CHAPTER 3:
BENDING MEMBERS
General
 The usual requirement for a beam design is to provide sufficient resistance to bending moment
 However in some cases it is also necessary to consider
other criteria such as shear or lateraltorsional buckling
 In general, to design such members, the structure should
be checked for the following at critical sections;
1. Combination of bending and shear force
2. Deflection
3. Lateral restraint
4. Local buckling
5. Web bearing and buckling
Types of restraining
condition of beam
1. Restrained beam
A beam where the compression flange is restrained against lateral deflection and rotation.
Only vertical deflection exists.
2. Unrestrained beam The compression flange is not restrained from deflect laterally and rotate about the plan of the section which is called lateral torsional buckling. Three component of
displacement i.e. vertical,
horizontal and torsional displacement
Laterally restrained beam
Cases where beams can be designed as fully restrained along the spans:
1. Beams carrying insitu reinforced concrete slabs.
The friction of concrete floor to the compression flange of the beam can be assumed to provide full lateral restraint (Figure 3.1).
2. Beams with steel decking flooring system, with or without shear studs or by sufficient bracing member added. The shear studs function as a simple concrete anchor and
can be employed to provide a permanent bond between
steel and concrete; enabling the two materials to act compositely (i.e steel beam and concrete slab can act as one component) Figure 3.2.
As a result of full lateral restraint along the
compression flange of the beam, bending will only take place about yx plane.
In other words, the beam is prevented from moving sideways. Hence, the beam deforms in
the vertical plane only.
Beam
Restrained beam
Unrestrained beam
Load Distribution
Oneway Spanning Slab
Baem
Beam
Ly/Lx 2.0
L y
Beam
Beam
L x
Oneway Spanning Slab
Twoway Spanning Slab
^{L} x
Ly/Lx 2.0
Twoway Spanning Slab
Precast Concrete Slab
Precast concrete hollowcore SLAB
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab
Lx
Ly
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab
Ly
Lx
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab
Precast Concrete Slab
Oneway spanning slab
Cast Insitu Slab
Ly



Lx 
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab
Ly
Ly/Lx 2.0, twoway slab
Ly/Lx 2.0, oneway slab Ly/Lx 2.0, twoway slab
Lx
FLOOR PLAN









Main 

beam 
Column
Main beam
beam
Example 3.1: Load distribution
Figure below shows a portion of plan view of a building. The slab system is precast slab with loading as below:
Permanent action, Gk
 self weight of precast slab, brick wall and furnishing = 5.0kN/m ^{2}
= 4.0kN/m ^{2}
Variable action, Qk
Determine the shear force and moment maximum for beam 1/AB.
Design checks for laterally restrained beam
• Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6
• Bending moment resistance, Clause 6.2.5
• Deflection
Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6
The design shear resistance of a crosssection, (Clause 6.2.6 EC3) , is denoted by Vc,Rd,
Shear check
V Ed
V c,Rd
1.0
In the absence of torsion, the shear resistance may be taken as
the design plastic shear resistance,
V
pl , Rd
The plastic shear resistance is basically defined as the yield strength in shear multiplied by a shear area A _{v} (Clause 6.2.6(3).
V
pl Rd
,
≈ 0.6 f _{y}

