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Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

CHAPTER 7

Thermal Management

7.1 Thermal Considerations

553

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Considerations

555

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

7.1.1 Thermal Considerations for Power Semiconductors

The perfect power switch is not yet available. All power semiconductors dissipate power internally both during the on-state and during the transition between the on and off states. The amount of power dissipated internally generally speaking increases in line with the power being switched by the semiconductor. The capability of a switch to operate in a particular circuit will therefore depend upon the amount of power dissipated internally and the rise in the operating temperature of the silicon junction that this power dissipation causes. It is therefore important that circuit designers are familiar with the thermal characteristics of power semiconductors and are able to calculate power dissipation limits and junction operating temperatures.

This chapter is divided into two parts. Part One describes the essential thermal properties of semiconductors and explains the concept of a limit in terms of continuous mode and pulse mode operation. Part Two gives worked examples showing junction temperature calculations for a variety of applied power pulse waveforms.

PART ONE

The power dissipation limit

The maximum allowable power dissipation forms a limit to the safe operating area of power transistors. Power dissipation causes a rise in junction temperature which will, in turn, start chemical and metallurgical changes. The rate at which these changes proceed is exponentially related to temperature, and thus prolonged operation of a power transistor above its junction temperature rating is liable to result in reduced life. Operation of a device at, or below, its power dissipation rating (together with careful consideration of thermal resistances associated with the device) ensures that the junction temperature rating is not exceeded.

All power semiconductors have a power dissipation limitation. For rectifier products such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, the power dissipation rating can be easily translated in terms of current ratings; in the on-state the voltage drop is well defined. Transistors are, however, somewhat more complicated. A transistor, be it a power MOSFET or a bipolar, can operate in its on-state at any voltage up to its maximum rating depending on the circuit conditions. It is therefore necessary to specify a Safe Operating Area (SOA) for transistors which specifies the power dissipation limit in terms of a series of boundaries in the current and voltage plane. These operating areas are usuallypresented for mounting base temperatures of 25 ˚C. At higher temperatures, operating conditions must be checked to ensure that junction temperatures are not exceeding the desired operating level.

557

Continuous power dissipation

The total power dissipation in a semiconductor may be calculated from the product of the on-state voltage and the forward conduction current. The heat dissipated in the junction of the device flows through the thermal resistance between the junction and the mounting base, R thj-mb . The thermal equivalent circuit of Fig. 1 illustrates this heat flow; P tot can be regarded as a thermal current, and the temperature difference between the junction and mounting base T j-mb as a thermal voltage. By analogy with Ohm’s law, it follows that:

P tot = T j

R thj

T mb

mb

1

it follows that: P tot = T j R thj T mb mb 1 Fig. 2

Fig. 2 shows the dependence of the maximum power dissipation on the temperature of the mounting base. P totmax is limited either by a maximum temperature difference:

T j mb max = T jmax

T mb K

2

or by the maximum junction temperature T jmax (T mb K is usually 25˚C and is the value of T mb above which the maximum power dissipation must be reduced to maintain the operating point within the safe operating area).

In the first case, T mb

T mb K :

P tot maxK =

T j mb max

R thj

mb

;

3

that is, the power dissipation has a fixed limit value (P tot max K is the maximum d.c. power dissipation below T mb K ). If the transistor is subjected to a mounting-base temperature T mb 1 , its junction temperature will be less than T jmax by an amount (T mbK - T mb 1 ), as shown by the broken line in Fig. 2.

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors In the second case, T m b > T m b

In the second case, T mb > T mb K :

P tot max = T jmax R thj

T mb

mb

;

4

that is, the power dissipation must be reduced as the mounting base temperature increases along the sloping straight line in Fig. 2. Equation 4 shows that the lower the thermal resistance R thj-mb , the steeper is the slope of the line. In this case, T mb is the maximum mounting-base temperature that can occur in operation.

Example

The following data is provided for a particular transistor.

P tot maxK = 75 W

T jmax = 175 ˚C

R thj-mb 2 K/W

Themaximumpermissible power dissipationfor continuous operation at a maximum mounting-base temperature of T mb = 80 ˚C is required.

Note that the maximum value of T mb is chosen to be significantly higherthan the maximumambient temperature to prevent an excessively large heatsink being required.

From Eq. 4 we obtain:

P tot max = 175

2

80

W,

= 47.5 W

Provided that the transistor is operated within SOA limits, this value is permissible since it is below P tot max K . The same result can be obtained graphically from the P tot max diagram (Fig. 3) for the relevant transistor.

558

m a x diagram (Fig. 3) for the relevant transistor. 558 Pulse power operation When a

Pulse power operation

When a power transistor is subjected to a pulsed load, higher peak power dissipation is permitted. The materials in a power transistor have a definite thermal capacity, and thus the critical junction temperature will not be reached instantaneously, even when excessive power is being dissipated in the device. The power dissipation limit may be extended for intermittent operation. The size of the extension will depend on the duration of the operation period (that is, pulse duration) and the frequency with which operation occurs (that is, duty factor).

with which operation occurs (that is, duty factor). Ifpower isapplied to atransistor, the device will

Ifpower isapplied to atransistor, the device will immediately start to warm up (Fig. 4). If the power dissipation continues, a balance will be struck between heat generation and removal resulting in the stabilisation of T j and T j-mb . Some heat energy will be stored by the thermal capacity of the device, and the stable conditions will be determined by the

thermal resistances associated with the transistor and its thermal environment. When the power dissipation ceases, the device will cool (the heating and cooling laws will be identical, see Fig. 5). However, if the power dissipation ceases before the temperature of the transistor stabilises, the peak values of T j and T j-mb will be less than the values

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

reached for the same level of continuous power dissipation (Fig. 6). If the second pulse is identical to the first, the peak temperature attained by the device at the end of the second pulse will be greater than that at the end of the first pulse. Further pulses will build up the temperature until some new stable situation is attained (Fig. 7). The temperature of the device in this stable condition will fluctuate above andbelow the mean. If the upward excursions extend into the region of excessive T j then the life expectancy of the device may be reduced. This can happen with high-power low-duty-factor pulses, even though the average power is below the d.c. rating of the device.

the average power is below the d.c. rating of the device. Fig. 8 shows a typical
the average power is below the d.c. rating of the device. Fig. 8 shows a typical

Fig. 8 shows a typical safe operating area for d.c. operation of a power MOSFET. The corresponding rectangular-pulse operating areas with a fixed duty factor, = 0, and the pulse time t p as a parameter, are also shown. These boundaries represent the largest possible extension of the operating area for particular pulse times. When the pulse time becomes very short, the power dissipation does not have alimiting action andthe pulsecurrent and maximumvoltage form the only limits. This rectangle represents the largest possible pulse operating area.

559

represents the largest possible pulse operating area. 559 In general, the shorter the pulse and the
represents the largest possible pulse operating area. 559 In general, the shorter the pulse and the

In general, the shorter the pulse and the lower the frequency, the lower the temperature that the junction reaches. By analogy with Eq. 3, it follows that:

P tot M = T j

T mb

Z thj mb

,

5

where Z thj-mb is the transient thermal impedance between the junction and mounting base of the device. It depends on the pulse duration t p , and the duty factor , where:

Thermal Management

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Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

= T t p ,

6

and T is the pulse period. Fig. 9 shows a typical family of curves for thermal impedance against pulse duration, with duty factor as a parameter.

against pulse duration, with duty factor as a parameter. Again, the maximum pulse power dissipation is

Again, the maximum pulse power dissipation is limited either by the maximum temperature difference T j-mb max (Eq. 2), or by the maximum junction temperature T jmax , and so by analogy with Eqs. 3 and 4:

P tot maxK

T j mb max

=

Z thj mb

,

when T mb T mb K , and:

P tot M max = T jmax

T mb

Z thj mb

,

7

8

when

temperature of T mb K , the maximum power dissipation has a fixed limit value; and above T mb K , the power dissipation must be reduced linearly with increasing mounting-base temperature.

T mb > T mb K . That is, below a mounting-base

Short pulse duration (Fig. 10a)

As the pulse duration becomes very short, the fluctuations of junction temperature become negligible, owing to the internal thermal capacity of the transistor. Consequently, the only factor to be considered is the heating of the junction by the average power dissipation; that is:

P tot(av) = P tot M

9

The transient thermal impedance becomes:

560

lim

t p

0 Z thj

mb = R thj

mb

10

The Z thj-mb curves approach this value asymptotically as t p decreases. Fig. 9 shows that, for duty factors in the range 0.1 to 0.5, the limit values given by Eq. 10 have virtually been reached at t p = 10 -6 s.

10 have virtually been reached at t p = 10 - 6 s. Long pulse duration

Long pulse duration (Fig. 10b)

As the pulse duration increases, the junction temperature approaches a stationary value towards the end of a pulse. The transient thermal impedance tends to the thermal resistance for continuous power dissipation; that is:

lim

t p

Z thj mb =R thj mb

11

Fig. 9 showsthatZ thj-mb approaches this valueas t p becomes large. In general, transient thermal effects die out in most power transistors within 0.1 to 1.0 seconds. This time depends on the material and construction of the case, the size of the chip, the way it is mounted, and other factors. Power pulses with a duration in excess of this time have approximately the same effect as a continuous load.

