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CHAPTER 3:

BENDING MEMBERS

General

- The usual requirement for a beam design is to provide sufficient resistance to bending moment

- However in some cases it is also necessary to consider

other criteria such as shear or lateral-torsional buckling

- In general, to design such members, the structure should

be checked for the following at critical sections;

1. Combination of bending and shear force

2. Deflection

3. Lateral restraint

4. Local buckling

5. Web bearing and buckling

Types of restraining

condition of beam

1. Restrained beam

A beam where the compression flange is restrained against lateral deflection and rotation.

Only vertical deflection exists.

beam where the compression flange is restrained against lateral deflection and rotation. Only vertical deflection exists.

2. Unrestrained beam The compression flange is not restrained from deflect laterally and rotate about the plan of the section which is called lateral torsional buckling. Three component of

displacement i.e. vertical,

horizontal and torsional displacement

is called lateral torsional buckling. Three component of displacement i.e. vertical, horizontal and torsional displacement

Laterally restrained beam

Cases where beams can be designed as fully restrained along the spans:

1. Beams carrying in-situ reinforced concrete slabs.

The friction of concrete floor to the compression flange of the beam can be assumed to provide full lateral restraint (Figure 3.1).

2. Beams with steel decking flooring system, with or without shear studs or by sufficient bracing member added. The shear studs function as a simple concrete anchor and

can be employed to provide a permanent bond between

steel and concrete; enabling the two materials to act compositely (i.e steel beam and concrete slab can act as one component) Figure 3.2.

As a result of full lateral restraint along the

compression flange of the beam, bending will only take place about y-x plane.

In other words, the beam is prevented from moving sideways. Hence, the beam deforms in

the vertical plane only.

Beam

Restrained beam

Unrestrained beam

Beam Restrained beam Unrestrained beam
Beam Restrained beam Unrestrained beam
Beam Restrained beam Unrestrained beam
Beam Restrained beam Unrestrained beam
Beam Restrained beam Unrestrained beam

Load Distribution

One-way Spanning Slab

Baem

Beam

Ly/Lx 2.0

L y

Beam

One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x
One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x
One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x
Slab
Slab
Slab
Slab
Slab
Slab
One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x

Beam

One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x

L x

One-way Spanning Slab Baem Beam Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam L x

One-way Spanning Slab

One-way Spanning Slab

Two-way Spanning Slab

Two-way Spanning Slab L x Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam Beam Baem

L x

Two-way Spanning Slab L x Ly/Lx  2.0 L y Beam Slab Beam Beam Baem

Ly/Lx 2.0

L y Beam Slab Beam Beam Baem
L
y
Beam
Slab
Beam
Beam
Baem

Two-way Spanning Slab

Two-way Spanning Slab

Precast Concrete Slab

Precast Concrete Slab Precast concrete hollow-core SLAB Ly/Lx  2.0 , one-way slab Ly/Lx  2.0,

Precast concrete hollow-core SLAB

Precast Concrete Slab Precast concrete hollow-core SLAB Ly/Lx  2.0 , one-way slab Ly/Lx  2.0,

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Lx

Ly

 2.0 , one-way slab Ly/Lx  2.0, one-way slab Lx Ly Ly/Lx  2.0 ,

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Ly

, one-way slab Ly/Lx  2.0, one-way slab Lx Ly Ly/Lx  2.0 , one-way slab

Lx

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

, one-way slab Ly/Lx  2.0, one-way slab Lx Ly Ly/Lx  2.0 , one-way slab

Precast Concrete Slab

One way direction
One way
direction
One way direction
One way
direction

One-way spanning slab

Cast In-situ Slab

Cast-insitu slab
Cast-insitu slab

Ly

 
 
 
 

Lx

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Ly

slab Ly   Lx Ly/Lx  2.0 , one-way slab Ly Ly/Lx  2.0 , two-way

Ly/Lx 2.0, two-way slab

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab Ly/Lx 2.0, two-way slab

Lx

FLOOR PLAN

Beam-to-column connection SECONDARY BEAM MAIN BEAM
Beam-to-column
connection
SECONDARY
BEAM
MAIN BEAM
 
 
 
   
   
   
   
 
 
  Main
 

Main

beam

Column

Main beam

Secondary beam Main Secondary beam
Secondary
beam
Main
Secondary
beam

beam

Example 3.1: Load distribution

Figure below shows a portion of plan view of a building. The slab system is precast slab with loading as below:

Permanent action, Gk

- self weight of precast slab, brick wall and furnishing = 5.0kN/m 2

= 4.0kN/m 2

Variable action, Qk

Determine the shear force and moment maximum for beam 1/A-B.

