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TM

Bradford Insulation

Fireseal
Curtain Wall Systems
Proven Protection
for your Building

Don’t let your work go up in flames


Contents Introduction
Bradford Insulation Background 2 Fire protection has always been a major concern for
Introduction 2 occupants, fire fighters, and building insurers. Innovative materials
and fast track construction methods have resulted in increased
Benefits of Bradford Insulation 3
complexity and uncertainty when choosing suitable products.
Product Range and Application Guide 4-5 The tragic fires of Brazil in the 70’s, those in Thailand and Taiwan
Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ Boards 4 recently, have demonstrated that flames can spread over a facade
Bradford Rockwool Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts 4 very quickly with tragic consequences. Many fires have been
reported to have moved floor to floor directly through the gap
Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ Dark Boards 4
between the floor slab, curtain wall and penetrations in a building.
Bradford Rockwool Fireseal™ Loose 5 It is fundamental that effective and proven non-combustible
Facing Options 5 materials, and systems are used to provide fire barriers.
Bradford Fireseal™ Support Clips 5 Very little research has been carried out on curtain
Fire-Rated Sealant 5 wall testing to provide the industry with performance
baselines. Bradford Insulation carried out a full scale fire test
Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Systems 6
and supplementary independent testing at the CSIRO
Fire Testing 7 (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation) -
Full Scale Fire Testing 8-9 Fire Division (Sydney, Australia) to establish the performance of
different insulation materials in the event of fire. The results were
Other Fire Testing 9
impressive and highlighted the superior performance of rockwool
Design Criteria 10 as a fire barrier, and the limitations of other insulation products in
Why Choose Rockwool 10 these applications.
Relevant Fire Codes by Country 10 Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ Boards and Bradford
Design Requirements for Fire Protection Rockwool Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts, satisfy this stringent
in Australia and Asia 11 fire standard and enhance acoustic and thermal performance of
these systems. In some countries insurance premiums may be
Noise Control 12 reduced due to the lower risk of fire damage.
Thermal Performance 12
Condensation Control 12
Cladding Selection 13
Installed Cost 13
Weather Protection 13
Health & Safety 13
Staining/Blooming 13
Sample Specification 14
Appendix A Common Questions and Answers 14
Appendix B Project References 15
Appendix C Terminology 15

Background
The Bradford Insulation Group forms part of the Building
Materials Division of CSR Limited. Bradford Insulation
manufactures and markets a wide range of insulation products
which offer outstanding fire, acoustic and thermal performance.
The purpose of this guide is to provide the specifier and
builder with assistance in choosing the right insulation for fire
protection in curtain wall construction for high rise buildings.
All Bradford Insulation products are tested to meet stringent
international quality control standards.
A free and comprehensive technical service, as well as advice
and assistance in specifying and using Bradford products, is
available from Bradford Insulation offices across Asia,Australia and King Tower Shanghai (P.R. of China)
New Zealand.

2
Benefits of CSR
Bradford Insulation Fireseal™
Curtain Wall Systems
Fire Protection Proven & Tested Systems
Bradford Rockwool is non-combustible. Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain Wall systems
Rockwool has excellent fire rating comply with AS 1530.4, BS 476 20-22,
properties of up to 4 hours, with fusion ISO 834, ASTM E 119, and JIS A 1304.
temperatures in excess of 1150°C.

Smoke Resistance
Up to 2 hours depending on
Moisture Resistant system chosen.
Negligible amount of moisture absorption
0.2%V/V, if subject to wetting, insulation
recovers its full physical and mechanical
properties upon drying out.
Light Weight
Weight savings compared to masonry
or concrete beams for equivalent fire
resistance in spandrels.

Simple Installation
Bradford Insulation is easily installed Non Staining/Low Binder
to suit spandrel panels and firesafing Bradford Rockwool has no water
applications. soluble contents in its composition.

Non-Corrosive
PH of rockwool is always neutral
Technical Support to slightly alkaline.
Our local staff can assist with heat
transfer and dew point calculations,
and systems advice. Thermal Control
The excellent insulation properties of
Bradford Insulation mean a pleasant
controlled interior environment is possible.
Acoustic Performance
Insulation can significantly enhance
the performance of curtain walls, Long Life
with up to 8 STC points increase Manufactured to meet strict quality
depending on system chosen. and performance criteria.

Mildew Proof
Vermin Resistant Rockwool is inert, provides
Nil food value in Rockwool. no sustenance to moulds.

Thermal Resistance Regional Availability


Bradford Rockwool has excellent Bradford Insulation has offices in Asia,
thermal resistance performance for Australia and New Zealand.
the fixed thickness of the spandrel.

3
Product Range and
Bradford Fireseal™
Curtain Wall Systems
Bradford recommends only rockwool products in curtain wall
systems as suitable fire protection to occupants and property.
Bradford Rockwool
Bradford Spanseal™ and Fireseal™ products are non-combustible Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts
and have melting points in excess of 850°C. Application: Due to the nature of curtain wall construction, a
The options available to the specifier are outlined in
Curtain Wall Systems on page 6.
small gap of 50-100mm between the aluminium frame and edge
Double Glazed Units
of the concrete slab occurs. For effective fire control between
floors it is recommended to install Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain
Aluminium Mullions
Wall Batts by compressing into the cavity. It is a requirement that
Aluminium Decorative Panels the product must be compressed by 15% of its thickness to be
effective. This will serve to protect adjacent occupants and
Aluminium Transom property from possible fire and smoke ingress.This product is also
Bradford Spanseal™ Boards commonly referred to as firesafing.
Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts are available with a foil facing on
one side for superior smoke protection. Please consult your local
Structural Angle Bracket
sales office for availability.

Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts Product Density Final Thickness Fire Resistance Level
Name (kg/m3) (mm) (mins)
Bradford Fireseal™ Support Clips
Fireseal™ 64 135* NA/120/120
Structural Concrete Floor
Curtain Wall
Batts 165 NA/240/240
*Other sizes also available, please refer to p12

Bradford Rockwool
Spanseal™ Boards
Application: This product acts as a fire barrier and is
incorporated in the manufacture of the curtain walling spandrel
panels. This type of fire resistance is passive and serves to
compartmentalise the building into isolated sections and contain
any possible fire to the floor of origin.
Apart from fire protection, rockwool insulation also has
excellent thermal insulation and acoustic properties. This product
can be faced in a variety of options including black tissue. As the
density of the product increases, the spandrels become more rigid,
and easier to handle with some increased acoustic & thermal
benefits. Also there is more resistance to radiant heat flow. For
custom sizes and densities please refer to your local sales office. Bradford Rockwool
R Value (m2k/w) Spanseal™ Dark Boards
Product Name Density (kg/m3) at 20°C for
50mm thick product Application: To camouflage the insulation behind glass.
Spanseal™ 64 1.47 Spanseal™ Dark is an alternative to black tissue.
Spanseal™ 80 80 1.48
R Value (m2k/w)
Spanseal™ 100 100 1.50 Product Name Density (kg/m3) at 20°C for
50mm thick product
Spanseal™ Premium 126 1.52 Spanseal™ Dark 110 1.51

4
Application Guide
Bradford Rockwool Fireseal™
Fireseal™ Loose Support Clips
Application: Loose rockwool is commonly used in Application: If a continuous galvanised plate is not specified as
sealing the gap between service pipes and penetrations through part of the curtain wall design, to secure Fireseal™ Curtain Wall
concrete floors. For it to be effective it must be compressed Batts, support clips are necessary at 450mm centres.
firmly to a density of 260kg/m3. This product can also be placed
The two options available are 316 Stainless steel or Galvanised
in fire rated pillows for temporary service protection. The fusion
steel. A small hole can be provided on the top of the clip for
temperature of this product is 11500C. Fire collars are
mechanical fixing into the concrete slab. Contact your Bradford
recommended for PVC pipes.
Insulation office for availability.

Product Weight per Fire Resistance


Name pack (kg) Level
Fireseal Loose 12.5 240 minutes
for 20mm
thick cover

Fire Rated Sealant


Application: Fire rated sealants are used to seal the interfaces
between the Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batt and the edge of the slab
and curtain wall.
Products such as Bostik Fireban One have been successfully
used in the Bradford Insulation fire testing program. Equivalent
sealants may also be suitable if they have a fire rating of up to 4
hours. Please refer to Bradford Insulation offices for availability
and technical support.
Facing Options
Facing Type Description/Application
Bradford ThermofoilTM Normally applied on the internal
face of the spandrel panel to act as a
vapour barrier for condensation.
It is available in three grades, light,
medium and heavy duty. These
products are fire retardant with low
smoke indices.
Tissue Black Matt Commonly used on the external
Face (BMF) face of a curtain wall. Non-woven
fibreglass facing provides excellent
camouflage for dark coloured glass.
Cleanface (CF) Is a white version of BMF.
Flex Skin A thin polyester fabric which is
applied to one face of rockwool
flexible products to improve flexibility,
handling strength and minimise
surface cracking when applied to
curved surfaces.
Reinforced Aluminium Used to seal any joints or gaps on the
Foil Tape internal face of the spandrel panel to
ensure that a complete vapour barrier
is achieved.

Refer to CSR Bradford Insulation product data sheets and


technical manuals for complete technical data.
5
Bradford Fireseal ™

Curtain Wall Systems


1. AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND 2. ASIA
Complies with Building Code of Australia Complies with 2 hour Fire Rating regulations (firesafing)
1 Hour Fire Rating (Spandrel and Firesafing) Premium smoke control system (smokeseal flashing, sealant
1 Hour Smoke Rating (Smokeseal flashing) and foil faced firesafing)

FS 001 FS 002
VISION

VISION
DOUBLE GLAZING UNIT DOUBLE GLAZING UNIT
EXP. JOINT

EXP. JOINT
STACK 13mm CSR GYPROCK® STACK 13mm CSR GYPROCK®
JOINT PLASTERBOARD JOINT PLASTERBOARD
50mm THICK
PERIMETER SEAL CSR BRADFORD
50mm THICK AGAINST COLUMNS
CSR BRADFORD INSULATION ALUMINIUM FOIL FACING
SPANSEAL™ PANELS WITH FIRE RATED
INSULATION 1.2mm GALVANISED SHEET SEALANT TO EDGES
SPANSEAL™ PANELS SMOKE FLASHING
CONTINUOUS WITH
SMOKE SEAL
SPANDREL

SPANDREL
CONCRETE SLAB CONCRETE SLAB

CSR BRADFORD CSR BRADFORD


INSULATION FIRESEAL™ INSULATION FIRESEAL™
COMPOSITE OR CURTAIN WALL BATTS COMPOSITE OR CURTAIN WALL BATTS
GLASS PANELS RECOMMENDED GLASS PANELS
FIRESEAL SUPPORT CLIPS FIRESEAL SUPPORT CLIPS

TRANSOM TRANSOM
JOINT JOINT
SUSPENDED CEILING SUSPENDED CEILING
VISION

VISION

3. ASIA 4. ASIA
Complies with 2 hour Fire Rating regulations (firesafing) Complies with 2 hour Fire Rating regulations (firesafing)
Standard Smoke Control System (with sealant) Standard Smoke Control (without sealant)

FS 003 FS 004
VISION

VISION

DOUBLE GLAZING UNIT DOUBLE GLAZING UNIT


EXP. JOINT

EXP. JOINT

STACK STACK 13mm CSR GYPROCK®


13mm CSR GYPROCK®
JOINT PLASTERBOARD JOINT PLASTERBOARD
50mm THICK
CSR BRADFORD FIRE RATED SEALANT 50mm THICK
INSULATION ON PERIMETER OF CSR BRADFORD
FIRESAFING INSULATION
SPANSEAL™ PANELS
SPANSEAL™ PANELS
SPANDREL

SPANDREL

CONCRETE SLAB CONCRETE SLAB

CSR BRADFORD CSR BRADFORD


INSULATION FIRESEAL™ INSULATION FIRESEAL™
COMPOSITE OR CURTAIN WALL BATTS COMPOSITE OR CURTAIN WALL BATTS
GLASS PANELS GLASS PANELS
FIRESEAL SUPPORT CLIPS FIRESEAL SUPPORT CLIPS

TRANSOM TRANSOM
JOINT JOINT
SUSPENDED CEILING SUSPENDED CEILING
VISION

VISION

Please consult your local CSR Bradford Insulation office if your system varies to those above.