A 
Main beam 









A 


Column 
The yield strength in shear is taken as f _{y} /√3 and this is used in a plastic shear resistance formulation.
Shear buckling
The resistance of the web to shear buckling should also be checked, though this is unlikely to affect cross sections of standard hotrolled proportions.
Shear buckling need not be considered provided:
h
w
t
w
72
where
for unstiffene d webs
1.0 (
from U K N A
)
Example 3.2: Shear resistance
Assignment 2
Bending moment resistance,
Clause 6.2.5
Bending and shear
(Clause 6.2.8)
• Bending moment and shear force acting in combination on structural members is commonplace.
• However, in the majority of cases (particularly when standard rolled section are adopted), the effect of shear force on moment resistance is
negligible and may be ignored.
• Clause 6.2.8(2) states that if the applied shear force is less than half the plastic shear resistance,
its effect on the moment resistance may be
neglected
For cases where the applied shear force is greater than half the plastic shear resistance of the cross section, the
moment resistance should be calculated using a reduced
design strength for the shear area, given by the equation;
f _{y}_{r} = (1ρ)f _{y} where ρ = [(2V _{E}_{d} /V _{p}_{l}_{,}_{R}_{d} )1) ^{2}
for V _{E}_{d} > 0.5V _{p}_{l}_{,}_{R}_{d}
V _{p}_{l}_{,}_{R}_{d} may be obtained from Clause 6.2.6 and when torsion is present, it should be replaced by V _{p}_{l}_{,}_{T}_{,}_{R}_{d} obtained from Clause 6.2.7.
For Icross section with equal flanges and bending
about major axis, the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear force
may be alternatively be obtained from;
where, A _{w} = h _{w} t _{w}
Example 3.3: Crosssection resistance
under combined bending and shear
A shortspan (1.4m), simply supported, laterally
restrained beam is to be designed to carry a central
point load of 1050kN as shown in Fig.1. The arrangement resulted in a maximum design shear force V _{E}_{d} of 525kN and a maximum design bending moment M _{E}_{d} of 367.5kNm. In this example a
406x178x74 UB in grade S275 steel is assessed for
its suitability for this application.
Deflection
Excessive deflections may impair the function of a
structure, for example, leading to cracking of
plaster, misalignments of crane rails, causing difficulty in opening doors, etc.
From the UK National Annex, NA 2.23 & 2.24, deflection checks should be made under unfactored variable actions Q _{k} .
Table A1.4 (EN 1990): Design value of actions for use in the combination of actions
Vertical deflection limits, NA.2.23
NA to BS EN 199311:2005
Design situation
Deflection limit
Cantilevers 
Length/180 
Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish 
Span/360 
Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) 
Span/200 
Purlins and sheeting rails 
To suit cladding 
Horizontal deflection limits NA.2.24
NA to BS EN 199311:2005
Design situation
Deflection limit
Tops of columns in single storey buildings, except portal frames
Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane
runways
In each storey of a building with more than one storey
Height/300
To suit cladding
Height of storey/300
u is overall horizontal displacement over the building height H u _{i} is horizontal displacement over a storey height H _{i}
Example 3.4 Deflection
A simply supported roof beam of span 5.6m is
subjected to the following (unfactored) loading:
 Dead load: 8.6kN/m
 Imposed roof load: 20.5kN/m
 Snow load: 1.8kN/m
Choose a suitable UB such that the vertical deflection limits are not exceeded.
Example 3.5: Restrained Beam Design
The simply supported 610 x 229 x 125 UB of S275 steel shown below has a span of 6m. Check moment
resistance, shear and deflection of the beam.
Resistance of the web to
transverse force
Refer to BS EN 199315 Clause 6
• Design calculations are required for concentrated transverse forces applied to girders from supports,
cross beams, columns, etc.
• The concentrated loads are dispersed through plates, angles and flanges to the web of the
supporting girder.
The deformation that occur to the supporting beam due to transverse concentrated load: yielding of flange and local buckling of the web
The design resistance is expressed as:
Example 3.6
The beam shown below is fully laterally restrained along its length and has bearing length of 50mm at the unstiffened supports and 75mm under the point load. Design the beam in S275 steel for the loading shown below.
Given:
Actions (loadings), Permanent actions:
Uniformly distributed load (including self weight) g _{1} = 15kN/m Concentrate load G _{1} = 40kN
Variable actions:
Uniformly distributed load q _{1} = 30kN/m Concentrate load Q _{1} = 50kN
The variable actions are not due to storage and are not independent of each other
STEP:
1)Load, M _{E}_{d} , V _{E}_{d}
2)Crosssection classification
3)Shear resistance (also shear buckling)
(6.2.6)
4)Bending moment resistance (6.2.5) and also
check bending & shear (6.2.8)
5)Resistance of the web to transverse forces
 only required when there is bearing on the
beam (refer to BS EN 199315 Clause 6 –
Resistance to transverse force)
6)Deflection
Laterally unrestrained beam
• Lateral torsional buckling is the member buckling mode associated with slender beams loaded about
their major axis, without continuous lateral
restraint.
• The prime factors that influence the buckling strength of beams are unbraced span, cross sectional shape, type of end restraint and distribution of moment.
Crosssectional and member bending resistance must be verified
Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB)
It exhibits vertical movement
(bending about yy axis),
lateral displacement (bending about zz axis) and
rotation (about xx axis).
It occurs when the buckling resistance about zz axis and torsional resistance about the xx axis are low.
LTB is considered to be prevented if the compression flange is prevented from moving laterally.
Thus, intersection member or frictional restrained from floor units can prevent lateral movement of the
compression flange.
For this beam failure will occur in another mode,
generally inplane bending (and/or shear).
Characteristics of LTB
– Initially the beam bends about the major axis.
– As the load increases the sideway displacement occurs.
– Twisting of cross section
– The sideway displacement bends about the minor axis.
– The way to prevent LTB is to have adequate lateral bracing at the compression flange at adequate intervals along the beam.
Check should be carried out on all unrestrained segments of beams (between the points where lateral restraint exists).
Design Buckling Resistance, M _{b}_{,}_{R}_{d} (Clause 6.3.2.1)
• The design buckling resistance of an
unrestrained beam (or unrestrained segment of beam) should be taken as
3 Methods to Check LTB
1. 
The primary method adopts the lateral torsional buckling curves given by equations 6.56 and 6.57 
from Clause 6.3.2.2 (general case) and Clause 

