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UVOD U POLINOME, SABIRANJE , ODUZIMANJE I MNOŽENJE POLINOMA

1. Izračunaj:
1 1 5 5 7 3 1 1 2 2
1) 3
−2= 2) − 9 + 6 = 3)12
−8+4= 4) 3
−3= 5) −2 + 5 = 6) −2 − 5 =
5 1 1 2 5 7 1 5 2 1 3 7
7) −4 − ( − − ) = 8) −4 + 3 − (2 − 1 )= 9) −3 − {− − [− + (− + )]} =
8 2 4 5 6 15 2 6 3 2 4 12
2. Saberi:
1 5
1) 3x + 5x = 2) -4x + x = 3) -7x + (-3x) = 4) 4
𝑥 + 6𝑥 = 5) -x + 0,32x =
3 3
6) 𝑥 + (−1,2𝑥) = 7) 0,25x + 5x + 0,3x = 8) − 𝑥 + 1,5𝑥 − 1,75𝑥 =
5 8
3. Oduzmi:
1 2 1
1) 9a – a = 2) -6a – 4a = 3) 𝑥 − 𝑥2 = 4) x3 – 1,997x3 = 5) 0,6x2y – 0,527yx2 =
3 2
2
6) 0,5abc – (-1,5abc) = 7) − 3 𝑎𝑏 – (0,75ab2) =
2
8) 3𝑥√3 − 𝑥√3 =
9) 𝑥√2 − 𝑥√18 = 10) 𝑟 2 √45 − 𝑟 2 √20 =
4. Izračunaj:
1) √2 + 3√50 = 2) 4√12 − √75 = 3) −√128 − 2√72 = 4) −7√108 + 8√147 =
5. Date polinome sredi po rastućim stepenima:
1) 3x – 4 – 5 – 5x = 2) 3 – 2x + x2 – 4x2 + 2x – 4 =
3) 6x – 6 + x2 – 7x – 2x2 – 3x – 2 = 4) -2xy + 3x2y – 6xy – x2y + 2x – 3 – 4x + 1 =
6. Riješi jednačine:
1) 2x + 3x + 4 = 9 ; 2) -3x + 5x – 6 = -2 ; 3) 6x – 2 – 7x = -11 ;
1 1 1 5 1
4) 2x – 3 – 5x + 1 = -6 + 4 ; 5) 2
𝑥 − 3𝑥 −4𝑥 + 6 = −8; 6) 0,2x – x – 1,4 – 4 = 0 .
7. Popuni prazna mjesta u tabeli:
A 2x + 1 -4x + 5 -x 3x + 2 5x - 4 -4x + 6 x2 + 5x - 9
B -4 +6x 2x - 3 7x + 18 -6x + 2 -5x - 11 4x2 – 6x + 10
A+B
1 3 2 3
8. 1) 6x – 9 i 10 – 7x ; 2) 𝑎 − i − 𝑎;
2 4 5 7
3) 0,1a + 0,2b – 0,3c i 0,3c – 0,4b – 0,2a ; 4) -2x2 – 6x + 3 i 4x + x2 – 3 ;
5 5 2
5) x4 – 2x3 + 5x2 – 3x + 1 i -2 + 4x + 5x2 + 3x3 – x4 ; 6) 8
𝑎𝑏 − 6 𝑎2 + 3 𝑏 2 i 0,5a2 – 0,125ab – b2 .
9. Odredi P + Q , ako je:
1) P = x – 6 , Q = 6 – x ; 2) P = x2 + 8x , Q = 2x2 – 9x ;
3) P = x2 + 2x + 2 , Q = 1 – x – x2 ; 4) P = x2 – 9 , Q = x + 9 .
10. Riješi jednačinu:
1 1 1 1
1) (2x + 6) + (5 – 3x) = 10 ; 2) (2 𝑥 − 2) + (3 𝑥 − 3) = 0,5
3 1
3) (-0,4 – 0,2x) + (0,3 – 0,3x) = 0,2 ; 4) (x2 – 0,75x + 0,5) + (4 𝑥 − 0,5𝑥 2 + 2) = 0,5
11. Odredi A + B + C ako je:
1) A = 6x2 – 4 ; B = -3x + 2 i C = -8x2 + 4x ; 2) A = 0,6x2 – 5x + 0,5 ; B = -x2 – 0,5x + 2 i C = 0,4x2 – 4,5x – 3 .
12. Koristeći definiciju oduzimanja odredi A – B, ako je:
1) A = 5x + 9 i B = 3x + 5 ; 2) A = -6x + 7 i B = 5 – 4x ; 3) A = 4x – 3 i B = -x – 3 .
13. Popuni prazna mjesta u tabeli:
A -3x + 9 x2 – 6x - 7 3a – 4b + 3c -x + y – z + 4
B -4x - 1 x2 + 5x - 9 5a – 3b + 4c 2x + 3y – 3z - 2
-B
A-B
14. Odredi A – B i B –A, ako je: 1) A = 2x2 – 6 i B = -x2 + 5 ; 2) A = 3x2 – 5x – 6 i B = 9 – x2 – 5x .
15. Uprosti:
7 4
1) 6x – (7x – 4) = 2) − (−𝑥 − ) = 3) 0,6ab – (0,7ab + 0,9) =
11 11
4) 2a – 3b – (+4a – b) = 5) 4a2 – 3 – (2x2 – 5x) – (x + 2) = 6) 2m – (m – 0,6n) + (2n – 3m) – 3n =
16. Izračunaj:
2 1
1) (4x2 – 5x + 1) – (5x + 4x2 – 1) = 2) (5 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 − 3) − (0,4𝑥 2 + 0,6𝑥 − 0,5) =
3) (0,8a + 0,2b + 10) – (-0,2a – 0,8b + 9) = 4) 3x – (1 – (-2x + 5)) =
5) x2 – (2 – (2x2 – x) – x2) = 6) 3a2 – 2a – (a – (a2 – (2a2 + 5a – 6) – 4) – 1) =
17. Riješi jednačine:
2
1) (3x – 2) – (0,3x – 2) = 5,4 ; 2) x – (2 – (3x – 1)) = −1 3) x + (-2x + 3) – (-3x – 4) + 1 = -7
3
4) 2x2 – 5x + 6 – (2 – 5x + x2) = 8 .
18. Odredi x ako je A – B + C = 0 , pri čemu je A = 3x2 + 5x – 2 , B = 5x2 – x – 1 i C = 3 – 2x + 2x2 .
19. Iz A + (2x + 3) = x2 + 2x – 3 i (3 + 4x) – B = 4x – x2 , odredi A – B ?
20. Zbir 4 uzastopna cijela broja je -82. Koji su to brojevi?
21. Odredi tri uzastopna neparna broja ako je njihov zbir 213.
22. Pomnoži:
1) 6x i 4x ; 2) 3a i 2a2 ; 3) -4y2 i 5y ; 4) -7x2 i -2x2 ; 5) 9m3 i -4m2 ; 6) -9z4 i –z4 .
23. Izračunaj:
1) -7x ⋅ (-2x2) = 2) -5x ⋅ 0,6x3 = 3) 0,8a2 ⋅ (-0,5a4) = 4) -12,5c3 ⋅ (-0,8c2) =
2 4 3 1 8 1 7 5
5) 3
𝑑 ∙ 4 𝑑3 = 6) 1 2 𝑥 3 ∙ (− 9 𝑥 3 ) = 7) -12y6 ⋅ (−1 6 𝑦) = 8) − 8 𝑥 4 ∙ (−5 7 𝑥) =
2
9) -0,75x4 ⋅ 3 𝑥 4 = 10) 𝑎√2 ∙ 𝑎√2 = 11) 𝑛√3 ∙ 2𝑛√3 = 12) −3𝑥√2 ∙ 2√8 ∙ 𝑥 =
24. Odredi proiozvod sljedećih monoma:
1) 2xy i 6xy ; 2) 3a2b i 2ab2 ; 3) -3abc i 7a2bc3 ; 4) -xyz i -9x2y3z4 ; 5) 8x2y i -9xyz ;
5 7 1
6) − 6 𝑥𝑦 𝑖 − 0,6 x2y2 ; 7) -0,4mn2 i 20m3n ; 8) − 8 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 𝑧 i −1 3 xy2z3 ;
2 3 1
9) − 𝑥𝑧 , − 𝑥𝑦 𝑖 1 𝑦𝑧 ; 10) 𝑎√24 , 𝑎𝑏√2 𝑖 − 𝑏√3 .
5 4 3
25. Pomnoži:
1
1) 3 ⋅ (4 + x) = 2) -2 ⋅ (3x – 4) = 3) x ⋅ (-4x – 3) = 4) -3x ⋅ (2𝑥 + 3) =
2
5) 4x ⋅ (x2 – 5x – 6) = 6) -2xy ⋅ (x + y – 3) = 7) − 5 𝑥 ⋅ (-10x2 – 5x + 15) =
1
8) 0,8x2 ⋅ (-1,2x2 + 5x – 2,5) = 9) − 2 x2y ⋅ (x + x2 + y + y2) =