6
Fire Testing
In a joint investigation between CSR Bradford Insulation and Insulation used:
Permasteelisa (Aust), it was decided to carry out a full scale fire test Spandrel Insulation
on four different spandrel configurations at the CSIRO in Sydney,
Australia. Ground Floor

The objective of the test was to investigate the integrity and Panel SA1 contained 50mm thick 32kg/m3 CSR Bradford
insulation properties of the CSR Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Glasswool.
System. Particularly the Spanseal™ and the Fireseal™ Curtain Panel SB1 contained 50mm thick 35kg/m3 CSR Bradford
Wall Batt connection and the ability of the facade system to Polyester.
inhibit fire spread from one level to the level above.
First Floor
This would ensure that in the event of a fire there would be
Panels SA2 and SB2 both contained 50mm thick 64kg/m3 CSR
minimal impact to life and property.
Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ boards.
The information provided below is summarised from
Second Floor
the CSIRO report FSZ 0657 “Fire Resistance test on Facade
Separation Systems.” Panel SA3 contained 50mm thick 64kg/m3 CSR Bradford
Rockwool Spanseal™ boards.
Method:
Panel SB3 contained 50mm thick 32kg/m3 CSR Bradford
The testing was conducted in a three-storey tower
Glasswool.
representing three levels of rooms directly located above one
another. A facade/spandrel wall system including window Firesafing
openings into each room was constructed on the outside of the The first floor area was safed off with 64kg/m3 CSR Bradford
tower including fully detailed connections and sealing systems. Rockwool Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts. Each batt was 135mm in
The tower is of full brick construction with 150mm thick depth and compressed from 100mm thickness down to 75mm.
concrete slabs. The lower floor lacked glazing to facilitate the An intumescent sealant was applied to the perimeter of the
passage of fire to the upper storeys. The second floor was fully unexposed face of the joint in panel SB2 and the slab. The other
glazed. joint did not have any applied sealants.
The ground floor was filled with a wooden crib (F8 Oregon), Test Results
simulating combustibles in a typical office. The fire load was
Observations:
calculated using AS 1530, “Methods for fire tests on building
materials, components and structures, Part 4: Fire Resistance tests 2 minutes- Smoke is making its way into the crib, however
it is not coming in through joints, but coming
of elements of building construction - 1997 for a period of 30 through side brackets.
minutes. This standard time temperature curve is also equivalent
4 minutes- Temperature in crib rises to 850°C. (See Fig.1)
to BS 476 and ISO 834 test regime and falls within the tolerances
of ASTM E119 and JIS A 1304 - 1994. 5 minutes- Glass panel VB2 breaks.
6 minutes- Glass on the exposed face of panel SB2 breaks.
The crib was ignited using kerosene as an accelerant. Its role
was to stimulate initial rapid temperature rise and ensure uniform 8 minutes- Insulation and integrity criteria exceeded for
Polyester.
ignition characteristic of standard and flashover fires.
11 minutes- Insulation and
Equipment: integrity criteria
The temperature was monitored by 2mm diameter MIMS exceeded for
Glasswool.
thermocouples.The thermocouples were placed on the ceiling of
the ground floor, and on each of the insulation samples. Some 12 minutes- Minor smoke is
appearing through
measurements were taken on the glass panels.
the joint interfaces
On the second enclosed floor thermocouples were affixed on on first floor.
the unexposed side of the window glazing. Thermocouples were 21 minutes- Broken glass on
also fixed to the centre of the unexposed side of the spandrel the exposed face
panels on the foil. Thermocouples were also fixed to the of panel SA2 falls.
unexposed face of the firesafing. 26 minutes- Exposed
Glasswool
Smoke detectors were located on the first floor to determine spandrel temperature exceeds 1000°C,
the time at which smoke levels reach a defined point temperature on unexposed spandrel reaches 780°C.
characteristic of alarm activation. These were located just above 28 minutes- Unexposed temperature on Polyester spandrel
the various joint systems and at ceiling level on the first floor. reaches 1050°C, as material further degrades.
A radiometer was located in front of the specimen and used 30 minutes- Smoke is now coming from the field of the joint
to measure the intensity of the radiant heat flux. material, between panel SA2 and slab.Temperature in
crib peaks at 1050°C.Temperature on unexposed
faces of glass VA2 and VB2, 66°C and 112°C
respectively.
7
Full Scale
35 minutes- Rockwool Spanseal™ boards show little
distress at peak of fire, with temperatures on
unexposed faces of 57 and 100°C compared
to external crib temperature on ground
floor ceiling of 850°C.
63 minutes- Temperature in crib drops from 350°C to
50°C as fuel is consumed.
71 minutes- Test terminated with no failure of
rockwool products.
Conclusion:
By the end of the test neither firesafing joint nor spandrel
had exhibited a temperature rise of 180°C over the initial start
temperature (see Fig.2), which is the thermal failure criteria for
joints under AS1530.4-1995 nor did they fail integrity.
All rockwool products in this test were independently tested
and found to be non-combustible in terms of AS 1530.1.
This would imply that they would be suitable as a fire-rated
barrier in the event of fire.
It was determined that the other insulation materials used
in the spandrel/firesafing are not suitable for fire protection
purposes due to their melting point temperatures being less
than 850°C.
In summary, for effective fire protection the use of
rockwool products satisfy these requirements and assist in Before
compartmentalising the fire to the source of origin.
1. Overall test setup 2. Wood crib prior to testing

PANEL PANEL
SA2 SB2

-Average Crib - Standard Curve Fig. 1 -


CRIB TEMPERATURE

PANEL PANEL
SA1 SB1

After
5. Spanseal™ boards 6. Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batt
still intact after test and Fireseal™ support clip
showing little degradation
-Max- Fig. 2 -
SPECIMEN TEMPERATURE
On joint panel SA2 (without sealant).
CSR Bradford Rockwool 64 kg/m3

