/2013 End of Chapter 5 49

5/6/2013

External and Internal Shadings

External and Internal Shadings
External and Internal Shadings

Solar Heat Reduction

   

SHGC

 

SHGC

   

ext

SHGC

int

Computed

% SHGC

Cases

Descriptions

shades

glazing

shades

SHGC total

reduction

1

Poorly designed façade

1.00

0.87

1.00

0.87

0%

2

Only 1 item done well

1.00

0.30

1.00

0.30

66%

3

Only 1 item done well

1.00

0.87

0.30

0.26

70%

4

Two (2) items done moderately well

0.70

0.50

1.00

0.35

60%

5

All 3 items done moderately well

0.70

0.50

0.70

0.25

72%

6

All 3 items done well

0.50

0.30

0.50

0.08

91%

5/6/2013

 

Horizontal Shades

 
 

100

 
 

90

  90

80

70

60

kWh/m2

50

Savings

 

40

30

20

10

0

 

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

 
  R1 Ratio
  R1 Ratio

R1 Ratio

R1 Ratio
  R1 Ratio
 

H.North

H.South

H.East

H.West

 
 
 

Vertical Shades

 
 

40

35

35

30

25

kWh/m2

20

Savings

 

15

10

5

0

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

 
  R2 Ratio
  R2 Ratio

R2 Ratio

R2 Ratio
  R2 Ratio
 

V.North

V.South

V.East

V.West

 
 
 

5/6/2013

Glazing & Internal Blinds

Glazing & Internal Blinds White Blind Black Blind Which one Reduces Air ‐ Conditioning Load for

White Blind

Glazing & Internal Blinds White Blind Black Blind Which one Reduces Air ‐ Conditioning Load for

Black Blind

Which one Reduces Air Conditioning Load for the Building?

Science of Internal Blinds

Science of Internal Blinds

5/6/2013

SHCG internal blind

Glazing Dependent

             

SHGC

Reflective

Reflective

Ashrea ID

Descriptions

VLT

SHGC

White

Dark

White

White

glazing

Opaque

Opaque

Translucent

Translucent +

Glazing

1b

Clear

88%

0.81

0.35

0.65

0.25

0.20

1d

Bronze

54%

0.62

0.47

0.69

0.39

0.24

1f

Green

76%

0.6

0.48

0.7

0.4

0.24

1h

Grey

46%

0.59

0.49

0.7

0.41

0.24

Solar Protection Blinds Works! But be aware that SGHC is always provided for Clear Glazing!
Solar Protection Blinds Works!
But be aware that SGHC is always
provided for Clear Glazing!

5/6/2013

Financial Estimation

Preferen

Orientation

Energy Reduction (per year) Per Glazing Area Per SHGC Reduction (kWh/m2.shgc of glazing area)

%

Improvement

ce

Compared to South

Orientation

 

1 East

150.14

49.1%

 

2 West

130.56

 

29.7%

 

3 North

115.54

 

14.7%

 

4 South

100.69

 

0.0%

End of Chapter 6
End of Chapter 6

5/6/2013

5/6/2013 Annual Energy Reduction   Table 7.2.1.1 Ashrae U ‐ value (W/m²K) Wall Simplified Energy

Annual Energy Reduction

 

Table 7.2.1.1

Ashrae U value (W/m²K)

Wall Simplified Energy Index (kWh/year of of wall area)

Cases

Descriptions

High Base

Mid Base

Low Base

Load

Load

Load

1

Steel Sheet, 10mm

6.68

76.978

55.477

52.770

2

Concrete Wall, 100mm

3.40

54.604

32.182

28.282

3

Brick Wall, 115mm

2.82

52.259

29.542

25.415

4

Brick Wall, 220mm

2.16

49.938

27.171

22.194

5

Double Brick Wall with 50mm cavity,

       

300mm

1.42

47.784

24.659

19.601

6

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete,

       

100mm

1.25

46.788

23.614

18.274

7

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete,

       