6.3.2.3 (for rolled sections and equivalent welded sections). 

2. 
A simplified assessment method for beams with 
restraints in buildings, Clause 6.3.2.4 

3. 
The third is a general method for lateral and lateral 
torsional buckling of structural components, given
in Clause 6.3.4.
Method 1: Lateral torsional buckling
curves (6.3.2.2 &6.3.2.3)
For the general case (6.3.2.2)
For rolled or equivalent welded sections case
(6.3.2.3)
(6.3.2.2)
(6.3.2.3)
α _{L}_{T} – refer Table 6.3 and 6.4
Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling, M _{c}_{r}
• EC3 offers no formulations and gives no guidance on how M _{c}_{r} should be calculated
• It only mentioned in Clause 6.3.2.2(2) that M _{c}_{r} should be based on gross cross sectional properties and should take into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints
The M _{c}_{r} of a beam of uniform symmetrical crosssection with equal flanges, under standard conditions of restraint at each end loaded through the shear centre and subject to uniform moment is given by equation:
For uniform doublysymmetric crosssections, loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis and with the standard conditions of restraint, M _{c}_{r} may be calculated by:
Standard condition of restraint at each end of the beam: restrained against lateral movement, restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis and free to rotate on plan.
C _{1} factor: used to modify M _{c}_{r}_{,}_{0} (M _{c}_{r} = M _{c}_{r}_{.}_{,}_{0} ) to take account of the shape of bending moment diagram.
C _{1} factor for end moment may be approximated by equation:
where Ψ is the ratio of end moment from
Table 6.11 and 6.12
Table 6.11: C _{1} values for end moment loading
Table 6.12: C _{1} values for transverse loading
Condition of restraints and
Effective length
Design procedure for LTB
check
1. Determine effective(buckling) length L _{c}_{r} – depends on boundary conditions and load level
2. Calculate M _{c}_{r}
3. Nondimensional slenderness, λ _{L}_{T}
4. Determine imperfection factor, α _{L}_{T}
5. Calculate buckling reduction factor, χ _{L}_{T}
6. Design buckling resistance, M _{b}_{,}_{R}_{d}
7. Check for each unrestrained portion
Example 3.7: Lateral torsional
buckling resistance
A simply supported beam is required to span 10.8m and to
support two secondary beams as shown in Figure 1. The secondary beams are connected through fin plates to the web
of the primary beam and full lateral restraint may be assumed
at these points. Select a suitable member for the primary
beam assuming grade S275 steel.
Section properties for a 762 x 267 x 173 UB
CONCLUSION
Restrained beam
1. Design load, Design shear force, V _{E}_{d} , Design bending moment, M _{E}_{d}
2. Crosssection classification
3. Bending moment resistance – Cl. 6.2.5
4. Shear resistance – Cl. 6.2.6
 check also shear buckling
5. Combined bending and shear – Cl. 6.2.8
6. Deflection – Actual deflection < Deflection limit
7. Resistance to transverse force – EC315 Cl. 6.  only applied for beam with bearing
Unrestrained beam
1. Same as restrained beam
2. Same as restrained beam
3. Same as restrained beam
4. Same as restrained beam
5. Same as restrained beam
6. Same as restrained beam
7. Buckling resistance in bending – Cl. 6.3.2
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