8
Fire Testing
OTHER FIRE TESTING
Fire stopping performance on Firesafing
Apart from the full scale fire test on the facade separation system,
individual testing was carried out on the Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batt,
in order to verify the performance of the product as a firesafing
material.
Each gasket was 100mm wide compressed to 75mm, the height
was 135mm and the length was 900mm. Under a rigorous testing
program carried out at the CSIRO, the product was found to
provide superior fire resistance levels, as described on page 12.
Based on this information an appraisal of the likely
performance of this product with respect to the following codes BS 476, ISO
834, ASTME 119 and JIS A 1304 was also granted by the CSIRO
division.
Appraisal FCO 1520 covered insulation, integrity, load bearing
capacity and resistance to collapse. It also provided a Fire Resistance Level
dependent on the thickness of Fireseal™ product chosen.
The provisions from the Department on these results are:
1. The Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batt be compressed by at least 85%
of its original thickness into the cavity of the curtain wall frame
and the concrete slab.
2. The rockwool density should not be less than 60kg/m3.
3. The base material should be of Bradford Rockwool High
Temperature (HT) composition.
Fire Resistance Level of Spanseal™ Boards
Fire testing was also carried out on the spandrel wall (refer to
system FS001 on page 6) in order to investigate its Fire Resistance
Level (FRL).
The tested specimen consisted of standard aluminium frames,
During 6mm glass, 1.2mm Galvanised back pan, 50mm thick Spanseal™
Boards and 13mm CSR Gyprock® Plasterboard.
3. At peak of fire 4. Rockwool still intact on The fire test was carried out in accordance with AS 1530.4 and
was found to provide an FRL 60/60/60.
first floor, remaining
insulation has failed The main advantage of this system is that it complies with the
Building Code of Australia Clause 2.6, and alleviates the necessity for
more expensive fire rated walls such as masonry.

Combustibility testing for Fireseal™ & Spanseal™ products


Bradford Insulation Rockwool products have been found to be
non-combustible in accordance with AS 1530.1, BS 476.4, ISO 1182,
JISA 1321.
These products have high melt temperatures in excess of 1150°C
and very little binder content (1-2%).
Non-combustibility is an important factor when selecting
firesafing and spandrel panels because they do not add any additional
fuel to the fire.
For further information regarding the above refer to Appraisal
FCO 1671 from the CSIRO.
Penetrations for services through slabs
7. Effect of fire on bottom spandrels Fire propagation is possible through penetrations in slabs that are
not effectively fire rated. In particular, inadequate firestopping around
pipes is a major contributor in this regard. Bradford Insulation
recommends that all metal pipes should be protected with compacted
rockwool to fill these voids.
Appraisal FCO 1672 investigated the effects of rockwool in
accordance with AS 1530.4, BS 476, ISO 834, ASTME 119, and
JIS A1304.
At least 20mm of compressed rockwool cover should be used
around metal pipes for a concrete slab of at least 180mm in depth, to
provide an integrity value of up to 240 minutes.
NATA Registered
laboratory showing
test setup

8. Close-up of Spanseal™ Boards after fire

CSIRO offices
in Sydney,
Australia

9
Design Criteria
The main function of a curtain wall is to provide an attractive architectural envelope which will enhance the aesthetic appearance of
the building and satisfy the following capability requirements for each country.

Criteria Action
Fire Protection Select suitable system (p6) & product which meets the protection requirements of people & property in the event of fire.
Bradford Rockwool is recommended as it meets the requirements of regional Building Fire Codes.
Fire tests carried out under the supervision of CSIRO staff on a facade system displayed negligible damage to the rockwool products
(refer to full scale fire test pp 7-9).
Noise Control Bradford Rockwool has been found to enhance the acoustic performance of curtain wall systems by up to 8 STC points.
Alone, or in combination with other selected materials, they offer solutions to problems involving both sound transmission & reverberation.

Thermal Performance Select insulation products with appropriate thermal resistance.The different densities impact on the “U” value.
Bradford Rockwool 50mm thick panels with suitable facings have been found to provide adequate thermal resistance to high rise buildings.
Your mechanical engineering consultant will assist you in this choice.
Condensation Control Design with respect to dew point at insulation surfaces for expected atmospheric conditions. Bradford Insulation can assist with these calculations.
Either foil facings or a backpan will provide suitable protection against water damage.
Cladding selection Select appropriate cladding which meets aesthetic requirements of client and governing bodies.

Installed costs Prefabricated off site manufacture of cladding units have been found to save time and money through a total controlled environment.
Disruptions to access and labour are kept to a minimum.
Weather Protection Design facade system which addresses long term weather protection of gaskets, sealants and mullions.
Insulation should not be installed if wet. It is preferable to install sound, dry product into the spandrel so as not to compromise performance.
Health and Safety Observe Material Safety Data Sheet recommendations, which includes safe handling procedures and codes of practice (where applicable).
Staining/Blooming To avoid the possible effects of this marking the inside of the spandrel glass, it is advisable that all facings applied to rockwool should only be
carried out at the Bradford factory. Staining/Blooming can result from the application of incorrect adhesives.

Why Choose Rockwool?


Bradford Rockwool is manufactured by melting rocks fluxed with China
Taiwan
recycled blast furnace slag in a cupola at 1300°C. The resulting Hong Kong
India
spun fibrous insulation product not only has excellent thermal and
Thailand Vietnam
acoustic insulation properties but due to its high melting point Philippines
(1150°C), rockwool has excellent fire resistance properties - well Malaysia
Singapore
in excess of the CSIRO recommendation.
Bradford Rockwool insulation is less likely to shrink and degrade
during a fire than other insulation products with low melting
points. This restricts the passage of fire and smoke into adjoining Indonesia
compartments providing more time for the arrival of fire fighting
services and the safe evacuation of the building.
Australia
Bradford Rockwool Insulation is inherently non-combustible and
does not require the addition of expensive fire proof facings to
pass international non-combustibility fire tests. It does not add to
the fuel source of a fire. New
Zealand
Due to the higher density of Bradford Rockwool, special
facings and high binder contents are not necessary to ensure the
insulation does not slump in the vertical spandrel over time thus
creating a potential hidden fire penetration gap. Country Building & Regulatory Design Codes
Australia-New Zealand AS1530.1 Combustibility test
AS1530.3 Early Fire Hazard test
Relevant Fire Codes AS1530.4 Structural test
Building Code of Australia

by Country Burma-Cambodia-China-
Hong Kong-Indonesia
Korea-Laos-Malaysia-
AS1530.1 Combustibility test

