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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070

MODULE 2 : LASER

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Laser is one of the outstanding inventions of the second half of the last century. First LASER was
invented in the year 1960 & it was RUBY LASER. The idea of LASER was first put forward by Albert
Einstein in the year 1916, so the credit for the discovery of LASER goes to him. Laser produces a highly
directional and high intensity beam with a narrow frequency range than that available from common types of
light sources. They are more widely used as a high power electromagnetic beam rather a light beam.

Q. What does LASER stands for? In what respects it differ from an ordinary source of light? (3M)

Ans.- The word LASER is acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

• A conventional light source such as an incandescent lamp or natural sources like sun produces
incoherent light since they emit random wavelength light waves with no common phase
relationships. On the other hand, light waves emitted by a laser source will be in phase and are of
same frequency. Hence laser beam is highly coherent and monochromatic.
• The conventional light sources emit in all directions; but lasers emit light only in one direction.
• Light coming out from conventional sources spreads out in the form of spherical wave fronts and
hence it is highly divergent whereas the divergence or spread of laser beam is extremely small.

Q. How lasers are different compare to X-rays?


Ans.-
• The wavelength of X-rays is in the range of 10A to 100A, whereas wavelength of laser varies from
X-rays to microwave region of electromagnetic spectrum.
• laser has high degree of directionality than X-rays,Laser beams travels very large distances without
deviation.
• X-rays are invisible to natural human eye. Because of shorter wavelength,whereas Lasers are may or
may not be visible.
• X-rays are more dangerous. They affect living being in much more hazardous way than LASER.

2.2 BASIC DEFINITIONS

Q. Explain the following terms:

• EXCITATION: The process of transfer of particles transfer from lower energy state to higher energy
state is called as excitation and particle is said to be excited

• LIFE TIME: Life time of a particular energy level is defined as the maximum time spent by an
electron in that energy level.

• EQUILIBRIUM STATE: This is the most relax state where an electron can stay for an infinite
amount of time.

• NON-EQUILIBRIUM STATE or EXCITED STATE: This is highly unstable state where an


electron can stay for just 10-8 sec.

• METASTABLE STATE: Life of the excited H-atom is of the order of 10-8 second. However some
of the excited state have life time greater than this (i.e. in order of 10-3s) such states are known as
Metastable State.

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COSTOMISED BY- JYOTI NIMBHORKAR
DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

2.3 TRANSITION PROCESSES

Que. With the help of neat sketches explain the three quantum processes that may occur when light
radiation interacts with matter.
Following three types of processes are possible for a two level atomic system.

• Consider the atom is initially in the lower energy level E 1. If a photon of energy hν = E 2 - E1 is
incident on an atom; it gets stimulated to the higher level E2. This process is known as Absorption or
Stimulated absorption.
• It is called stimulated absorption because of the fact that the atoms absorb the incident energy at
certain frequencies only. Stimulated absorption occurs when a photon strikes an atom with just
exactly the proper energy to induce an electronic transition between two energy states.
• Rate of stimulated absorption Rab from level 1 to 2 is given as;
R ab = N1. ρ(ν). B12
Where,

N1 = Number of atoms present the lower energy state E1


E
ρ(ν) = Energy density per unit frequency of the incoming photons =
ν
E hν h
= Energy of photons per unit volume per unit frequency = = =
V ν Vv V
Js
∴ Unit of ρ(ν) :
m3

B12 = Einstein’s coefficient for stimulated absorption


m3
Unit of B12 :
J s2

[2] SPONTANEOUS EMISSION

• After the life time of the state is over, the atom in excited state gets de-excited to lower energy level
on its own. This is called Spontaneous Emission.
• This lower energy state may be either ground state or still one of the excited states but having lower
energy level. In the process, a photon is emitted.