I I 1 Pre-cast 4.0m panel I I 2 5.0m A B
I
I
1
Pre-cast
4.0m
panel
I
I
2
5.0m
A
B

Design checks for laterally restrained beam

Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6

Bending moment resistance, Clause 6.2.5

Deflection

Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6

Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6

The design shear resistance of a cross-section, (Clause 6.2.6 EC3) , is denoted by Vc,Rd,

Shear check

V Ed

V c,Rd

1.0

In the absence of torsion, the shear resistance may be taken as

the design plastic shear resistance,

V

pl , Rd

The plastic shear resistance is basically defined as the yield strength in shear multiplied by a shear area A v (Clause 6.2.6(3).

V

pl Rd

,

A f ( / 3) v y  M 0
A f
(
/
3)
v
y
M 0

≈ 0.6 f y

 
  A Main beam  

A

Main beam

 
  A Main beam   A   Column  
  A Main beam   A   Column  
  A Main beam   A   Column  
  A Main beam   A   Column  
  A Main beam   A   Column  
A  

A

 
Column  

Column

 

The yield strength in shear is taken as f y /√3 and this is used in a plastic shear resistance formulation.

Shear buckling

The resistance of the web to shear buckling should also be checked, though this is unlikely to affect cross- sections of standard hot-rolled proportions.

Shear buckling need not be considered provided:

h

w

t

w

72

where

for unstiffene d webs

235 ; f y
235
;
f
y

1.0 (

from U K N A

)

Example 3.2: Shear resistance

Example 3.2: Shear resistance
Example 3.2: Shear resistance

Assignment 2

Assignment 2
Assignment 2

Bending moment resistance,

Bending moment resistance,

Clause 6.2.5

Bending moment resistance, Clause 6.2.5
Bending moment resistance, Clause 6.2.5

Bending and shear

(Clause 6.2.8)

Bending moment and shear force acting in combination on structural members is commonplace.

However, in the majority of cases (particularly when standard rolled section are adopted), the effect of shear force on moment resistance is

negligible and may be ignored.

Clause 6.2.8(2) states that if the applied shear force is less than half the plastic shear resistance,

its effect on the moment resistance may be

neglected

For cases where the applied shear force is greater than half the plastic shear resistance of the cross section, the

moment resistance should be calculated using a reduced

design strength for the shear area, given by the equation;

f yr = (1-ρ)f y where ρ = [(2V Ed /V pl,Rd )-1) 2

for V Ed > 0.5V pl,Rd

V pl,Rd may be obtained from Clause 6.2.6 and when torsion is present, it should be replaced by V pl,T,Rd obtained from Clause 6.2.7.

For I-cross section with equal flanges and bending

about major axis, the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear force

may be alternatively be obtained from;

resistance moment allowing for the shear force may be alternatively be obtained from; where, A w

where, A w = h w t w

Example 3.3: Cross-section resistance

under combined bending and shear

A short-span (1.4m), simply supported, laterally

restrained beam is to be designed to carry a central

point load of 1050kN as shown in Fig.1. The arrangement resulted in a maximum design shear force V Ed of 525kN and a maximum design bending moment M Ed of 367.5kNm. In this example a

406x178x74 UB in grade S275 steel is assessed for

its suitability for this application.

Deflection

Deflection Excessive deflections may impair the function of a structure, for example, leading to cracking of

Excessive deflections may impair the function of a

structure, for example, leading to cracking of

plaster, misalignments of crane rails, causing difficulty in opening doors, etc.

From the UK National Annex, NA 2.23 & 2.24, deflection checks should be made under unfactored variable actions Q k .