Philippines-Singapore AS1530.3 Early Fire Hazard test


CSR Bradford Insulation has offices all over Asia and more Sri Lanka-Taiwan-
than 60 years of experience serving the insulation needs of the Thailand-Vietnam AS1530.4 Structural test
BS476.4 Non Combustibility test
region. This guide is suitable for use but not limited in the BS476.5 Test for ignitability
following countries as a result of compliance with the following BS476.6 Test for fire propagation
BS476.7 Surface spread of flame
building design codes. BS476.20-22 Structural test fire
ASTME -119 Structural fire test
JIS A1304, UL723 Surface burning characteristics
ASTME-84
ASTME-136 Non-combustibility
General ISO9002 International Quality Standard

10
Design Requirements
for Fire Protection
INTENT: To minimise the risk of fire spreading from one floor to another
via openings in external walls or through penetrations in floor.
REQUIREMENTS FOR REQUIREMENTS FOR
AUSTRALIA ASIA
Building Code of Australia Clause 2.6 Curtain wall design in Asia is heavily influenced by
international specifications. The two key components being the
Vertical separation of openings in external walls applies.
spandrel and firesafing insulation.
For type A construction buildings which do not have a sprinkler
For fire protection in high rise buildings, it is critical that the
system complying with Specification E1.5 any opening must be
specification nominate rockwool mineral fibres due to their high
separated by a spandrel which is-
fusion temperature (greater 1150°C).
i) not less than 900mm in height and
Firesafing
ii) extends not less than 600mm above the upper surface of the In order to impede the passage of smoke through the
intervening floor and, firesafing it is necessary to install foil faced products as described
iii) is constructed of a non-combustible material having an FRL in the curtain wall fire systems section. This should be adequately
sealed at the perimeter of the concrete edge and frame by an
not less than 60/60/60 (tested to AS 1530.1 & 1530.4), the
approved fire rated sealant such as Bostik Fireban One.
construction which is to comply with the above must have
any gaps packed with a non-combustible material that will Unfaced firesafing provides a minimum smoke resistance of
30 minutes..
withstand thermal expansion and structural movement of the
walling without loss of seal against fire and smoke. Most building codes and specifications in Asia, nominate a
two hour fire rating as a minimum requirement for fire
For horizontal construction at floor level: protection between floors. Bradford Insulation has tested its
i) the external projections must not be less than 1100mm products at the CSIRO Fire Division (Sydney, Australia) to
and conform to these strict requirements.
The following codes, BS 476, ASTM E119, AS 1530, ISO
ii) extend along the wall not less than 450mm beyond
834 and JIS A 1304 have all been satisfied for this application.
the openings and
Further to the above the SIRIM laboratories (Malaysia) have
iii) be constructed from a non-combustible material also approved Bradford Rockwool for;
with an FRL of not less than 60/60/60 - Non-combustibility BS 476 Part 4
It was determined through fire testing (AS1530.4) that system - Fire Propagation BS 476 Part 6
FS001 meets the above requirements without the necessity to - Surface Spread of Flame Part 7
construct a masonry wall behind the curtain wall.
- Incombustibility JIS A 1321
CSR Bradford Rockwool also complies with all Chinese fire
requirement standards for insulation materials.
Spandrel Insulation
Rockwool spandrels have been performance tested on a full
scale test to simulate a multi-storey building fire. The depth of
spandrel investigated was 900mm and it has been found to
provide superior protection against fire.
Rockwool is easily fitted into pre-assembled curtain wall
units. Depending on the design it is usual for the insulation to
be supported by a galvabond back pan in the spandrel. This
provides rigidity to the system during erection. The direction of
the back pan can vary depending on the type of facade chosen.
Black tissue is usually applied on the exterior face of the
insulation to camouflage its presence through the glass.
“Building with concrete ledge to prevent flame spread.”
The insulation chosen is nominally 50mm thick in order to
provide adequate fire, acoustic and thermal insulation. It is
General Concessions for necessary to maintain a 25mm nominal air space between the
curtain walls and panel walls insulation and the spandrel glass.
The insulation should be sealed using a foil tape when faced
A requirement for an external wall to have a FRL does not with foil. It is applied over the aluminium frame in order to
apply to a curtain or panel wall which is of non-combustible prevent condensation in the cavity between the insulation and
construction and fully protected by ‘automatic external the glass.
wall-wetting sprinklers’. A sample specification is provided on page 14 for further
information.
11
NON-COMBUSTIBILITY For additional protection against smoke, these batts can be
purchased with a foil facing and sealed at the perimeter with an
& FIRE INDICES approved fire rated sealant.
Bradford Spanseal™ and Fireseal™ products have a low Service penetrations through the concrete slab must also be
content of organic binder and are deemed to be non- sealed to prevent smoke ingress.
combustible insulation materials when tested to AS1530.1, BS476,
or equivalent.
All Bradford Rockwool products have excellent early fire
Noise Control
hazard indices, including resistance to spread of flame and All Bradford Rockwool products offer excellent sound
development of smoke when tested to AS1530.3, ASTM E84, absorption properties. Alone, or in combination with other
BS476.4-7. selected materials, they offer solutions to problems involving both
sound transmission and reverberation. It is recommended that
Results for Unfaced Rockwool advice from an acoustic consultant be sought for specific certified
AS1530.3 Part 3-1989 BS476.4-7 requirements. For further information please refer to the Bradford
Ignitability 0 passed Acoustic Design and Application Guide. Up to 8 STC points can
Spread of Flame 0 criteria be gained with the inclusion of rockwool insulation.
Heat Evolved 0 in all
Smoke Developed 0 categories
Thermal Performance
FIRE RESISTANCE Given the limited nature of our resources and the rising
A high level of fire resistance in insulation and other materials used costs of energy, the focus for designers has shifted to reducing
in multi-storey construction is essential to protect occupants on maintenance and running costs of buildings.
other levels and to limit the extent of damage to the building and
Energy efficiency is now a principle consideration due to the
save lives.
benefits that accrue to the owners, tenants and society as a whole.
Mineral fibre insulation produces negligible fumes when
Designing energy efficient buildings should involve but not be
subject to fire conditions and are used successfully in one to four
limited to the following key steps and recommendations.
hour rated fire protection systems which allow building occupants
to escape safely. 1. Architect to nominate glass colour, type of panel and size.
Structural Facade Engineer will determine thickness of glass
Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ and Fireseal™ products and size of aluminium mullions.
provide high levels of fire resistance due to their low thermal
diffusion and are able to withstand fire with only slow breakdown 2. Consulting Mechanical Engineer will use glass characteristics
in physical properties when tested to AS 1530.4, BS 476, eg. shading co-efficient and U-values to determine internal
ASTM E119, JIS A 1304, ISO 834 or equivalent. building characteristics.
Normally the spandrel panel is limited to 50mm maximum
These products offer outstanding fire resistance for long
width space available for curtain wall construction.
periods making them suitable for fire sealing applications in
curtain walls, party walls, fire dampers and pipe/cable 3. Appropriate CSR Bradford Rockwool can then be specified
penetrations. to provide optimum comfort levels for occupants due to
higher thermal resistance (R-value 1.47m2k/w @ 50mm
Final Thickness thick)
of Bradford Rockwool Fire Resistance Level
Fireseal Curtain Wall Batt. (mins) 4. The designer should take into consideration that the External
(mm) (NA/Integrity/Insulation) Glass Reflectivity chosen should be less than 20% to protect
against dangerous reflections.
110 NA/30/30
5. It is recommended that a foil backing be used on insulation to
120 NA/60/60 prevent water vapour entering the internal space.
128 NA/90/90 By following the above, considerable less energy will be
135 NA/120/120 consumed, resulting in cost savings. Facade performance will
150 NA/180/180 vary and is dependent on location, exposure, orientation and
165 NA/240/240 surrounding environment.