Thermal Management

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Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Single-shot pulses (Fig. 10c)

As the duty factor becomes very small, the junction tends to cool down completely between pulses so that each pulse can be treated individually. When considering single pulses, the Z thj-mb values for = 0 (Fig. 9) give sufficiently accurate results.

PART TWO

Calculating junction temperatures

Most applications which include power semiconductors usually involve some form of pulse mode operation. This section gives several worked examples showing how junction temperatures can be simply calculated. Examples are given for a variety of waveforms:

(1) Periodic Waveforms

(2) Single Shot Waveforms

(3) Composite Waveforms

(4) A Pulse Burst

(5) Non Rectangular Pulses

From the point of view of reliability it is most important to know what the peak junction temperature will be when the power waveform is applied and also what the average junction temperature is going to be.

Peak junction temperature will usually occur at the end of an applied pulse and its calculation will involve transient thermal impedance. The average junction temperature (where applicable) is calculated by working out the average power dissipation using the d.c. thermal resistance.

average power dissipation using the d.c. thermal resistance. When considering the junction temperature in a device,

When considering the junction temperature in a device, the following formula is used:

14

T j = T mb +

T j mb

561

where T j-mb is found from a rearrangement of equation 7. In all the following examples the mounting base temperature (T mb ) is assumed to be 75˚C.

Periodic rectangular pulse

Fig. 11 shows an example of a periodic rectangular pulse. This type of pulse is commonly found in switching applications. 100W is dissipated every 400 s for a period of 20 s, representing a duty cycle ( ) of 0.05. The peak junction temperature is calculated as follows:

Peak T j :

t = 2

10 5 s

P = 100W

=

400 20 = 0.05

Z thj mb = 0.12K/W

T j mb = P

Z thj mb = 100

0.12 = 12C

T j = T mb + T j mb = 75 + 12 = 87C

Average T j :

P av = P =

100 0.05 = 5W

T j mb(av) = P av

Z thj

mb( =

1) = 5

2 = 10C

T j(av) = T mb + T j mb(av) = 75 + 10 = 85C

The value for Z th j-mb is taken from the =0.05 curve shown in Fig. 12 (This diagram repeats Fig. 9 but has been simplified for clarity). The above calculation shows that the peak junction temperature will be 85˚C.

Single shot rectangular pulse

Fig. 13 shows an example of a single shot rectangular pulse. The pulse used is the same as in the previous example, which should highlight the differences between periodic and single shot thermal calculations. For a single shot pulse, the time period between pulses is infinity, ie the duty cycle =0. In this example 100W is dissipated for a period of 20 s. To work out the peak junction temperature the following steps are used:

2

P = 100W

0

t

=

=

10 5 s

Z thj mb = 0.04K/W

T j mb = P

Z thj mb = 100

0.04 = 4C

The value for Z th j-mb is taken from the =0 curve shown in Fig. 12. The above calculation shows that the peak junction temperature will be 4˚C above the mounting base temperature.

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors For a single shot pulse, the average power dissipated and
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors For a single shot pulse, the average power dissipated and

For a single shot pulse, the average power dissipated and average junction temperature are not relevant.

562

Composite rectangular pulse

In practice, a power device frequently has to handle composite waveforms, rather than the simple rectangular pulses shown so far. This type of signal can be simulated by superimposing several rectangular pulses which have a common period, but both positive and negative amplitudes, in addition to suitable values of t p and .

By way of an example, consider the composite waveform shown in Fig. 14. To show the way in which the method used for periodic rectangular pulses is extended to cover composite waveforms, the waveform shown has been

chosen to be an extension of the periodic rectangular pulse example. The period is 400 s, and the waveform consists of three rectangular pulses, namely 40W for 10 s, 20W for

150 s and 100W for 20 s. The peak junction temperature

may be calculated at any point in the cycle. To be able to add the various effects of the pulses at this time, all the pulses, both positive and negative, must end at time t x in the first calculation and t y in the second calculation. Positive pulses increase the junction temperature, while negative pulses decrease it.

Calculation for time t x

T j mb@x = P 1 .Z thj mb(t1) + P 2 .Z thj mb(t3)

+ P 3 .Z thj mb(t4)

P 1 .Z thj mb(t2)

P 2 .Z thj mb(t4)

15

In equation 15, the values for P 1 , P 2 and P 3 are known:

P 1 =40W, P 2 =20W and P 3 =100W. The Z th values are taken from Fig. 9. For each term in the equation, the equivalent duty cycle must be worked out. For instance the first superimposed pulse in Fig. 14 lasts for a time t1 = 180 s, representing a duty cycle of 180/400 = 0.45 = . These values can then be used in conjunction with Fig. 9 to find a value for Z th , which in this case is 0.9K/W. Table 1a gives the values calculated for this example.

 

t1

t2

 

t3

t4

180 s

170

s

150 s

20 s

Repetitive T=400 s

 

0.450

0.425

0.375

0.050

Z

th

0.900

0.850

0.800

0.130

Single Shot

 

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

T=

Z

th

0.130

0.125

0.120

0.040

Table 1a. Composite pulse parameters for time t x

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors Substituting these values into equation 15 for T j - m

Substituting these values into equation 15 for T j-mb@x gives

Repetitive:

T j mb@x = 40

0.9 + 20 0.85

+ 100

0.13

40

0.85

20

0.13

= 29.4C T j = T mb + T j mb = 75 + 29.4 = 104.4C

563

Single Shot:

T j mb@x = 40

+ 100 20

0.13 + 20

0.125

0.04

0.04

40 0.125

= 5.9C T j = T mb + T j mb = 75 + 5.9 = 80.9C

Hence the peak values of T j are 104.4˚C for the repetitive case, and 80.9˚C for the single shot case.

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Calculation for time t y

T j mb@y = P 2 .Z thj mb(t5) + P 3 .Z thj mb(t6)

+ P 1 .Z thj mb(t8)

P 2 .Z thj mb(t6)

P 3 .Z thj mb(t7)

16

where Z thj-mb(t) is the transient thermal impedance for a pulse time t.

 

t5

 

t6

t7

 

t8

 

380

s

250 s

230

s

10

s

Repetitive T=400 s

 

0.950

0.625

0.575

0.025

Z

th

1.950

1.300

1.250

0.080

Single Shot

 

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

T=

Z

th

0.200

0.160

0.150

0.030

Table 1b. Composite pulse parameters for time t y

Substituting these values into equation 16 for T j-mb@y gives

Repetitive:

Single Shot:

T j mb@y =

20

1.95 + 100

+ 40 100

= 21.2C

0.08

1.25

20

1.3

1.3

T j = T mb + T j mb = 75 + 21.2 = 96.2C

T j mb@y =

20

+ 40 100

= 3C

0.2 + 100

0.03

0.15

20

0.16

0.16

T j = T mb + T j mb = 75 + 3 = 78C

Hence the peak values of T j are 96.2˚C for the repetitive case, and 78˚C for the single shot case.

The average power dissipation and the average junction temperature can be calculated as follows:

P av

=

25

10 + 5

130 + 20

100

400

= 7.25W

T j mb(av) = P av

Z thj

mb( =

1) = 7.25

2 = 14.5C

T j(av) = T mb + T j mb(av) = 75 + 14.5 = 89.5C

Clearly, the junction temperature at time t x should be higher

than that

proven in the above

calculations.

at

time t y ,

and

this is

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Burst pulses

Power devices are frequently subjected to a burst of pulses. This type of signal can be treated as a composite waveform andas in the previous example simulated by superimposing several rectangular pulses which have a common period, but both positive and negative amplitudes, in addition to suitable values of t p and .

in addition to suitable values of t p and . Consider the waveform shown in Fig.

Consider the waveform shown in Fig. 15. The period is 240 s, and the burst consists of three rectangular pulses of 100W power and 20 s duration, separated by 30 s. The peak junction temperaturewill occurat the endof each burst

at time t = t x = 140 s. To be able to add the various effects of the pulses at this time, all the pulses, both positive and negative, must end at time t x . Positive pulses increase the junction temperature, while negative pulses decrease it.

T j mb@x = P.Z thj mb(t1) + P.Z thj mb(t3)

+ P.Z thj mb(t5)

P.Z thj mb(t2)

P.Z thj mb(t4)

17

where Z thj-mb(t) is the transient thermal impedance for a pulse time t.

The Z th values are taken from Fig. 9. For each term in the equation, the equivalent duty cycle must be worked out. These values can then be used in conjunction with Fig. 9 to find a value for Z th . Table 2 gives the values calculated for this example.