150mm

0.94

45.253

21.874

16.679

8

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete,

       

200mm

0.75

44.488

21.590

15.754

9

Steel/Aluminum Composite Wall with 75mm Insulation

0.38

44.487

20.920

15.159

5/6/2013

Peak Cooling Load Reduction

   

Peak Cooling Load Index

 

Table 7.2.1.2

   

Cases

Descriptions

kWcooling/m² wall

ton/m²

wall

1

Steel Sheet, 10mm

1.673

0.4758

2

Concrete Wall, 100mm

1.607

0.4570

3

Brick Wall, 115mm

1.604

0.4561

4

Brick Wall, 220mm

1.600

0.4550

5

Double Brick Wall with 50mm cavity, 300mm

1.590

0.4522

6

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 100mm

1.583

0.4501

7

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 150mm

1.579

0.4492

8

Autoclave Lightweight Concrete, 200mm

1.578

0.4488

9

Steel/Aluminum Composite Wall with 75mm Insulation

1.572

0.4472

End of Chapter 7
End of Chapter 7

5/6/2013

5/6/2013 Flat Roof Insulation 57

Flat Roof Insulation

Flat Roof Insulation

5/6/2013

 

AC Hours 8am to 5:30 pm

 
   

Building

   

Budget for

Energy

Insulation with

kWh/m² of

kWh/m²

RM/m²

15

years

roof area

reduction

reduction

Payback (RM/m² of roof area)

Cases

Flat Roof Descriptions

per year

per year

per year

1

Base Flat Roof

135.06

   

2

Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation

124.19

10.86

3.80

 

57.04

3

Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation

122.95

12.11

4.24

 

63.58

4

Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation

122.42

12.64

4.42

 

66.36

5

Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation

122.12

12.94

4.53

 

67.92

6

Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation

121.63

13.43

4.70

 

70.49

7

Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation

121.63

13.42

4.70

 

70.47

8

Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation

121.42

13.63

4.77

 

71.58

9

Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation

121.39

13.66

4.78

 

71.74

 

AC Hours 24 Hours Daily

 
   

Building

   

Budget for

Energy

Insulation with

kWh/m² of

kWh/m²

RM/m²

15

years

roof area

reduction

reduction

Payback (RM/m²

Cases

Flat Roof Descriptions

per year

per year

per year

of roof area)

1

Base Flat Roof

552.08

   

2

Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation

522.65

29.43

10.30

 

154.50

3

Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation

518.42

33.66

11.78

 

176.71

4

Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation

516.72

35.36

12.38

 

185.66

5

Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation

515.79

36.29

12.70

 

190.51

6

Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation

514.31

37.77

13.22

 

198.29

7

Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation

513.79

38.29

13.40

 

201.03

8

Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation

513.52

38.56

13.50

 

202.43

9

Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation

513.36

38.72

13.55

 

203.28

5/6/2013

 

AC Hours 2pm to 10pm Daily

 
   

Building

   

Budget for

Energy

Insulation with

kWh/m² of

kWh/m²

RM/m²

15

years

roof area

reduction

reduction

Payback (RM/m² of roof area)

Cases

Flat Roof Descriptions

per year

per year

per year

1

Base Flat Roof

181.22

   

2

Flat Roof with 25mm Insulation

158.32

22.91

8.02

 

120.26

3

Flat Roof with 50mm Insulation

155.67

25.55

8.94

 

134.13

4

Flat Roof with 75mm Insulation

154.63

26.60

9.31

 

139.64

5

Flat Roof with 100mm Insulation

154.06

27.17

9.51

 

142.62

6

Flat Roof with 200mm Insulation

153.11

28.12

9.84

 

147.61

7

Flat Roof with 300mm Insulation

152.66

28.56

10.00

 

149.95

8

Flat Roof with 400mm Insulation

152.58

28.64

10.03

 

150.38

9

Flat Roof with 500mm Insulation

152.51