Spandrel Walls in the Fire Resistant Level


Condensation Control
Fireseal™ Curtain Wall (mins) DRY ENVIRONMENTS
System using 50mm thick 60/06/60.
In dry climates, such as Australia and New Zealand,
Spanseal™ Boards
condensation will occur on the inside surface of a room at any
time when the temperature of the surface is at, or below, the dew
point of the air in contact with it.
SMOKE CONTROL
Once a fire ignites, its spread rate is determined by the The consequences of condensation vary with its severity, but
supply of oxygen and available solids for conversion into a gaseous the most usual is the staining by dust and mould growth of wall
state. surfaces.
Combustion produces flame, heat, smoke and gases. Smoke is Condensation can be avoided by minimising the generation of
particularly life-threatening because of its ability to disorientate water vapour in the internal air. However the inclusion of a
occupants and obscure visibility to safe exits. vapour barrier such as Bradford Thermofoil™ to the inside face
Bradford Fireseal™ Curtain Wall Batts have been found to seal of the spandrel can provide the necessary protection by preventing
the gap between the concrete edge and the curtain wall frame and water vapour coming into contact with cold exterior surfaces.
provide smoke resistance for up to 30 minutes. The external face of the insulation is normally treated with a black
tissue adhered to the surface for aesthetic reasons.
12
HUMID ENVIRONMENTS
In the humid climates of South East Asia, the vapour barrier
Installed Cost
is normally placed on the external face closest to the heat source. Insulation materials should be selected by considering the
This will prevent the hot, humid external atmosphere from total installed cost. Influencing factors include material
coming into contact with the colder internal air conditioned purchase costs, installation labour costs and cost of materials
surfaces and result in condensation. damaged during handling and installation.
Please contact your local Bradford Insulation office for Bradford Spanseal™ and Fireseal™ are resilient and light-
assistance with dew point calculations. weight, resulting in ease of handling and minimum accidental
damage during installation.
Cladding Selection Convenient standard, custom roll or sheet sizes are available in
a wide range of thicknesses to ensure that the required total
thickness of insulation may be quickly and economically installed.
Easy handling off site, particularly on scaffolding and in
confined spaces around other trades, not only reduces labour costs
but also contributes to meeting completion dates.

Weather Protection
It is advisable that all design and construction is carried out by
certified facade engineers and curtain wall fabricators with a
proven track record.
SIROWET testing AS/NZS4284 simulates the performance of
facades to rain and pressure prior to delivery to site. Some curtain
wall manufacturers eg. Permasteelisa (Aust) have accredited testing
facilities in-house.
If the insulation becomes wet, R-values may be reduced. All
modifications can be made easily off site.
ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE PANEL
Composite panels are sometimes used in the spandrel section
Health & Safety
of a curtain wall in lieu of glass. They provide an attractive feature Bradford Rockwool and Glasswool products have been
to complement the glass walling. widely used in industry worldwide for many generations. There
is no evidence to demonstrate any long term health effects from
Alpolic™, Alucobond™ and Symonite™ are the most common these products when used in accordance with the simple
brand names. Approach manufacturers individually for product procedures of the National WorkSafe Standard and Code
advice and certification. of Practice for the Safe Use of Synthetic Mineral Fibres 1990,
(Reprinted with Amendments 1994), or equivalent local
GLASS requirements.
The options for glazing include either toughened, heat
Full health and safety information is provided in the
strengthened or laminated glass. These types of glass resist high
Bradford Material Safety Data Sheets. Please contact your local
temperature differences experienced in spandrel glazing and lower
sales office for further details.
the risk of breakage from solar heating.
As an example, Pilkington™ Toughened glass also allows for
large clear spans with minimum fixings. It is generally found to
have up to five times the strength of ordinary glass and can be a
Staining & Blooming
building ordinance requirement. This is a relatively rare phenomenon, however it requires
discussion for the purpose of awareness.
Double glazed units are popular in Australia and Asia because
of their superior thermal and acoustic performance. The thickness It has been reported that in hot, humid climates concerns
of insulation and density required is dependent on the type of glass have been raised regarding the possibility of volatile components
specified. evaporating out of adhesives used to bond tissue or foil to the
insulation material. The result being that small deposits
GRANITE accumulate on the back of the glass spandrel and become
Some authorities recommend a material other than glass be unsightly. This is apparently more noticeable in clear or lightly
used for aesthetic reasons. Granite can now be prefabricated in tinted glass.
the assembly units off site for easier installation. It is normally hard
To our knowledge this phenomenon has occurred as a result
wearing and can further enhance the appearance of buildings.
of facings applied to insulation post factory by unqualified
Panels can be up to 40mm in thickness weighing up to 3 tonnes.
subcontractors. Incorrect adhesives and application rates being the
main reason for this problem.
CSR FIBRE CEMENT
To guarantee a quality product on your next curtain wall
CSR Fibre Cement Cladding Sheets are fibrous cement based project always specify CSR Bradford Insulation, factory applied
and are used on low rise commercial/industrial buildings as a facings prior to leaving the factory. CSR Bradford Insulation will
more economical alternative to aluminium and granite. not be held responsible for any loss not in accordance with this
Please refer to CSR Fibre Cement product guides for technical advice.
information.