 

t1

t2

 

t3

 

t4

 

t5

 

120

s

100

s

70

s

50

s

20

s

Repetitive T=240 s

 

0.500

0.420

0.290

0.210

0.083

Z

th

1.100

0.800

0.600

0.430

0.210

Single Shot

 

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

T=

Z

th

0.100

0.090

0.075

0.060

0.040

Table 2. Burst Mode pulse parameters

Substituting these values into equation 17 gives

Thermal Management

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Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Repetitive: T j mb@x = 100 1.10 + 100 0.60 + 100 0.21 100 0.80
Repetitive:
T j mb@x = 100
1.10 + 100 0.60
+ 100
0.21
100 0.80
100 0.43
= 68∞C
T j = 75 + 68 = 143∞C
Single Shot:
T j mb@x = 100
0.10 + 100 0.075
+ 100
0.04
100 0.09
100 0.06
= 6.5∞C
T j = 75 + 6.5 = 81.5∞C
Hence the peak value of T j is 143˚C for the repetitive case
and 81.5˚C for the single shot case. To calculate the
average junction temperature T j(av) :
100
20
P av = 3
=
240
T j mb
P tot M
Z thj mb
Single Shot
= 50 0.065 = 3.25∞C
= 25W
T j mb
1) = 25
2 = 50∞C
T jpeak = 75 + 3.25 = 78.5∞C
T j mb(av) = P av
Z thj
mb( =
T j(av) = 75 + 50 = 125∞C
10% Duty cycle
= 50 0.230 = 11.5∞C
T j mb
The above example for the repetitive waveform highlights
T jpeak = 75 + 11.5 = 86.5∞C
a case where the average junction temperature (125˚C) is
50% Duty cycle
= 50 1.000 = 50∞C
well within limits but the composite pulse calculation shows
the peak junction temperature to be significantly higher. For
reasons of improved long term reliability it is usual to
operate devices with a peak junction temperature below
T j mb
T jpeak = 75 + 50 = 125∞C

125˚C.

Non-rectangular pulses

So far, the worked examples have only covered rectangular waveforms. However, triangular, trapeziodal and sinusoidal waveforms are also common. In order to apply the above thermal calculations to non rectangular waveforms, the waveform is approximated by a series of rectangles. Each rectangle represents part of the waveform. The equivalent rectangle must be equal in area to the section of the waveform it represents (ie the same energy)andalso be of the samepeak power.With reference to Fig. 16, a triangular waveform has been approximated

to one rectangle in the first example, and two rectangles in

the second. Obviously, increasing the number of sections the waveform is split into will improve the accuracy of the thermal calculations.

In the first example, there is only one rectanglular pulse ,

of duration 50 s, dissipating 50W. So again using equation

14 and a rearrangement of equation 7:

565

When the waveform is split into two rectangular pulses:

T j mb = P 3 .Z thj mb(t3) + P 1 .Z thj mb(t1)

P 2 .Z thj mb(t2)

18

For this example P 1 = 25W, P 2 = 25W, P 3 = 50W. Table 3 below shows the rest of the parameters:

 

t1

 

t2

t3

75

s

50 s

37.5

s

Single Shot

D

0.000

0.000

0.000

T=

Z

th

0.085

0.065

0.055

10% Duty Cycle T=1000 s

D

0.075

0.050

0.037

Z

th

0.210

0.140

0.120

50% Duty Cycle T=200 s

D

0.375

0.250

0.188

Z

th

0.700

0.500

0.420

Table 3. Non Rectangular Pulse Calculations

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Sustituting these values into equation 18 gives:

Single shot T j mb = 50 0.055 + 25 0.085 25 0.065

10% Duty cycle

50% Duty cycle

=

3.25C

T jpeak = 75 + 3.25 = 78.5C

T j mb = 50

0.12 + 25

= 7.75C

0.21

25

T jpeak = 75 + 7.75 = 82.5C

T j mb = 50

0.42 + 25

= 26C

0.7

25

T jpeak = 75 + 26 = 101C

To calculate the average junction temperature:

10% Duty Cycle

P av

=

50

50

1000

= 2.5W

T j mb(av) = P av

Z thj

mb( =

1) = 2.5

T j(av) = 75 + 5 = 80C

0.14

0.5

2 = 5C

566

50% Duty Cycle

P av = 50

50

200

= 12.5W

T j mb(av) = P av

Z thj

mb( =

1) = 12.5

T j(av) = 75 + 25 = 100C

2 = 25C

Conclusion

A method has been presented to allow the calculation of average and peak junction temperatures for a variety of pulse types. Several worked examples have shown calculations for various common waveforms. The method for non rectangular pulses can be applied to any wave shape, allowing temperature calculations for waveforms such as exponential and sinusoidal power pulses. For pulses such as these, care must be taken to ensure that the calculation gives the peak junction temperature, as it may not occur at the end of the pulse. In this instance several calculations must be performed with different endpoints to find the maximum junction temperature.

Thermal Management

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Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

7.1.2 Heat Dissipation

All semiconductor failure mechanisms are temperature dependent and so the lower the junction temperature, the higher the reliability of the circuit. Thus our data specifies a maximum junction temperature which should not be exceeded under the worst probable conditions. However, derating the operating temperature from T jmax is always desirable to improve the reliability still further. The junction temperature depends on both the power dissipated in the device and the thermal resistances (or impedances) associated with the device. Thus careful consideration of these thermal resistances (or impedances) allows the user to calculate the maximum power dissipation that will keep the junction temperature below a chosen value.

The formulae and diagrams given in this section can only be considered as a guide for determining the nature of a heatsink. This is because the thermal resistance of a heatsink depends on numerous parameters which cannot be predetermined. They include the position of the transistor on the heatsink, the extent to which air can flow unhindered, the ratio of the lengths of the sides of the heatsink, the screening effect of nearby components, and heating from these components. It is always advisable to check important temperatures in the finished equipment under the worst probable operating conditions. The more complex the heat dissipation conditions, the more important it becomes to carry out such checks.

Heat flow path

The heat generated in a semiconductor chip flows by various paths to the surroundings. Small signal devices do not usually require heatsinking; the heat flows from the junction to the mounting base which is in close contact with the case. Heat is then lost by the case to the surroundings by convection and radiation (Fig. 1a). Power transistors, however, are usually mounted on heatsinks because of the higher power dissipation they experience. Heat flows from the transistor case to the heatsink by way of contact pressure, and the heatsink loses heat to the surroundings by convection and radiation, or by conduction to cooling water (Fig. 1b). Generally air cooling is used so that the ambient referred to in Fig.1 is usually the surrounding air. Note that if this is the air inside an equipment case, the additional thermal resistance between the inside and outsideof the equipment caseshould be taken into account.

Contact thermal resistance R th mb-h

The thermal resistance between the transistor mounting base and the heatsink depends on the quality and size of the contact areas, the type of any intermediate plates used, and the contact pressure. Care should be taken when drilling holes in heatsinks to avoid burring and distorting the

567

metal, and both mating surfaces should be clean. Paint finishes of normal thickness, up to 50 um (as a protection against electrolytic voltage corrosion), barely affect the thermal resistance. Transistor case and heatsink surfaces can never be perfectly flat, and so contact will take place on several points only, with a small air-gap over the rest of the area. The use of a soft substance to fill this gap lowers the contact thermal resistance. Normally, the gap is filled with a heatsinking compound which remains fairly viscous at normal transistor operating temperatures and has a high thermal conductivity. The use of such a compound also prevents moisture from penetrating between the contact surfaces. Proprietary heatsinking compounds are available which consist of a silicone grease loaded with some electrically insulating good thermally conducting powder such as alumina. The contact thermal resistance R th mb-h is usually small with respect to (R th j-mb + R th h-amb ) when cooling is by natural convection. However, the heatsink thermal resistance R th h-amb can be very small when either forced ventilation or water cooling are used, and thus a close thermal contact between the transistor case and heatsink becomes particularly important.

transistor case and heatsink becomes particularly important. Thermal resistance calculations Fig. 1a shows that, when a

Thermal resistance calculations

Fig. 1a shows that, when a heatsink is not used, the total thermal resistance between junction and ambient is given by:

R th j amb

= R th j

mb + R thmb amb

1

However, power transistors are generally mounted on a heatsink since R th j-amb is not usually small enough to maintain temperatures within the chip below desired levels.

Fig. 1b shows that, when a heatsink is used, the total thermal resistance is given by:

R th j amb

= R th j mb + R thmb

h + R thh

amb

2

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Note that the direct heat loss from the transistor case to the surroundings through R th mb-amb is negligibly small.

The first stage in determining the size and nature of the required heatsink is to calculate the maximum heatsink thermal resistance R th h-amb that will maintain the junction temperature below the desired value

Continuous operation

Under dc conditions, the maximum heatsink thermal resistance can be calculated directly from the maximum desired junction temperature.

and

R th j amb

R th j

mb

=

T j

T amb

P tot(av)

= T j

T mb

P tot(av)

3

4

Combining equations 2 and 3 gives:

R thh amb

= T j

T amb

P tot(av)

R th j

mb

R thmb h

5

and substituting Eq 4 into Eq 5 gives:

R thh amb

=

T mb

T amb

P

tot(av)

R thmb h

6

The values of R th j-mb and R th mb-h are given in the published data. Thus, either Eq. 5 or Eq.6 can be used to find the maximum heatsink thermal resistance.