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

• In this emission process, where the atoms spontaneously goes to a lower energy state through the
emission of a photon is called Spontaneous Emission or fluorescence.
• This emission process is random one and the emitted light goes off in all directions and the wave
properties of the light are randomly out of step with each other and thus are incoherent.
• Rate of spontaneous emission Rsp from level 2 to 1 is given as;
R sp = N2. A21
Where,
N2 = Number of atoms present the higher energy state E2
A21 = Einstein’s coefficient for spontaneous emission
1
Unit of A21:
s

[3] STIMULATED EMISSION

Q. What is stimulated emission? What role does it play in the operation of a laser? (3M)

• When the atom is in excited level E2, then the photon with the same energy [E2-E1] stimulates /
trigger this atom to undergo transition to the lower energy level E 1. During this transition atom emits
two photons with the same energy as the energy of incident photon, these two photons are in phase
and travel along the same direction. This type of emission is called as Stimulated Emission.
• Stimulated emission is coherent with the stimulating incident radiation. It has same direction, same
phase and same frequency as the incident radiation.
• Rate of stimulated emission Rst from level 2 to 1 is given as;
R st = N2. ρ(ν). B21

Where,
N2 = Number of atoms present the higher energy state E2
B21 = Einstein’s coefficient for stimulated emission
m3
Unit of B21 :
J s2

Features of stimulated emission:


• Process can be controlled from outside.
• Number of photons goes on multiplying rapidly. Under the influence of one incident photon, a
second photon is emitted. These two identical photons induce two more stimulated emission thus
giving four photons in all.

Q. Differentiate between stimulated and spontaneous emission.

Spontaneous Emission Stimulated Emission


1 Random & probabilistic process Not a random process

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

2 Cannot be control from outside. Can be control from outside.


3 It gives broad spectrum It gives sharp spectrum
4 Photons of slightly different frequencies The spread of photon frequencies is
are generated. As a result, the light is not relatively very narrow. As such light is
monochromatic. monochromatic.
5 light is not coherent light is coherent
6 lack of directinality Highly directional
7 The planes of polarization of the The planes of polarization are identical for
photons are oriented randomly. Hence. all
Light from the source is unpolarized. photons. Consequently light is polarized.

2.4 EINSTEIN CO-EFFICIENTS


Einstein was the first to calculate the probability of absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated
emission.

R ab = N1. ρ(ν). B12


R sp = N2. A21
R st = N2. ρ(ν). B21

Where, R ab = Rate of absorption


R sp = Rate of spontaneous emission
R st = rate of stimulated emission
E
ρ(ν) = Energy density per unit frequency of the incoming photons =
ν
E hν h
= Energy of photons per unit volume per unit frequency = = =
V ν Vv V
Js
∴ Unit of ρ(ν) :
m3
B12 = Einstein’s coefficient for absorption
A21 = Einstein’s coefficient for spontaneous absorption
B21 = Einstein’s coefficient for stimulated emission

Under thermal equilibrium,


Number of upward transitions= Number of downward transitions
R ab = R sp + R st

N1. ρ(ν). B12= R sp = N2. A21 + N2. ρ(ν). B21


ρ(ν) [B12.N1 - B21 .N2] = A21.N2.

A 21 N 2
ρ ( ν )= … .. ( 1 )
B12 N 1 − B21 N 2

Divide both numerator and denominator by B21 .N2;

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

A21

ρ ( ν )=
( ) B 21
… .. (2 )
B12 N 1
( ) B21 N 2
−1

From Boltzmann’s relation;


E2 − E1
N 1 ( kT )
=e ….. ( 3 )
N2
Substitute (3) in (2),
A 21

ρ ( ν )=
B21 ( )
… .. ( 4 )

( )
E −E
B12 ( kT ) 2 1

e −1
B21

From Planck’s energy distribution formula,


ρ(ν) = (8πh / λ3)
…. (5)
[e(E2-E1) / kT – 1]

In order to comparing eq” (4) and (5), let us set following identities

(A21 / B21) = (8πh / λ3)

λ3
B 21= A … … (6)
8 πh 21

B12
=1
B21

Also,
B12 = B21 …. (7)

From (6) and (7);


3
λ
B12 = B21 = A ..... (8)
8 πh 21

2.5 POPULATION INVERSION


Q. What is population inversion state?Explain its significance in the operation of LASER (3M)

In thermal-equilibrium the population N 1 of lower energy level is very large as compared to population N 2
of upper energy level. i.e. N1 >> N2

The non-equilibrium state in which the population N2 of the upper energy level exceeds to a large extent the
population N1 of the lower energy level is known as the state of population inversion. i.e. N1 << N2

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

E2 E2

E1 E1

N2 N1 N1 N2
(1) Thermal Equilibrium (2) Non-Equilibrium

2.5.1 What is the importance of population inversion in LASER? (3M)

Whenever light is incident on the material, there is competition between absorption and stimulated emission
processes.
Let us discuss the following three cases:

Case 1: if N1 = N2; then Prob (abs) = Prob (Stim)


Case 2: if N1 > N2; then Prob (abs) > Prob (Stim)
Case 3: if N1 < N2; then Prob (abs) < Prob (Stim)

If the system is to act as a laser, an incident photon must have a higher probability of causing stimulated
emission than of being absorbed i.e. the rate of stimulated emission must exceed that of absorption. This is
possible only when N2 > N1. This non-equilibrium condition is known as population inversion. Hence
population inversion is essential for laser action.

2.6 PUMPING

The process of obtaining population inversion is known as Pumping or Excitation. The aim of
pumping is to see that upper energy level is more intensely populated than the lower energy level.

Following are the methods of excitation:

a) Optical pumping: If the atoms are irradiated with light or photons of energy hν= E 2-E1, where E1 and
E2 are respectively the energies of the atom in the lower and upper level, then atoms in the lower level will
be raised into the upper energy level by selective absorption of radiation. Population of atoms in the upper
energy level thus increases and population inversion can be obtained. This supply of energy to the medium is
called Optical pumping

b)excitation by electrons: electrons are accelerated to high velocities in electric field and made to collide
with neutral gas atoms. Some of the atoms pick up energies from the electrons and get excited into upper
energy level. This brings about the required population inversion. This method is used in He-Ne laser for
excitation of He atoms.
c)Excitation by inelastic atomic collisions: atoms (x) excited in an electric discharge can transfer their

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

energy to active centers or atoms (y) in their lower energy level by colliding with them. (X*+Y→X+Y*).
Such collisions called collision of the second kind increase the population of Y atoms in the excited state and
population inversion is achieved. This method is used in He-Ne laser foe excitation of Ne atoms.

2.6.1 PUMPING SCHEMES

Q. Explain three level pumping scheme (3M)


Q. Explain Population inversion in three level systems

E3
Spontaneous Transition

E2 (Metastable State)

Pumping (E3-E1) Stimulated Emission

(E2-E1)

E1 N

Fig: population inversion in three level systems

• Consider the case of three energy levels taking part E1, E2 (Metastable state) and E3.
• For pumping we select a radiation with frequency satisfying hν = E3 – E1. As E3 is not a metastable
state, spontaneous emission will take place between E3 to E2.
• Laser materials are selected such that energy levels will have very small probability for transition E3
to E1.
• E2 is a meta-stable state. As pumping continues E2 gets filled up & population inversion takes place
between E2 & E1.
• As E1 is ground state, a large number of atoms must be pumped to E2 to have population inversion;
hence a very high pumping power is needed for this case.
• A photon with energy hν = E2 – E1 may trigger the stimulated emission process.
• The level E3 should preferably consist of a large number of closely spaced levels so that pumping
uses as wide a part of the spectral range of the pumping radiation as possible, thereby increasing the
pumping efficiency.

Q. Explain four level pumping scheme (3M)


Q. Explain Population inversion in four level systems

• Consider a case where four energy levels are taking part into laser emission process.
• Pumping is created between E1 and E4 and as E4 is not a metastable state, spontaneous emission will
transfer atoms to level E3 which is a metastable state.
• As the pumping continues E3 also gets atoms from E4 .
• Population inversion between E3 and E2 is achieved.

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

• As there is no pumping from E1 to E2 , we have E2 virtually empty and hence population inversion
between E3 and E2 is somewhat easier than that of 3 level scheme.
• A photon with energy (E3-E2) triggers stimulated emission.
• After reaching to E2 through stimulated emission, atoms will generate spontaneous emission to go to
E1 i.e. the ground state.

E4

Spontaneous
E3 (Metastable State)

(E3 –E2) Stimulated Emission


Pumping (E4 – E1)

E2

Rapid decay

E1 N
Fig.: Population inversion in four level systems

2.6.2 Why 4 level systems are more economical than 3 level systems? (3M)

• In 3 levels the lower level is the ground level, which is the most stable state and all the atoms prefer
to stay there.
• Here we create a population inversion between E 1 and E2 and for this we have to send more than half
of the atoms from ground level to highest level so as to achieve a population inversion between E 1
and E2. This requires a higher pumping power.
• In 4 level systems, we create a population inversion E3 and E2 .The level E2 is well above ground
level. Initially this level is totally empty; therefore it is easy to achieve population inversion between
E3 and E2 even by using low pumping powers.
• Therefore 4 level systems are more economical than 3 level systems.