13
Sample Specification
Fire Stop Insulation d) Area of work shall remain available for inspection by Architect
before and after application of firestopping. Work may be covered
a) Fire stop insulation must be installed continuously at all exterior
immediately after inspection if acceptable.
cladding beam/column edge separations around the complete
perimeter of each floor and at the roof line. e) Under no circumstances shall insulation become wet. Carefully
protect each section or work.
b) Material shall be CSR Bradford Insulation Fireseal™ Curtain Wall
Batts 64kg/m3and shall be compressed by 15% of original thickness. Clean-up and acceptance of work
c) Minimum thickness of the fire safing shall be 135mm from top to a) As work on each floor is completed, remove materials, litter and
bottom. debris.
d) Product shall provide a minimum of two (2) hours of fire resisting b) All work shall be inspected and approved by Architect before
period. materials and equipment are moved to next scheduled work area.
e) Installation and support of the fire safing material shall be in full c) Final clean-up. On completion of work, remove debris, excess
conformance with the written recommendations of the manufacturer. materials, and equipment from job site. Repair damage caused by
work, clean exposed surfaces soiled by work and leave work ready for
f) The firesafing shall be installed in conjunction with a smoke seal of:
inspection.
• Continuous galvanised steel sheet 1.2mm thick sealed to back
pan and floor slab. APPENDIX A:
Thermal Insulation & Fire Protection Common Questions and Answers
Question 1
a) Insulate spandrel glass and other non-vision areas of the Exterior
Cladding system with CSR Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ Boards. Which insulation type is most suitable for Fire Protection in curtain
For Australia, the Curtain Wall Spandrel insulation must be tested in walling?
accordance with AS 1530.4 and have achieved an FRL 60/60/60. Answer 1
b) Thickness of thermal insulation shall be 50mm (2.0 inch) minimum. CSR Bradford Rockwool products should only be used for Fire
Protection purposes because of their ability to withstand elevated
c) Maximum U-vale for insulation shall be 0.12 imperial (0.68 metric). temperatures.They have a fusion temperature in excess of 1150°C, and are
d) The insulation shall be 64kg/m3 (4pcf), and a melt point in excess of non-combustible.
1,093°C (2,000°F) Question 2
e) Thermal insulation shall be installed so as to prevent the formation of Why is Glasswool and Polyester not suitable for Fire Protection?
condensation within the spandrel cavity. The Subcontractor shall Answer 2
submit dew point calculations and diagrams to the Architect for
endorsement. Because of their inability to withstand elevated temperatures associated
with a fire. Glasswool has a melt temperature of 700°C, and Polyester is
f) In the event there is no metal vapour retarder panel, the insulation only rated at 160°C with a melt point of 250°C.
shall have an integral CSR Thermofoil reinforced aluminium foil
backing factory applied to the outboard face (Asia) of the insulation Question 3
and all joints shall be taped with approved CSR Thermofoil tape and Why are spandrels insulated?
have a positive means of retaining this tape if the adhesive fails. Answer 3
g) Exposed to view insulation shall be black tissue. (Architect to verify) Spandrels are insulated for three reasons namely, Fire Protection,Thermal
Resistance and Noise Control.
h) Use fixing methods which ensure the long term integrity of the
insulation without collapse or dislodgement. Fixing methods may Question 4
include direct stapling, mesh or stapled nylon twine, stretched tight Why is firesafing necessary?
over the insulation at not less than 200mm spacing in both directions. Answer 4
Firesafing is placed between the cavity of the concrete slab and the curtain
Description Thickness Thermal Resistance wall which occurs naturally. It is necessary to install firesafing in order to
(R-value)
impede the passage of flames and smoke to other unaffected areas.
FIRE RATED BOARDS Question 5
Spanseal ™ 50mm R1.47
Do I require a masonry wall or fire rated stud wall behind the curtain wall?
0.034 W/mK @ 20°C 75mm R2.21
100mm R2.94 Answer 5
Where Thermofoil™ is No, when Bradford Rockwool Spanseal™ Boards are specified into the
used on one (or both) faces curtain wall system it is not necessary to construct an additional masonry
and an airspace is present: or fire rated stud wall behind in order to achieve an FRL 60/60/60.
Vertical reflective airspace 20mm R0.58* Conventional 13mm CSR Gyprock® Plasterboard can be applied as the
Vertical reflective airspace >20mm R0.61* internal finish over the curtain wall .
*AIRAH Handbook ~ 1989
Question 6
Delivery, Storage and Handling Why is spandrel insulation faced with foil?
Answer 6
a) Deliver CSR Bradford Insulation materials in their original
unopened package and store in location providing protection from Insulation is faced to prevent the ingress of moisture into boards or
damage and exposure to elements. blankets and condensing on cold surfaces. This is due to moisture from air
conditioning systems and external conditions.
b) Damaged or deteriorated materials shall be removed from site.
Question 7
Field Inspection What is blooming and how can it be avoided?
a) Approved installation instructions shall be present at each work area Answer 7
prior to beginning of work and test installation shall be produced for Blooming, are small deposits which can occur on the inside face of the
quality check by Architect. glass. These deposits cause discolouration and are impossible to clean if
b) Test installation shall be subject to inspection and test for they occur in the spandrel glass area. Inappropriate adhesives used for
conformance with contract requirements. facing have been responsible for this problem in the past. There is also a
c) Periodic quality checks shall be performed at discretion of Architect, tendency for it to occur in very hot climates from volatiles escaping from
and should installation prove to be substandard, all firestopping incorrect binders in the glasswool or rockwool. CSR Bradford products
installed up to that time not meeting approved standards shall be have been specifically formulated to counter this problem that occurs in
replaced. some types of insulation.
14
APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C:
Asia Pacific Curtain Wall Project Terminology
References
Thermal Conductivity K (W/m°K): Time rate of heat flow per unit
Project Description Contractor/Designer area and unit thickness of a homogeneous material under steady state
conditions when unit temperature gradient is maintained in the direction
CHINA perpendicular to the area.
Beijing China Industrial and Thermal Resistance R (m2°K/W): The thickness of the specimen
Commercial Bank Building Hyundai Corp (metres) divided by the thermal conductivity.
GuangZhou Citic Plaza Dennis Lau & Ng Ghun Man Thermal Conductance U (W/m2°K): Reciprocal of Thermal Resistance.
Architects and Engineers
Curtain Wall Facade: Outside skin or shell of a building that is supported
Beijing Oriental Plaza P & T Architects and Engineers off each individual slab level. It is usually constructed from glass and is
non-load bearing.
THAILAND
Spandrel Insulation: Solid wall element below window sill, fitted with
Empire Tower Joint Venture between Flour City insulation.
and Kasion F:C Co U.P Design Co
Firesafing: Rockwool mineral fibre installed to cavity between edge of
Thai Farmer Bank Head Office Permasteelisa Design 103 co., Ltd
floor and curtain wall frame to impede smoke and flame.
Pornpat Building Builder Federal (Thailand) Co.
Dewpoint: Temperature at which a sample of air with given water vapour
SINGAPORE content becomes saturated when cooled at constant pressure.
Post Office Saving Bank Building Permasteelisa
SIROWET Testing: Now an Australian Standard, this is a controlled field
Kranji Turf Club PD Manufacturing test to determine the water resistance of gaskets and seals to a curtain wall
Tuas Check Point Lam Hong Leong facade.
Sound Transmission Class (STC): Is a single number used to rate the effec-
MALAYSIA
tiveness of a system as a noise insulator. The greater the STC number the
Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) Harmont Contracts Asia SDN Bhd better the system.
Sanjungmas (M) Sdn Bhd
Fire Resistance Level (FRL): This is a measure of the effectiveness of the
Telekom HQ system to prevent the ingress of fire. It is usually classified in terms of
Vision City (Wawasan City) Luckson Metal (M) Sdn Bhd structural adequacy, integrity and insulation in minutes.
Menara AIA Luckson Metal (M) Sdn Bhd