Intermittent operation

The thermal equivalent circuits of Fig. 1 are inappropriate for intermittent operation, and the thermal impedance Z th j-mb should be considered.

thus:

P

totM

= T j

T mb

Z th j mb

T mb = T j

P totM .Z th j mb

7

The mounting-base temperature has always been assumed to remain constant under intermittent operation. This assumption is known to be valid in practice provided that the pulse time is less than about one second. The mounting-base temperature does not change significantly under these conditions as indicated in Fig. 2. This is because heatsinks have a high thermal capacity and thus a high thermal time-constant.

Thus Eq.6 is valid for intermittent operation, provided that the pulse time is less than one second. The value of Tmb can be calculated from Eq. 7, and the heatsink thermal resistance can be obtained from Eq.6.

568

heatsink thermal resistance can be obtained from Eq.6. 568 The thermal time constant of a transistor

The thermal time constant of a transistor is defined as that time at which the junction temperature has reached 70%

of its final value after being subjected to a constant power

dissipation at a constant mounting base temperature.

Now, if the pulse duration tp exceeds one second, the

transistor is temporarily in thermal equilibrium since such

a pulse duration is significantly greater than the thermal

time-constant of most transistors. Consequently, for pulse times of more than one second, the temperature difference

T j - T mb reaches a stationary final value (Fig. 3) and Eq.7 should be replaced by:

T mb = T j

P totM .R th j mb

8

In addition, it is no longer valid to assume that the mounting

base temperature is constant since the pulse time is also

no longer small with respect to the thermal time constant

of the heatsink.

is constant since the pulse time is also no longer small with respect to the thermal

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Smaller heatsinks for intermittent operation

In many instances, the thermal capacity of a heatsink can be utilised to design a smaller heatsink for intermittent operation than would be necessary for the same level of continuous power dissipation. The average power dissipation in Eq. 6 is replaced by the peak power dissipation to obtain the value of the thermal impedance between the heatsink and the surroundings

Z thh amb =

T mb

T amb

P

totM

R thmb h

9

The value of Z th h-amb

thermal resistance and thus a smaller heatsink can be designed than that obtained using the too large value calculated from Eq.6.

will be less than the comparable

Heatsinks

Three varieties of heatsink are in common use: flat plates (including chassis), diecast finned heatsinks, and extruded finned heatsinks. The material normally used for heatsink construction is aluminium although copper may be used with advantage for flat-sheet heatsinks. Small finned clips aresometimes used to improvethe dissipationof low-power transistors.

Heatsink finish

Heatsink thermal resistance is a function of surface finish.

A painted surface will have a greater emissivity than a bright

unpainted one. The effect is most marked with flat plate heatsinks, where about one third of the heat is dissipated by radiation. The colour of the paint used is relatively unimportant, and the thermal resistance of a flat plate heatsink painted gloss white will be only about 3% higher than that of the same heatsink painted matt black. With finned heatsinks, painting is less effective since heat radiated from most fins will fall on adjacent fins but it is still worthwhile. Both anodising and etching will decrease the thermal resistivity. Metallic type paints, such as aluminium paint, have the lowest emissivities, although they are approximately ten times better than a bright aluminium metal finish.

Flat-plate heatsinks

The simplest type of heatsink is a flat metal plate to which the transistor is attached. Such heatsinks are used both in the form of separate plates and as the equipment chassis itself. The thermal resistance obtained depends on the thickness, area and orientation of the plate, as well as on the finish and power dissipated. A plate mounted

horizontally will have about twice the thermal resistance of

a vertically mounted plate. This is particularly important

where the equipment chassis itself is used as the heatsink.

569

In Fig. 4, the thermal resistance of a blackened heatsink is plotted against surface area (one side) with power dissipation as a parameter. The graph is accurate to within 25% for nearly square plates, where the ratio of the lengths of the sides is less than 1.25:1.

Finned heatsinks

Finned heatsinks may be made by stacking flat plates, although it is usually more economical to use ready made diecast or extruded heatsinks. Since most commercially

available finned heatsinks are of reasonably optimum design, it is possible to compare them on the basis of the overallvolume whichthey occupy. Thiscomparison is made in Fig. 5 for heatsinks with their fins mounted vertically; again, the graph is accurate to 25%.

Thiscomparison is made in Fig. 5 for heatsinks with their fins mounted vertically; again, the graph
Thiscomparison is made in Fig. 5 for heatsinks with their fins mounted vertically; again, the graph

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors Heatsink dimensions The maximum thermal resistance through

Heatsink dimensions

The maximum thermal resistance through which sufficient power can be dissipated without damaging the transistor can be calculated as discussed previously. This section explains how to arrive at a type and size of heatsink that gives a sufficiently low thermal resistance.

Natural air cooling

The required size of aluminium heatsinks - whether flat or extruded (finned) can be derived from the nomogram in Fig. 6. Like all heatsink diagrams, the nomogram does not give exact values for R th h-amb as a function of the dimensions sincethe practical conditions always deviate to some extent from those under which the nomogram was drawn up. The actual values for the heatsink thermal resistance may differ by up to 10% from the nomogram values. Consequently, it is advisable to take temperature measurements in the finished equipment, particularly where the thermal conditions are critical.

The conditions to which the nomogram applies are as follows:

570

• natural air cooling (unimpeded natural convection with no build up of heat);

• ambient temperature about 25˚C, measured about 50mm below the lower edge of the heatsink (see Fig. 7);

• atmospheric pressure about 10 N/m 2 ;

• single mounting (that is, not affected by nearby heatsinks);

• distance between the bottom of the heatsink and the base of a draught-free space about 100mm (see Fig. 7);

• transistor mounted roughly in the centre of the heatsink (this is not so important for finned heatsinks because of the good thermal conduction).

The appropriately-sized heatsink is found as follows.

1. Enter the nomogram from the right hand side of section

value (see Fig. 8). Move

horizontally to the left, until the appropriate curve for orientation and surface finish is reached.

2. Move vertically upwards to intersect the appropriate power dissipation curve in section 2.

1 at the appropriate R th h-amb

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

3. Move horizontally to the left into section 3 for the desired thickness of a flat-plate heatsink, or the type of extrusion.

4. If an extruded heatsink is required, move vertically upwards to obtain its length (Figs. 9a and 9b give the outlines of the extrusions).

5. If a flat-plate heatsink is to be used, move vertically downwards to intersect the appropriate curve for envelope type in section 4.

6. Move horizontally to the left to obtain heatsink area.

7. The heatsink dimensions should not exceed the ratio of

1.25:1.

heatsink dimensions should not exceed the ratio of 1.25:1. 571 Thecurves in section 2take account of
heatsink dimensions should not exceed the ratio of 1.25:1. 571 Thecurves in section 2take account of

571

dimensions should not exceed the ratio of 1.25:1. 571 Thecurves in section 2take account of the

Thecurves in section 2take account of the non linear nature of the relationship between the temperature drop across the heatsink and the power dissipation loss. Thus, at a constant value of the heatsink thermal resistance, the greater the power dissipation, the smaller is the required size of heatsink. This is illustrated by the following example.

Example

An extruded heatsink mounted vertically and with a painted surface is required to have a maximum thermal resistance of R th h-amb = 2.6 ˚C/W at the following powers:

(a)P tot(av) = 5W

(b)P tot(av) = 50W

Enter the nomogram at the appropriate value of the thermal resistance in section 1, and via either the 50W or 5W line in section 2, the appropriate lengths of the extruded heatsink 30D are found to be:

(a) length = 110mm and (b) length = 44mm.

Case (b) requires a shorter length since the temperature difference is ten times greater than in case (a).

As the ambient temperature increases beyond 25˚C, so does the temperature of the heatsink and thus the thermal resistance (at constant power) decreases owing to the increasing role of radiation in the heat removal process. Consequently, a heatsink with dimensions derived from Fig. 6 at T amb > 25˚C will be more than adequate. If the maximum ambient temperature is less than 25˚C, then the thermal resistance will increase slightly. However, any

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

increase will lie within the limits of accuracy of the nomogram and within the limits set by other uncertainties associated with heatsink calculations.

For heatsinks with relatively small areas, a considerable part of the heat is dissipated from the transistor case. This is why the curves in section 4 tend to flatten out with decreasing heatsink area. The area of extruded heatsinks is always large with respect to the surface of the transistor case, even when the length is small.

of the transistor case, even when the length is small. If several transistors are mounted on

If several transistors are mounted on a common heatsink, each transistor should be associated with a particular section of the heatsink (either an area or length according to type) whose maximum thermal resistance is calculated from equations 5 or 6; that is, without taking the heat produced by nearby transistors into account. From the sum

of these areas or lengths, the size of the common heatsink can then be obtained. If a flat heatsink is used, the transistors are best arranged as shown in Fig. 10. The maximum mounting base temperatures of transistors in such a grouping should always be checked once the equipment has been constructed.