Table A1.4 (EN 1990): Design value of actions for use in the combination of actions

Table A1.4 (EN 1990): Design value of actions for use in the combination of actions

Vertical deflection limits, NA.2.23

NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Design situation

Deflection limit

Cantilevers

Length/180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish

Span/360

Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails)

Span/200

Purlins and sheeting rails

To suit cladding

Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200 Purlins and sheeting rails To suit cladding
Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200 Purlins and sheeting rails To suit cladding

Horizontal deflection limits NA.2.24

NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Design situation

Deflection limit

Tops of columns in single storey buildings, except portal frames

Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane

runways

In each storey of a building with more than one storey

Height/300

To suit cladding

Height of storey/300

one storey Height/300 To suit cladding Height of storey/300 u is overall horizontal displacement over the

u is overall horizontal displacement over the building height H u i is horizontal displacement over a storey height H i

Example 3.4 Deflection

A simply supported roof beam of span 5.6m is

subjected to the following (unfactored) loading:

- Dead load: 8.6kN/m

- Imposed roof load: 20.5kN/m

- Snow load: 1.8kN/m

Choose a suitable UB such that the vertical deflection limits are not exceeded.

Example 3.5: Restrained Beam Design

The simply supported 610 x 229 x 125 UB of S275 steel shown below has a span of 6m. Check moment

resistance, shear and deflection of the beam.

610 x 229 x 125 UB of S275 steel shown below has a span of 6m.
610 x 229 x 125 UB of S275 steel shown below has a span of 6m.

Resistance of the web to

transverse force

-Refer to BS EN 1993-1-5 Clause 6

Design calculations are required for concentrated transverse forces applied to girders from supports,

cross beams, columns, etc.

The concentrated loads are dispersed through plates, angles and flanges to the web of the

supporting girder.

The deformation that occur to the supporting beam due to transverse concentrated load: yielding of

The deformation that occur to the supporting beam due to transverse concentrated load: yielding of flange and local buckling of the web

The design resistance is expressed as:

The design resistance is expressed as:

Example 3.6

The beam shown below is fully laterally restrained along its length and has bearing length of 50mm at the unstiffened supports and 75mm under the point load. Design the beam in S275 steel for the loading shown below.

50mm at the unstiffened supports and 75mm under the point load. Design the beam in S275

Given:

Actions (loadings), Permanent actions:

Uniformly distributed load (including self weight) g 1 = 15kN/m Concentrate load G 1 = 40kN

Variable actions:

Uniformly distributed load q 1 = 30kN/m Concentrate load Q 1 = 50kN

The variable actions are not due to storage and are not independent of each other

STEP:

1)Load, M Ed , V Ed

STEP: 1)Load, M E d , V E d

2)Cross-section classification

3)Shear resistance (also shear buckling)

(6.2.6)

4)Bending moment resistance (6.2.5) and also

check bending & shear (6.2.8)

5)Resistance of the web to transverse forces

- only required when there is bearing on the

beam (refer to BS EN 1993-1-5 Clause 6

Resistance to transverse force)

6)Deflection

6)Deflection

Laterally unrestrained beam

Lateral torsional buckling is the member buckling mode associated with slender beams loaded about

their major axis, without continuous lateral

restraint.

The prime factors that influence the buckling strength of beams are un-braced span, cross sectional shape, type of end restraint and distribution of moment.

Cross-sectional and member bending resistance must be verified

Cross-sectional and member bending resistance must be verified
Cross-sectional and member bending resistance must be verified

Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB)

It exhibits vertical movement

(bending about y-y axis),

lateral displacement (bending about z-z axis) and

rotation (about x-x axis).

It occurs when the buckling resistance about z-z axis and torsional resistance about the x-x axis are low.

x-x axis). It occurs when the buckling resistance about z-z axis and torsional resistance about the

LTB is considered to be prevented if the compression flange is prevented from moving laterally.

Thus, intersection member or frictional restrained from floor units can prevent lateral movement of the

compression flange.

For this beam failure will occur in another mode,

generally in-plane bending (and/or shear).

Characteristics of LTB

Initially the beam bends about the major axis.

As the load increases the sideway displacement occurs.

Twisting of cross section

The sideway displacement bends about the minor axis.

The way to prevent LTB is to have adequate lateral bracing at the compression flange at adequate intervals along the beam.

Check should be carried out on all unrestrained segments of beams (between the points where lateral restraint exists).

Design Buckling Resistance, M b , R d (Clause 6.3.2.1) • The design buckling resistance
Design Buckling Resistance, M b , R d (Clause 6.3.2.1) • The design buckling resistance
Design Buckling Resistance, M b , R d (Clause 6.3.2.1) • The design buckling resistance
Design Buckling Resistance, M b , R d (Clause 6.3.2.1) • The design buckling resistance

Design Buckling Resistance, M b,Rd (Clause 6.3.2.1)

The design buckling resistance of an

unrestrained beam (or unrestrained segment of beam) should be taken as

6.3.2.1) • The design buckling resistance of an unrestrained beam (or unrestrained segment of beam) should

3 Methods to Check LTB

1.