HONG KONG
Cheung Kong Centre Ove Arup & Partners
Hong Kong Bank Centre
(Olympus Station) P&T Architects and Engineers
International Finance Centre
(Airport Terminus) Ove Arup & Partners
Centre Plaza Ng Chun Man & Associates

TAIWAN
Far Eastern Plaza,
Taipei Tajima Metalwork (Taiwan) Co., Ltd.
China Trust Building,
Taipei CRJ Metalwork Co., Ltd.
Nan-Kang Software Park,
Taipei San Zhen Industry Co., Ltd
Kaohsiung Duties Building,
Kaohsiung Pan Asia Engineering Ltd.
Taichung Grand Formosa Hotel,
Taichung Permasteelisa (Taiwan) Pty., Ltd.
AUSTRALIA
Maritime Services Building, Leightons Builders/O'Brien Glass
Sydney and Peddle Thorp and Walker
Architects
400 George Street, Sydney Grocon Builders/Permasteelisa/
Crone & Assoc Architects
88 Phillip Street, Sydney Civil & Civic/Permasteelisa/Renzo
Piano Architects
Central Plaza Towers Permasteelisa
99 Walker Street, North Sydney Girvan Builders and Ng & Baker Disclaimer
Architects The information presented herein is supplied in good faith and to the best of
10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta Timalco/Girvan and Rice Daubney our knowledge was accurate at the time of publication. Users are advised to make
Architects their own determination as to the suitability of this information in relation to their
particular purpose and specific requirements.
Melbourne Central Kumagai Gumi/Victoria Central
Subject to the conditions in Sec.68A of the Trade Practices Act, applying in
Casino Hotel Towers, Melbourne Denton Corker Marshall Architects
Australia, our liability is expressly limited to the replacement of defective goods.
Permasteelisa We shall not be liable for incidental or consequential damages, directly or
indirectly sustained, nor for any loss caused by application of these goods not in
accordance with written advice.
15
TM

Bradford Insulation
CSR Building Solutions Web Site:
www.csr.com.au

Manufacturing Facilities.
CSR Bradford Insulation is the leading insulation manufacturer in Australia and Asia with
manufacturing facilities located throughout the region

Australia Asia
Glasswool factory, Ingleburn NSW Glasswool factory, Zhuhai, China
Rockwool factory, Clayton VIC Rockwool factory, Dongguan, China
Thermofoil factory, Dandenong VIC Rockwool factory, Rayong,Thailand
Polystyrene factory, Auburn NSW Rockwool factory, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Flexible Duct factory, Singapore

Sales Offices.
Australia International
State Phone Fax Country Phone Fax
Head Office 61 2 9765 7100 61 2 9765 7029 New Zealand 64 9579 9059 64 9579 3040
NSW (02) 9765 7100 (02) 9765 7052 Hong Kong 852 2754 0877 852 2758 2005
ACT (02) 6239 2611 (02) 6239 3305 China-Glasswool 86 756 551 1448 86 756 551 1449
VIC (03) 9265 4000 (03) 9265 4111 China-Rockwool 86 769 611 1401 86 769 611 2900
TAS (03) 6272 5677 (03) 6272 2387 Thailand 66 2 736 0924 66 2 736 0934
QLD (07) 3212 6400 (07) 3212 6456 Malaysia 60 3 341 3444 60 3 341 5779
SA (08) 8344 0640 (08) 8344 0644 Singapore 65 861 4722 65 862 3533
NT (08) 8984 4070 (08) 8947 0034 Taiwan 886 22 796 3266 886 22 791 5262
WA (08) 9365 1666 (08) 9365 1655

Health and Safety Information


Information on any known health risks of our products and how to handle them safely is displayed on
the packaging and/or the documentation accompanying them. Additional information is listed in the
products Material Safety Data Sheet available from your local Bradford office.

Warranty.
CSR Limited warrants its Bradford Insulation products to be free of defects in materials and
manufacture. If a CSR product does not meet our standard, we will, at our option, replace or repair it,
supply an equivalent product, or pay for doing one of these.This warranty excludes all other
warranties and liability for damage in connection with defects in our products, other than those
imposed by legislation.

Published by CSR Bradford Insulation, CSR Limited A.C.N.000 001 276 Printed: June 1999