Forced air cooling

If the thermal resistance needs to be much less than 1˚C/W, or the heatsink not too large, forced air cooling by means of fans can be provided. Apart from the size of the heatsink, the thermal resistance now only depends on the speed of the cooling air. Provided that the cooling air flows parallel to the fins and with sufficient speed (>0.5m/s), the thermal resistance hardly depends on the power dissipation and the orientation of the heatsink. Note that turbulence in the air current can result in practical values deviating from theoretical values.

Fig. 11 shows the form in which the thermal resistances for forced air cooling are given in the case of extruded heatsinks. It also shows the reduction in thermal resistance or length of heatsink which may be obtained with forced air cooling.

The effect of forced air cooling in the case of flat heatsinks is seen from Fig. 12. Here, too, the dissipated power and the orientation of the heatsink have only a slight effect on the thermal resistance, provided that the air flow is sufficiently fast.

of the heatsink have only a slight effect on the thermal resistance, provided that the air

572

Thermal Management

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Thermal Management Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors
Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors Summary The majority of power transistors require

Summary

The majority of power transistors require heatsinking, and once the maximum thermal resistance that will maintain the device’s junction temperature below its rating has been calculated, a heatsink of appropriate type and size can be chosen. The practical conditions under which a transistor will be operated are likely to differ from the theoretical

considerations used to determine the required heatsink, and thus temperatures should always be checked in the finished equipment. Finally, some applications require a small heatsink, or one with a very low thermal resistance, in which case forced air cooling by means of fans should be provided.

573

Preface

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Preface Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for all the contributions from our colleagues within Philips and to the Application Laboratories in Eindhoven and Hamburg.

We would also like to thank Dr.P.H.Mellor of the University of Sheffield for contributing the application note of section 3.1.5.

The authors thank Mrs.R.Hayes for her considerable help in the preparation of this book.

The authors also thank Mr.D.F.Haslam for his assistance in the formatting and printing of the manuscripts.

Contributing Authors

N.Bennett

D.J.Harper

J.Oosterling

M.Bennion

W.Hettersheid

N.Pichowicz

D.Brown

J.v.d.Hooff

W.B.Rosink

C.Buethker

J.Houldsworth

D.C. de Ruiter

L.Burley

M.J.Humphreys

D.Sharples

G.M.Fry

P.H.Mellor

H.Simons

R.P.Gant

R.Miller

T.Stork

J.Gilliam

H.Misdom

D.Tebb

D.Grant

P.Moody

H.Verhees

N.J.Ham

S.A.Mulder

F.A.Woodworth

C.J.Hammerton

E.B.G. Nijhof

T.van de Wouw

This book was originally prepared by the Power Semiconductor Applications Laboratory, of the Philips Semiconductors product division, Hazel Grove:

M.J.Humphreys

D.Brown

L.Burley

C.J.Hammerton

R.Miller

It was revised and updated, in 1994, by:

N.J.Ham

C.J.Hammerton

D.Sharples

Preface

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Preface Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Preface

This book was prepared by the Power Semiconductor Applications Laboratory of the Philips Semiconductors product division, Hazel Grove. The book is intended as a guide to using power semiconductors both efficiently and reliably in power conversion applications. It is made up of eight main chapters each of which contains a number of application notes aimed at making it easier to select and use power semiconductors.

CHAPTER 1 forms an introduction to power semiconductors concentrating particularly on the two major power transistor technologies, Power MOSFETs and High Voltage Bipolar Transistors.

CHAPTER 2 is devoted to Switched Mode Power Supplies. It begins with a basic description of the most commonly used topologies and discusses the major issues surrounding the use of power semiconductors including rectifiers. Specific design examples are given as well as a look at designing the magnetic components. The end of this chapter describes resonant power supply technology.

CHAPTER 3 describes motion control in terms of ac, dc and stepper motor operation and control. This chapter looks only at transistor controls, phase control using thyristors and triacs is discussed separately in chapter 6.

CHAPTER 4 looks at television and monitor applications. A description of the operation of horizontal deflection circuits is given followed by transistor selection guides for both deflection and power supply applications. Deflection and power supply circuitexamples arealso given basedon circuitsdesigned by the Product Concept andApplication Laboratories (Eindhoven).

CHAPTER 5 concentrates on automotive electronics looking in detail at the requirements for the electronic switches taking into consideration the harsh environment in which they must operate.

CHAPTER 6 reviews thyristor and triac applications from the basics of device technology and operation to the simple design rules which should be followed to achieve maximum reliability. Specific examples are given in this chapter for a number of the common applications.

CHAPTER 7 looks at the thermal considerations for power semiconductors in terms of power dissipation and junction temperature limits. Part of this chapter is devoted to worked examples showing how junction temperatures can be calculated to ensure the limits are not exceeded. Heatsink requirements and designs are also discussed in the second half of this chapter.

CHAPTER 8 is an introduction to the use of high voltage bipolar transistors in electronic lighting ballasts. Many of the possible topologies are described.

Contents

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Contents Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Power Semiconductors

1

General

3

1.1.1

An Introduction To Power Devices

5

Power MOSFET

17

1.2.1 PowerMOS Introduction

19

1.2.2 Understanding Power MOSFET Switching Behaviour

29

1.2.3 Power MOSFET Drive Circuits

39

1.2.4 Parallel Operation of Power MOSFETs

49

1.2.5 Series Operation of Power MOSFETs

53

1.2.6 Logic Level FETS

57

1.2.7 Avalanche Ruggedness

61

1.2.8 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Considerations

67

1.2.9 Understanding the Data Sheet: PowerMOS

69

High Voltage Bipolar Transistor

77

1.3.1 Introduction To High Voltage Bipolar Transistors

79

1.3.2 Effects of Base Drive on Switching Times

83

1.3.3 Using High Voltage Bipolar Transistors

91

1.3.4 Understanding The Data Sheet: High Voltage Transistors

97

CHAPTER 2 Switched Mode Power Supplies

103

Using Power Semiconductors in Switched Mode Topologies

105

2.1.1 An Introduction to Switched Mode Power Supply Topologies

107

2.1.2 The Power Supply Designer’s Guide to High Voltage Transistors

129

2.1.3 Base Circuit Design for High Voltage Bipolar Transistors in Power

Converters

141

2.1.4

Isolated Power Semiconductors for High Frequency Power Supply

Applications

153

Output Rectification

159

2.2.1 Fast Recovery Epitaxial Diodes for use in High Frequency Rectification

161

2.2.2 Schottky Diodes from Philips Semiconductors

173

2.2.3 An Introduction to Synchronous Rectifier Circuits using PowerMOS

Transistors

179

i

Contents

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Contents Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Design Examples

185

2.3.1

Mains Input 100 W Forward Converter SMPS: MOSFET and Bipolar

Transistor Solutions featuring ETD Cores

187

2.3.2

Flexible, Low Cost, Self-Oscillating Power Supply using an ETD34

Two-Part Coil Former and 3C85 Ferrite

199

Magnetics Design

205

2.4.1

Improved Ferrite Materials and Core Outlines for High Frequency Power

Supplies

207

Resonant Power Supplies

217

2.5.1. An Introduction To Resonant Power Supplies

219

2.5.2. Resonant Power Supply Converters - The Solution For Mains Pollution

Problems

225

CHAPTER 3 Motor Control

241

AC

Motor Control

243

3.1.1 Noiseless A.C. Motor Control: Introduction to a 20 kHz System

245

3.1.2 The Effect of a MOSFET’s Peak to Average Current Rating on Invertor

Efficiency

251

3.1.3 MOSFETs and FREDFETs for Motor Drive Equipment

253

3.1.4 A Designers Guide to PowerMOS Devices for Motor Control

259

3.1.5 A 300V, 40A High Frequency Inverter Pole Using Paralleled FREDFET

Modules

273

DC

Motor Control

283

3.2.1 Chopper circuits for DC motor control

285

3.2.2 A switched-mode controller for DC motors

293

3.2.3 Brushless DC Motor Systems

301

Stepper Motor Control

307

3.3.1

Stepper Motor Control

309

CHAPTER 4 Televisions and Monitors

317

Power Devices in TV & Monitor Applications (including selection guides)

319

4.1.1 An Introduction to Horizontal Deflection

321

4.1.2 The BU25XXA/D Range of Deflection Transistors

331

ii

Contents

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Contents Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

4.1.3 Philips HVT’s for TV & Monitor Applications

339

4.1.4 TV and Monitor Damper Diodes

345

TV Deflection Circuit Examples

349

4.2.1 Application Information for the 16 kHz Black Line Picture Tubes

351

4.2.2 32 kHz / 100 Hz Deflection Circuits for the 66FS Black Line Picture Tube

361

SMPS Circuit Examples

377

4.3.1 A 70W Full Performance TV SMPS Using The TDA8380

379

4.3.2 A Synchronous 200W SMPS for 16 and 32 kHz TV

389

Monitor Deflection Circuit Example

397

4.4.1

A Versatile 30 - 64 kHz Autosync Monitor

399

CHAPTER 5 Automotive Power Electronics

421

Automotive Motor Control (including selection guides)