The primary method adopts the lateral torsional buckling curves given by equations 6.56 and 6.57

from Clause 6.3.2.2 (general case) and Clause

6.3.2.3 (for rolled sections and equivalent welded sections).

2.

A simplified assessment method for beams with

restraints in buildings, Clause 6.3.2.4

3.

The third is a general method for lateral and lateral

torsional buckling of structural components, given

in Clause 6.3.4.

Method 1: Lateral torsional buckling

curves (6.3.2.2 &6.3.2.3)

For the general case (6.3.2.2)

curves (6.3.2.2 &6.3.2.3) For the general case (6.3.2.2) For rolled or equivalent welded sections case (6.3.2.3)

For rolled or equivalent welded sections case

(6.3.2.3)

curves (6.3.2.2 &6.3.2.3) For the general case (6.3.2.2) For rolled or equivalent welded sections case (6.3.2.3)
(6.3.2.2) (6.3.2.3) α L T – refer Table 6.3 and 6.4
(6.3.2.2) (6.3.2.3) α L T – refer Table 6.3 and 6.4

(6.3.2.2)

(6.3.2.3)

α LT refer Table 6.3 and 6.4

(6.3.2.2) (6.3.2.3) α L T – refer Table 6.3 and 6.4
(6.3.2.2) (6.3.2.3) α L T – refer Table 6.3 and 6.4

Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling, M cr

EC3 offers no formulations and gives no guidance on how M cr should be calculated

It only mentioned in Clause 6.3.2.2(2) that M cr should be based on gross cross sectional properties and should take into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints

The M cr of a beam of uniform symmetrical cross-section with equal flanges, under standard conditions of restraint at each end loaded through the shear centre and subject to uniform moment is given by equation:

centre and subject to uniform moment is given by equation: For uniform doubly-symmetric cross-sections, loaded through

For uniform doubly-symmetric cross-sections, loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis and with the standard conditions of restraint, M cr may be calculated by:

at the level of the centroidal axis and with the standard conditions of restraint, M c

Standard condition of restraint at each end of the beam: restrained against lateral movement, restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis and free to rotate on plan.

C 1 factor: used to modify M cr,0 (M cr = M cr.,0 ) to take account of the shape of bending moment diagram.

C 1 factor for end moment may be approximated by equation:

1 factor for end moment may be approximated by equation: where Ψ is the ratio of

where Ψ is the ratio of end moment from

Table 6.11 and 6.12

Table 6.11: C 1 values for end moment loading

Table 6.11: C 1 values for end moment loading

Table 6.12: C 1 values for transverse loading

Table 6.12: C 1 values for transverse loading

Condition of restraints and

Effective length

Condition of restraints and Effective length

Design procedure for LTB

check

1. Determine effective(buckling) length L cr depends on boundary conditions and load level

2. Calculate M cr

3. Non-dimensional slenderness, λ LT

4. Determine imperfection factor, α LT

5. Calculate buckling reduction factor, χ LT

6. Design buckling resistance, M b,Rd

7. Check for each unrestrained portion

Example 3.7: Lateral torsional

buckling resistance

A simply supported beam is required to span 10.8m and to

support two secondary beams as shown in Figure 1. The secondary beams are connected through fin plates to the web

of the primary beam and full lateral restraint may be assumed

at these points. Select a suitable member for the primary

beam assuming grade S275 steel.

lateral restraint may be assumed at these points. Select a suitable member for the primary beam

Section properties for a 762 x 267 x 173 UB

Section properties for a 762 x 267 x 173 UB

CONCLUSION

Restrained beam

1. Design load, Design shear force, V Ed , Design bending moment, M Ed

2. Cross-section classification

3. Bending moment resistance Cl. 6.2.5

4. Shear resistance Cl. 6.2.6

- check also shear buckling

5. Combined bending and shear Cl. 6.2.8

6. Deflection Actual deflection < Deflection limit

7. Resistance to transverse force EC3-1-5 Cl. 6. - only applied for beam with bearing

Unrestrained beam

1. Same as restrained beam

2. Same as restrained beam

3. Same as restrained beam

4. Same as restrained beam

5. Same as restrained beam

6. Same as restrained beam

7. Buckling resistance in bending Cl. 6.3.2