2.6.3 Why two level systems cannot be used for population inversion? (3M)

• According to Heisenberg uncertainty principle the line width ∆E 2 of level E2 and the lifetime ∆t are
related by; ∆E2. ∆t ≥ ħ
• For population inversion lifetime ∆t of atoms at upper level E 2 must be longer , but according to
H.U.P if ∆t of atoms at upper level is larger, then ∆E is smaller .However if E 2 is narrow , we have
to use only a specific frequency photon (=E2-E1) to pump atoms .
• It means that the pump source should be highly monochromatic. In practice monochromatic source of

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

required frequency may not exist. Even if it exists, the pumping efficiency would be very low. The
result is that enough population cannot be excited to level E2.

2.7 ACTIVE MEDIUM


• The medium in which laser action takes place called an Active medium. It can be solid, liquid or
gases medium
• In case of He -Ne laser active medium is Ne atoms & in Nd-YAG laser active medium is Nd ions.

2.8 RESONANT CAVITY (Feedback Mechanism)


Q. What are the functions of the optical resonator in a LASER? (3M)

• The mechanism by which a condition is created such that spontaneous emission only in certain
selected direction can develop stimulated emission, is known as “Feedback Mechanism”

Fig.: Resonant cavity

• The schematic arrangement of a simple resonator is shown above.


• It consists of a pair of plane mirrors set on an optic axis which defines the direction of laser beam.
The active material (laser medium) is placed in between these mirrors. Photons, with a very specific
wavelength and phase, reflect off the mirrors to travel back and forth through the lasing medium. As
they do so, they stimulate other electrons to make the downward energy jump, and so cause the
emission of even more photons of the same wavelength and phase.
• A cascade effect occurs, and soon there are many, many photons of the same wavelength and phase.
This is the "Light Amplification" part of the laser's name.

• As the photons increase in number, the light increases in power. Although some light escapes in
different directions, it collides with wall of cavity and energy dissipated as a heat.
• The end surfaces are accurately cut and polished to create reflecting mirrors. The distance between
these reflecting surfaces is an exact multiple of one complete wave, so that as the light waves (the
photons) reflect from each end of the cavity, they stay "in phase", and the amplitude of the reflected

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

wave adds to the amplitude of other waves within the cavity, so the waves keep adding as they
bounce back and forth between the mirrors.
• The material forms in effect a "Resonant Cavity" that aids the amplification of the light.

2.9 HELIUM-NEON LASER

Q. Explain the role of Helium in He-Ne laser. (3M)


Q. With neat energy level diagram describe the construction and working of He-Ne laser. What are its
merits and demerits? (7M)
Q. Explain metastable state, pumping, population inversion and laser action. Describe how those are
takes place in He-Ne LASER. (9 M)

Construction
• It consists of a glass discharge tube of about typically 30 cm long and 1.5 cm diameter.
• The tube is filled with a mixture of helium and neon gases in the ratio 10:1.
• Electrodes are provided in the tube to produce a discharge in the gas. They are connected to a high
voltage power supply.
• Two optocally plane mirrors are fixed on either side of the tube normal to it's axis and are stricly
parallel to each other
• one mirror is fully silvered to achieve 100% of reflection whereas other partially silvered to achieve
10% of transmission.