423

5.1.1

Automotive Motor Control With Philips MOSFETS

425

Automotive Lamp Control (including selection guides)

433

5.2.1

Automotive Lamp Control With Philips MOSFETS

435

The TOPFET

443

5.3.1 An Introduction to the 3 pin TOPFET

445

5.3.2 An Introduction to the 5 pin TOPFET

447

5.3.3 BUK101-50DL - a Microcontroller compatible TOPFET

449

5.3.4 Protection with 5 pin TOPFETs

451

5.3.5 Driving TOPFETs

453

5.3.6 High Side PWM Lamp Dimmer using TOPFET

455

5.3.7 Linear Control with TOPFET

457

5.3.8 PWM Control with TOPFET

459

5.3.9 Isolated Drive for TOPFET

461

5.3.10 3 pin and 5 pin TOPFET Leadforms

463

5.3.11 TOPFET Input Voltage

465

5.3.12 Negative Input and TOPFET

467

5.3.13 Switching Inductive Loads with TOPFET

469

5.3.14 Driving DC Motors with TOPFET

471

5.3.15 An Introduction to the High Side TOPFET

473

5.3.16 High Side Linear Drive with TOPFET

475

iii

Contents

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Contents Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Automotive Ignition

477

5.4.1 An Introduction to Electronic Automotive Ignition

479

5.4.2 IGBTs for Automotive Ignition

481

5.4.3 Electronic Switches for Automotive Ignition

483

CHAPTER 6 Power Control with Thyristors and Triacs

485

Using Thyristors and Triacs

487

6.1.1 Introduction to Thyristors and Triacs

489

6.1.2 Using Thyristors and Triacs

497

6.1.3 The Peak Current Handling Capability of Thyristors

505

6.1.4 Understanding Thyristor and Triac Data

509

Thyristor and Triac Applications

521

6.2.1 Triac Control of DC Inductive Loads

523

6.2.2 Domestic Power Control with Triacs and Thyristors

527

6.2.3 Design of a Time Proportional Temperature Controller

537

Hi-Com Triacs

547

6.3.1 Understanding Hi-Com Triacs

549

6.3.2 Using Hi-Com Triacs

551

CHAPTER 7 Thermal Management

553

Thermal Considerations

555

7.1.1 Thermal Considerations for Power Semiconductors

557

7.1.2 Heat Dissipation

567

CHAPTER 8 Lighting

575

Fluorescent Lamp Control

577

8.1.1 Efficient Fluorescent Lighting using Electronic Ballasts

579

8.1.2 Electronic Ballasts - Philips Transistor Selection Guide

587

8.1.3 An Electronic Ballast - Base Drive Optimisation

589

iv

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index

Airgap, transformer core, 111, 113 Anti saturation diode, 590 Asynchronous, 497 Automotive fans see motor control IGBT, 481, 483 ignition, 479, 481, 483 lamps, 435, 455 motor control, 425, 457, 459, 471, 475 resistive loads, 442 reverse battery, 452, 473, 479 screen heater, 442 seat heater, 442 solenoids, 469 TOPFET, 473 Avalanche, 61 Avalanche breakdown thyristor, 490 Avalanche multiplication, 134

Baker clamp, 138, 187, 190 Ballast electronic, 580 fluorescent lamp, 579 switchstart, 579 Base drive, 136 base inductor, 147 base inductor, diode assisted, 148 base resistor, 146 drive transformer, 145 drive transformer leakage inductance, 149 electronic ballast, 589 forward converter, 187 power converters, 141 speed-up capacitor, 143 Base inductor, 144, 147 Base inductor, diode assisted, 148 Boost converter, 109 continuous mode, 109 discontinuous mode, 109 output ripple, 109 Bootstrap, 303 Breakback voltage diac, 492 Breakdown voltage, 70 Breakover current diac, 492 Breakover voltage diac, 492, 592 thyristor, 490

Bridge circuits see Motor Control - AC Brushless motor, 301, 303 Buck-boost converter, 110 Buck converter, 108 - 109 Burst firing, 537 Burst pulses, 564

Capacitance junction, 29 Capacitor mains dropper, 544 CENELEC, 537 Charge carriers, 133 triac commutation, 549 Choke fluorescent lamp, 580 Choppers, 285 Clamp diode, 117 Clamp winding, 113 Commutation diode, 164 Hi-Com triac, 551 thyristor, 492 triac, 494, 523, 529 Compact fluorescent lamp, 585 Continuous mode see Switched Mode Power Supplies Continuous operation, 557 Converter (dc-dc) switched mode power supply, 107 Cookers, 537 Cooling forced, 572 natural, 570 Crest factor, 529 Critical electric field, 134 Cross regulation, 114, 117 Current fed resonant inverter, 589 Current Mode Control, 120 Current tail, 138, 143

Damper Diodes, 345, 367 forward recovery, 328, 348 losses, 347 outlines, 345 picture distortion, 328, 348 selection guide, 345 Darlington, 13 Data Sheets High Voltage Bipolar Transistor, 92,97,331 MOSFET, 69

i

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

dc-dc converter, 119 Depletion region, 133 Desaturation networks, 86 Baker clamp, 91, 138 dI/dt triac, 531 Diac, 492, 500, 527, 530, 591 Diode, 6 double diffused, 162 epitaxial, 161 schottky, 173 structure, 161 Diode Modulator, 327, 367 Disc drives, 302 Discontinuous mode see Switched Mode Power Supplies Domestic Appliances, 527 Dropper capacitive, 544 resistive, 544, 545 Duty cycle, 561

EFD core see magnetics Efficiency Diodes see Damper Diodes Electric drill, 531 Electronic ballast, 580 base drive optimisation, 589 current fed half bridge, 584, 587, 589 current fed push pull, 583, 587 flyback, 582 transistor selection guide, 587 voltage fed half bridge, 584, 588 voltage fed push pull, 583, 587 EMC, 260, 455 see RFI, ESD TOPFET, 473 Emitter shorting triac, 549 Epitaxial diode, 161 characteristics, 163 dI/dt, 164 forward recovery, 168 lifetime control, 162 operating frequency, 165 passivation, 162 reverse leakage, 169 reverse recovery, 162, 164 reverse recovery softness, 167 selection guide, 171 snap-off, 167 softness factor, 167 stored charge, 162 technology, 162

ESD, 67 see Protection, ESD precautions, 67 ETD core see magnetics

F-pack see isolated package Fall time, 143, 144 Fast Recovery Epitaxial Diode (FRED) see epitaxial diode FBSOA, 134 Ferrites see magnetics Flicker fluorescent lamp, 580 Fluorescent lamp, 579 colour rendering, 579 colour temperature, 579 efficacy, 579, 580 triphosphor, 579 Flyback converter, 110, 111, 113 advantages, 114 clamp winding, 113 continuous mode, 114 coupled inductor, 113 cross regulation, 114 diodes, 115 disadvantages, 114 discontinuous mode, 114 electronic ballast, 582 leakage inductance, 113 magnetics, 213 operation, 113 rectifier circuit, 180 self oscillating power supply, 199 synchronous rectifier, 156, 181 transformer core airgap, 111, 113 transistors, 115 Flyback converter (two transistor), 111, 114 Food mixer, 531 Forward converter, 111, 116 advantages, 116 clamp diode, 117 conduction loss, 197 continuous mode, 116 core loss, 116 core saturation, 117 cross regulation, 117 diodes, 118 disadvantages, 117 duty ratio, 117 ferrite cores, 116 magnetics, 213 magnetisation energy, 116, 117

ii

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

operation, 116 output diodes, 117 output ripple, 116 rectifier circuit, 180 reset winding, 117 switched mode power supply, 187 switching frequency, 195 switching losses, 196 synchronous rectifier, 157, 181 transistors, 118 Forward converter (two transistor), 111, 117 Forward recovery, 168 FREDFET, 250, 253, 305 bridge circuit, 255 charge, 254 diode, 254 drive, 262 loss, 256 reverse recovery, 254 FREDFETs motor control, 259 Full bridge converter, 111, 125 advantages, 125 diodes, 126 disadvantages, 125 operation, 125 transistors, 126

Gate triac, 538 Gate drive forward converter, 195 Gold doping, 162, 169 GTO, 11 Guard ring schottky diode, 174

Half bridge, 253 Half bridge circuits see also Motor Control - AC Half bridge converter, 111, 122 advantages, 122 clamp diodes, 122 cross conduction, 122 diodes, 124 disadvantages, 122 electronic ballast, 584, 587, 589 flux symmetry, 122 magnetics, 214 operation, 122 synchronous rectifier, 157 transistor voltage, 122 transistors, 124 voltage doubling, 122 Heat dissipation, 567