26. Uprosti polinome:


1) 2 + 8 ⋅ (x + 1) = 2) x2 + x ⋅ (x + 2) = 3) -3 ⋅ (x + 2) + 2 ⋅ (x + 4) =
4) 2x ⋅ (x + 6) + 7 + 4x – 4x2 = 5) -3x ⋅ (x – 3) – (6 – 5x2) = 6) x2 – x ⋅ (x – 1) =
7) x(x – 3) – 2(2x + 3) = 8) 4x(x2 – 3x – 2) – 3x2(x – 5) =
27. Riješi jednačine:
1) 2⋅(x – 2) + 3⋅(x + 2) = 5 ; 2) (x + 5)⋅4 - 3⋅(x – 1) = -7 ;
3) 3⋅(4x2 + 3x – 2) - 4⋅(3x2 – x – 2) = 15 ; 4) (x – 2)⋅x - 3⋅(x2 – x + 1) – (x – 1) = 0 .
28. Odredi polinom A ako važi:
1) A + 3x⋅(2x – 1) = 2x⋅(3x + 2) ; 2) A – (4x + 1)⋅x = (x – 1)⋅(-4x) ; 3) 3x⋅(5x – 2) – A = (2x – 5)⋅(-3x) .
29. Dati su polinomi A = 2 - 2⋅(x + 1) , B = 3⋅(x – 3) - 4⋅(x – 2) i C = x⋅(x – 1) – (x2 – 5x + 1)⋅2 .
Odredi x tako da važi A ⋅ B + 2 ⋅ C = 0 .
30. Data su tri uzastopna broja iz skupa No. Razlika proizvoda prvog i posljednjeg i proizvoda prvog i srednjeg je
2000. Odredi ta tri broja.