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MODULE 2 : LASER

• When the power is switched on, a high voltage of about 10kV is applied across the gas. It is sufficient
to ionize the gas. The electrons and ions produced in the process of discharge are accelerated towards
the anode and cathode respectively.
• Since the electrons have a smaller mass, they acquire a higher velocity. They transfer their kinetic
energy to helium atoms through inelastic collisions.
• Helium atoms are much more readily excited by electron impact because they are fairly light. Thus,
the initial excitation affects only the helium atoms, with the result that these atoms are excited to the
levels F2 and F3. These two levels are metastable levels and the excited helium atoms cannot return to
the ground state through spontaneous emission.
• The excited helium atoms can return to the normal state by transferring their energy to neon atoms
through collision.
• Such energy transfers take place when two colliding atoms have identical energy states. It is called
Resonant Transfer of energy.
• The neon energy levels, namely E6 and E4 levels nearly coincide with F3 and F2 levels respectively of
neon atom. Therefore, the resonant transfer of energy can occur readily.
• When a helium atom in the metastable state collides with a neon atom in the ground state, the neon
atom is excited to the E4 and E6 level and the helium atom drops back to the ground state. This is the
pumping mechanism in the He-Ne laser.
• The E4 and E6 levels of neon atoms also are metastable states. Therefore, as the collisions go on, neon
atoms accumulate in the E4 and E6 states.
• population inversion takes place between E6 & E5, E6 &E3 levels and between E4 & E3 levels.

• Lasing takes place and light is produced corresponding to following transitions:


E6 -> E3: This transition generates a laser beam of red color at 6328 A.U.
E4 -> E3 : This produce IR beam at wavelength of 11500 A.U.(1:15 µm)
E6 -> E5: It generates light in far IR region at 33900 A.U. (3.39 µm).

 The neon atoms in the terminal laser level E3, decay rapidly to E2 level which is however, not the
ground level. The E2 level is again a metastable state.
 The neon atoms tend to accumulate at this level if they are not somehow removed from the level.
 The E2 -> E1 transition can induce by collisions with the walls, of the discharge tube. To enhance the
probability of atomic collisions with the walls, the discharge tube is made as narrow as possible.
Once the atoms reach the ground state, they will again available for pumping.

Merits
1. He-Ne laser is operated continuously.
2. Highly monochromatic.
3. Highly stable.
4. No separate cooling arrangement is necessary.

Demerits
1. Output power is very low in milliwatts.

Applications
1. In holograms
2. Industries
3. Communication

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DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

2.10 Nd-YAG LASER


Q. With neat diagrams explain the construction and working of a Nd: YAG laser. Discuss the pumping
schemes.
• The neodymium (Nd) ion is a rare earth metallic ion. It produces emission, when doped into a solid
state.When doped in YAG, Nd3+ ions take the place of yttrium ions.( 1% of Y3+ ions are replaced by
Nd3+ ions)
• The Nd: YAG lasers are 4 level systems and therefore require lower pump energy.
• The active medium is Nd3+ ions
• optical pumping is used for laser action

• The laser rods are typically of 10 cm in length and 12 mm in diameter.


• A linear flashtube and the lasing medium in the form of rod are placed inside a highly reflecting
elliptical cavity.
• If the flashtube is along one focal axis and the laser rod along the other, then the properties of ellipse
ensure that most of radiations from flashtube pass through laser.
• The flashtube is fired by power supply.
• The optical cavity may be formed by grinding the ends of Nd: YAG laid flat and parallel and then
silvering them. Two external mirrors are used. One mirror is maid totally reflecting while the other is
about 90% transmitting to give an output.
• A large amount of heat is dissipated by flashtube and consequently the laser rod quickly become very
hot. To avoid the damage, system is cooled by circulating air.

WORKING

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MODULE 2 : LASER

• Pumping is achieved by using intense flash of light from xenon flash lamp.
• It excites the Nd3+ ions from the ground state to the multiple energy states of E4.
• The excited Nd3+ ions quickly decay to the metastable upper laser level E3, releasing their excess
energy to the crystal lattice.
• This creates a population inversion between E3 and E2 levels.
• The laser emission occurs in infrared region of wavelength 1.06µm.
Merits
• Output power of Nd-YAG laser is 250megawatt

Demerits
• Does not work well on organic materail
• Expensive to purches and costly to maintain.

Applications
• Useful for laser welding,cutting and drilling.

2.11 SEMI CONDUCTOR LASER

Q. Explain with diagram, the construction and working of semiconductor diode laser. What serves the
resonance cavity in semiconductor lasers? (5M/ 7M)

• The amount of this energy, called the activation energy or energy gap, depends on the particular type
of semiconductor.
• In case of some semiconductor like Ge and Si, most of the energy is released in the form of heat
because the recombination of carriers of opposite sign takes place through interaction with the atoms
of the crystals.
• But in case of some other semiconductors such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and others the energy is
released as light because the atoms of the crystals are not involved in the release of energy. The
wavelengths of emitted light depend on the activation energy of the crystal.