Heat sink compound, 567 Heater controller, 544 Heaters, 537 Heatsink, 569 Heatsink compound, 514 Hi-Com triac, 519, 549, 551 commutation, 551 dIcom/dt, 552 gate trigger current, 552 inductive load control, 551 High side switch MOSFET, 44, 436 TOPFET, 430, 473 High Voltage Bipolar Transistor, 8, 79, 91, 141, 341 ‘bathtub’ curves, 333 avalanche breakdown, 131 avalanche multiplication, 134 Baker clamp, 91, 138 base-emitter breakdown, 144 base drive, 83, 92, 96, 136, 336, 385 base drive circuit, 145 base inductor, 138, 144, 147 base inductor, diode assisted, 148 base resistor, 146 breakdown voltage, 79, 86, 92 carrier concentration, 151 carrier injection, 150 conductivity modulation, 135, 150 critical electric field, 134 current crowding, 135, 136 current limiting values, 132 current tail, 138, 143 current tails, 86, 91 d-type, 346 data sheet, 92, 97, 331 depletion region, 133 desaturation, 86, 88, 91 device construction, 79 dI/dt, 139 drive transformer, 145 drive transformer leakage inductance, 149 dV/dt, 139 electric field, 133 electronic ballast, 581, 585, 587, 589 Fact Sheets, 334 fall time, 86, 99, 143, 144 FBSOA, 92, 99, 134 hard turn-off, 86 horizontal deflection, 321, 331, 341 leakage current, 98 limiting values, 97 losses, 92, 333, 342 Miller capacitance, 139 operation, 150

iii

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

optimum drive, 88 outlines, 332, 346 over current, 92, 98 over voltage, 92, 97 overdrive, 85, 88, 137, 138 passivation, 131 power limiting value, 132 process technology, 80 ratings, 97 RBSOA, 93, 99, 135, 138, 139 RC network, 148 reverse recovery, 143, 151 safe operating area, 99, 134 saturation, 150 saturation current, 79, 98, 341 secondary breakdown, 92, 133 smooth turn-off, 86 SMPS, 94, 339, 383 snubber, 139 space charge, 133 speed-up capacitor, 143 storage time, 86, 91, 92, 99, 138, 144, 342 sub emitter resistance, 135 switching, 80, 83, 86, 91, 98, 342 technology, 129, 149 thermal breakdown, 134 thermal runaway, 152 turn-off, 91, 92, 138, 142, 146, 151 turn-on, 91, 136, 141, 149, 150 underdrive, 85, 88 voltage limiting values, 130 Horizontal Deflection, 321, 367 base drive, 336 control ic, 401 d-type transistors, 346 damper diodes, 345, 367 diode modulator, 327, 347, 352, 367 drive circuit, 352, 365, 406 east-west correction, 325, 352, 367 line output transformer, 354 linearity correction, 323 operating cycle, 321, 332, 347 s-correction, 323, 352, 404 TDA2595, 364, 368 TDA4851, 400 TDA8433, 363, 369 test circuit, 321 transistors, 331, 341, 408 waveforms, 322

IGBT, 11, 305 automotive, 481, 483 clamped, 482, 484 ignition, 481, 483

Ignition automotive, 479, 481, 483 darlington, 483 Induction heating, 53 Induction motor see Motor Control - AC Inductive load see Solenoid Inrush current, 528, 530 Intrinsic silicon, 133 Inverter, 260, 273 see motor control ac current fed, 52, 53 switched mode power supply, 107 Irons, electric, 537 Isolated package, 154 stray capacitance, 154, 155 thermal resistance, 154 Isolation, 153

J-FET, 9 Junction temperature, 470, 557, 561 burst pulses, 564 non-rectangular pulse, 565 rectangular pulse, composite, 562 rectangular pulse, periodic, 561 rectangular pulse, single shot, 561

Lamp dimmer, 530 Lamps, 435 dI/dt, 438 inrush current, 438 MOSFET, 435 PWM control, 455 switch rate, 438 TOPFET, 455 Latching current thyristor, 490 Leakage inductance, 113, 200, 523 Lifetime control, 162 Lighting fluorescent, 579 phase control, 530 Logic Level FET motor control, 432 Logic level MOSFET, 436

Magnetics, 207 100W 100kHz forward converter, 197 100W 50kHz forward converter, 191 50W flyback converter, 199 core losses, 208 core materials, 207 EFD core, 210 ETD core, 199, 207

iv

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

flyback converter, 213 forward converter, 213 half bridge converter, 214 power density, 211 push-pull converter, 213 switched mode power supply, 187 switching frequency, 215 transformer construction, 215 Mains Flicker, 537 Mains pollution, 225 pre-converter, 225 Mains transient, 544 Mesa glass, 162 Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV), 503 Miller capacitance, 139 Modelling, 236, 265 MOS Controlled Thyristor, 13 MOSFET, 9, 19, 153, 253 bootstrap, 303 breakdown voltage, 22, 70 capacitance, 30, 57, 72, 155, 156 capacitances, 24 characteristics, 23, 70 - 72 charge, 32, 57 data sheet, 69 dI/dt, 36 diode, 253 drive, 262, 264 drive circuit loss, 156 driving, 39, 250 dV/dt, 36, 39, 264 ESD, 67 gate-source protection, 264 gate charge, 195 gate drive, 195 gate resistor, 156 high side, 436 high side drive, 44 inductive load, 62 lamps, 435 leakage current, 71 linear mode, parallelling, 52 logic level, 37, 57, 305 loss, 26, 34 maximum current, 69 motor control, 259, 429 modelling, 265 on-resistance, 21, 71 package inductance, 49, 73 parallel operation, 26, 47, 49, 265 parasitic oscillations, 51 peak current rating, 251 Resonant supply, 53 reverse diode, 73 ruggedness, 61, 73

safe operating area, 25, 74 series operation, 53 SMPS, 339, 384 solenoid, 62 structure, 19 switching, 24, 29, 58, 73, 194, 262 switching loss, 196 synchronous rectifier, 179 thermal impedance, 74 thermal resistance, 70 threshold voltage, 21, 70 transconductance, 57, 72 turn-off, 34, 36 turn-on, 32, 34, 35, 155, 256 Motor, universal back EMF, 531 starting, 528 Motor Control - AC, 245, 273 anti-parallel diode, 253 antiparallel diode, 250 carrier frequency, 245 control, 248 current rating, 262 dc link, 249 diode, 261 diode recovery, 250 duty ratio, 246 efficiency, 262 EMC, 260 filter, 250 FREDFET, 250, 259, 276 gate drives, 249 half bridge, 245 inverter, 250, 260, 273 line voltage, 262 loss, 267 MOSFET, 259 Parallel MOSFETs, 276 peak current, 251 phase voltage, 262 power factor, 262 pulse width modulation, 245, 260 ripple, 246 short circuit, 251 signal isolation, 250 snubber, 276 speed control, 248 switching frequency, 246 three phase bridge, 246 underlap, 248 Motor Control - DC, 285, 293, 425 braking, 285, 299 brushless, 301 control, 290, 295, 303 current rating, 288

v

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

drive, 303 duty cycle, 286 efficiency, 293 FREDFET, 287 freewheel diode, 286 full bridge, 287 half bridge, 287 high side switch, 429 IGBT, 305 inrush, 430 inverter, 302 linear, 457, 475 logic level FET, 432 loss, 288 MOSFET, 287, 429 motor current, 295 overload, 430 permanent magnet, 293, 301 permanent magnet motor, 285 PWM, 286, 293, 459, 471 servo, 298 short circuit, 431 stall, 431 TOPFET, 430, 457, 459, 475 topologies, 286 torque, 285, 294 triac, 525 voltage rating, 288 Motor Control - Stepper, 309 bipolar, 310 chopper, 314 drive, 313 hybrid, 312 permanent magnet, 309 reluctance, 311 step angle, 309 unipolar, 310 Mounting, transistor, 154 Mounting base temperature, 557 Mounting torque, 514

Parasitic oscillation, 149 Passivation, 131, 162 PCB Design, 368, 419 Phase angle, 500 Phase control, 546 thyristors and triacs, 498 triac, 523 Phase voltage see motor control - ac Power dissipation, 557 see High Voltage Bipolar Transistor loss, MOSFET loss Power factor correction, 580 active, boost converted, 581

Power MOSFET see MOSFET Proportional control, 537 Protection ESD, 446, 448, 482 overvoltage, 446, 448, 469 reverse battery, 452, 473, 479 short circuit, 251, 446, 448 temperature, 446, 447, 471 TOPFET, 445, 447, 451 Pulse operation, 558 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), 108 Push-pull converter, 111, 119 advantages, 119 clamp diodes, 119 cross conduction, 119 current mode control, 120 diodes, 121 disadvantages, 119 duty ratio, 119 electronic ballast, 582, 587 flux symmetry, 119, 120 magnetics, 213 multiple outputs, 119 operation, 119 output filter, 119 output ripple, 119 rectifier circuit, 180 switching frequency, 119 transformer, 119 transistor voltage, 119 transistors, 121

Qs (stored charge), 162

RBSOA, 93, 99, 135, 138, 139 Rectification, synchronous, 179 Reset winding, 117 Resistor mains dropper, 544, 545 Resonant power supply, 219, 225 modelling, 236 MOSFET, 52, 53 pre-converter, 225

Reverse leakage, 169 Reverse recovery, 143, 162 RFI, 154, 158, 167, 393, 396, 497, 529, 530,

537

Ruggedness MOSFET, 62, 73 schottky diode, 173

Safe Operating Area (SOA), 25, 74, 134, 557 forward biased, 92, 99, 134 reverse biased, 93, 99, 135, 138, 139

vi

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Saturable choke triac, 523 Schottky diode, 173 bulk leakage, 174 edge leakage, 174 guard ring, 174 reverse leakage, 174 ruggedness, 173 selection guide, 176 technology, 173 SCR see Thyristor Secondary breakdown, 133 Selection Guides BU25XXA, 331 BU25XXD, 331 damper diodes, 345 EPI diodes, 171 horizontal deflection, 343 MOSFETs driving heaters, 442 MOSFETs driving lamps, 441 MOSFETs driving motors, 426 Schottky diodes, 176 SMPS, 339 Self Oscillating Power Supply (SOPS) 50W microcomputer flyback converter, 199 ETD transformer, 199 Servo, 298 Single ended push-pull see half bridge converter Snap-off, 167 Snubber, 93, 139, 495, 502, 523, 529, 549 active, 279 Softness factor, 167 Solenoid TOPFET, 469, 473 turn off, 469, 473 Solid state relay, 501 SOT186, 154 SOT186A, 154 SOT199, 154 Space charge, 133 Speed-up capacitor, 143 Speed control thyristor, 531 triac, 527 Starter fluorescent lamp, 580 Startup circuit electronic ballast, 591 self oscillating power supply, 201 Static Induction Thyristor, 11 Stepdown converter, 109 Stepper motor, 309 Stepup converter, 109

Storage time, 144 Stored charge, 162 Suppression mains transient, 544 Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS)

see also self oscillating power supply 100W 100kHz MOSFET forward converter,

192

100W 500kHz half bridge converter, 153 100W 50kHz bipolar forward converter, 187 16 & 32 kHz TV, 389 asymmetrical, 111, 113 base circuit design, 149 boost converter, 109 buck-boost converter, 110 buck converter, 108 ceramic output filter, 153 continuous mode, 109, 379 control ic, 391 control loop, 108 core excitation, 113 core loss, 167 current mode control, 120 dc-dc converter, 119 diode loss, 166 diode reverse recovery effects, 166 diode reverse recovery softness, 167 diodes, 115, 118, 121, 124, 126 discontinuous mode, 109, 379 epitaxial diodes, 112, 161 flux swing, 111 flyback converter, 92, 111, 113, 123 forward converter, 111, 116, 379 full bridge converter, 111, 125 half bridge converter, 111, 122 high voltage bipolar transistor, 94, 112, 115, 118, 121, 124, 126, 129, 339, 383, 392 isolated, 113 isolated packages, 153 isolation, 108, 111 magnetics design, 191, 197 magnetisation energy, 113 mains filter, 380 mains input, 390 MOSFET, 112, 153, 33, 384 multiple output, 111, 156 non-isolated, 108 opto-coupler, 392 output rectifiers, 163 parasitic oscillation, 149 power-down, 136 power-up, 136, 137, 139 power MOSFET, 153, 339, 384 pulse width modulation, 108 push-pull converter, 111, 119

vii

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

RBSOA failure, 139 rectification, 381, 392 rectification efficiency, 163 rectifier selection, 112 regulation, 108 reliability, 139 resonant see resonant power supply RFI, 154, 158, 167 schottky diode, 112, 154, 173 snubber, 93, 139, 383 soft start, 138 standby, 382 standby supply, 392 start-up, 391 stepdown, 109 stepup, 109 symmetrical, 111, 119, 122 synchronisation, 382 synchronous rectification, 156, 179 TDA8380, 381, 391 topologies, 107 topology output powers, 111 transformer, 111 transformer saturation, 138 transformers, 391 transistor current limiting value, 112 transistor mounting, 154 transistor selection, 112 transistor turn-off, 138 transistor turn-on, 136 transistor voltage limiting value, 112 transistors, 115, 118, 121, 124, 126 turns ratio, 111 TV & Monitors, 339, 379, 399 two transistor flyback, 111, 114 two transistor forward, 111, 117 Switching loss, 230 Synchronous, 497 Synchronous rectification, 156, 179 self driven, 181 transformer driven, 180

Temperature control, 537 Thermal continuous operation, 557, 568 intermittent operation, 568 non-rectangular pulse, 565 pulse operation, 558 rectangular pulse, composite, 562 rectangular pulse, periodic, 561 rectangular pulse, single shot, 561 single shot operation, 561 Thermal capacity, 558, 568

Thermal characteristics power semiconductors, 557 Thermal impedance, 74, 568 Thermal resistance, 70, 154, 557 Thermal time constant, 568 Thyristor, 10, 497, 509 ’two transistor’ model, 490 applications, 527 asynchronous control, 497 avalanche breakdown, 490 breakover voltage, 490, 509 cascading, 501 commutation, 492 control, 497 current rating, 511 dI/dt, 490 dIf/dt, 491 dV/dt, 490 energy handling, 505 external commutation, 493 full wave control, 499 fusing I 2 t, 503, 512 gate cathode resistor, 500 gate circuits, 500 gate current, 490 gate power, 492 gate requirements, 492 gate specifications, 512 gate triggering, 490 half wave control, 499 holding current, 490, 509 inductive loads, 500 inrush current, 503 latching current, 490, 509 leakage current, 490 load line, 492 mounting, 514 operation, 490 overcurrent, 503 peak current, 505 phase angle, 500 phase control, 498, 527 pulsed gate, 500 resistive loads, 498 resonant circuit, 493 reverse characteristic, 489 reverse recovery, 493 RFI, 497 self commutation, 493 series choke, 502 snubber, 502 speed controller, 531 static switching, 497 structure, 489 switching, 489

viii

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

switching characteristics, 517 synchronous control, 497 temperature rating, 512 thermal specifications, 512 time proportional control, 497 transient protection, 502 trigger angle, 500 turn-off time, 494 turn-on, 490, 509 turn-on dI/dt, 502 varistor, 503 voltage rating, 510

gate requirements, 492 gate resistor, 540, 545 gate sensitivity, 491 gate triggering, 538 holding current, 491, 510 Hi-Com, 549, 551 inductive loads, 500 inrush current, 503 isolated trigger, 501 latching current, 491, 510 operation, 491 overcurrent, 503

Thyristor data, 509 Time proportional control, 537 TOPFET

phase angle, 500 phase control, 498, 527, 546 protection, 544

3

pin, 445, 449, 461

pulse triggering, 492

5

pin, 447, 451, 457, 459, 463

driving, 449, 453, 461, 465, 467, 475 high side, 473, 475 lamps, 455 leadforms, 463 linear control, 451, 457 motor control, 430, 457, 459 negative input, 456, 465, 467 protection, 445, 447, 451, 469, 473 PWM control, 451, 455, 459 solenoids, 469 Transformer triac controlled, 523 Transformer core airgap, 111, 113 Transformers see magnetics Transient thermal impedance, 559 Transient thermal response, 154 Triac, 497, 510, 518 400Hz operation, 489, 518 applications, 527, 537

pulsed gate, 500 quadrants, 491, 510 resistive loads, 498 RFI, 497

saturable choke, 523 series choke, 502 snubber, 495, 502, 523, 529, 549 speed controller, 527 static switching, 497 structure, 489 switching, 489 synchronous control, 497 transformer load, 523 transient protection, 502 trigger angle, 492, 500 triggering, 550 turn-on dI/dt, 502 varistor, 503 zero crossing, 537 Trigger angle, 500 TV & Monitors

asynchronous control, 497

16

kHz black line, 351

breakover voltage, 510

30-64 kHz autosync, 399

charge carriers, 549 commutating dI/dt, 494 commutating dV/dt, 494 commutation, 494, 518, 523, 529, 549 control, 497

32

damper diodes, 345, 367 diode modulator, 327, 367 EHT, 352 - 354, 368, 409, 410 high voltage bipolar transistor, 339, 341

kHz black line, 361

 

dc

inductive load, 523

horizontal deflection, 341

dc

motor control, 525

picture distortion, 348

dI/dt, 531, 549

power MOSFET, 339

dIcom/dt, 523

SMPS, 339, 354, 379, 389, 399

dV/dt, 523, 549 emitter shorting, 549

vertical deflection, 358, 364, 402 Two transistor flyback converter, 111, 114

 

full

wave control, 499

Two transistor forward converter, 111, 117

fusing I 2 t, 503, 512 gate cathode resistor, 500 gate circuits, 500 gate current, 491

Universal motor back EMF, 531

ix

Index

Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

Index Power Semiconductor Applications Philips Semiconductors

starting, 528

Vacuum cleaner, 527 Varistor, 503 Vertical Deflection, 358, 364, 402 Voltage doubling, 122

Water heaters, 537

Zero crossing, 537 Zero voltage switching, 537

x