Construction

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MODULE 2 : LASER

• A semiconductor diode laser is heavily doped specially fabricated P-N junction which limits coherent
light when it is forward biased.
• A semiconductor diode is made up of an active layer of GaAs of thickness 0.2 microns.
• The resonant cavity is provided by polishing opposite faces of GaAs crystal.
• The pumping occurs by passing electric current through the diode by an ordinary power supply.
• A laser beam of wavelength ranging from 7000 A.U. to 30000 A.U. can be produced by this system.

Working
• When a forward bias is applied to the junction, the bias current performs the role of pumping agent.
• As a result of forward bias electrons and holes are injected into the depletion region.
• At low forward current level, only a small part of carriers undergo recombination and causes
spontaneous emission of photons. The emitted photons are random and incoherent and the junction
acts as a LED.

• When the current reaches a THRESHOLD VALUE the carrier concentration reach to very high
values within the depletion layer of the state of population inversion is established.
• There is a large concentration of electrons within a conduction band and a large concentration of
holes within a valence band of the depletion region. This is the state of POPULATION
INVERSION. The narrow region where the population inversion is achieved is called INVERSION
REGION or ACTIVE REGION.
• The photons that propagate in the junction plane induce the conduction electrons to jump into the
vacant states of valence band. The stimulated electron-hole recombination’s causes emission of
coherent radiation of very narrow bandwidth.
• The stimulated emission is confined to a particular direction by the reflective surfaces formed
perpendicular to the junction.

Merits
• Simple and Compact.
• Highly efficient and Requires very little power.
• Requires very little auxiliary equipment.
• Output can be controlled by controlling the junction current.

Demerits
• Compared to He-Ne laser, diode laser gives more divergent beam having an angular spread of the
order 5 to 15 degree.
• Less monochromatic.
• Highly temperature sensitive.

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MODULE 2 : LASER

Applications
• Used in satellites.
• Optical communication (as light sources).
• Lasers printers, copiers.
• CD player, optical floppy disc.
• Measuring instruments like strain gauge, velocity meters etc.

2.12 APPLICATIONS OF LASER


2.12.1 HOLOGRAPHY ( In 1947 by the English physicist Dennis Gabor )

Q. What is holography? Give its advantages over photographic technique

• Holography is a photographic technique that records the light scattered from an object, and then
presents it in a way that appears three-dimensional.
• In conventional photography negative is made first and using it a positive print is produced later.
The positive print is only a 2-D record of light intensity received from a 3-D object.According this
technique both the phase and intensity attributes of the wave are recorded and viewed the photograph
shows a 3-D image of the object.
• If conventional photo film shattered into pieces,the image can not be constructed from each piece
whereas it is possible to construct the whole image from a each piece.

Q. What is holography? Explain the process of recording and reconstruction of hologram.


Q. Write short note on holography.

Part 1: construction
• A weak but broad beam of laser light is split into two beams namely a reference beam and object
beam.
• The reference beam is allowed to reach the photographic plate directly, while the object beam
illuminates the object.
• Part of the light scattered by the object travels towards the photographic plate and interferes with the
reference beam and produces an interference pattern on the photographic plate.

DBIT/TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS/APPLIED PHYSICS II NOTES/ DOC 1/REV -0/AY 2016-17


COSTOMISED BY- JYOTI NIMBHORKAR
DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

• The photographic plate carrying the interference pattern is called a HOLOGRAM. ‘Holos’ means
complete in Greek and ‘gramma’ means writing. Thus a hologram means complete recording.

Part 2: reconstruction

• A laser beam identical to the reference beam is used for the reconstruction of the object. The
reconstruction beam (laser beam) illuminates the hologram at the same angle as that of the reference
beam.
• The hologram acts as a diffraction grating and secondary waves from the hologram interfere
constructively in certain directions and destructively in other directions.
• They form a real image in front of the hologram and a virtual image behind the hologram at the
original site of the object.
• An observer sees light waves diverging from the virtual image. An image of the object appears where
the object once stood and that image is identical to what our eyes would have perceived in all its
details.
• If the observer tilts his head other objects behind the first one or new details of the object which were
not noticed earlier would be observed.

Applications of holography

• Biomedical applications of holography - Holograms are made inside live organs through optical
fibers, providing more details than any previous alternate techniques.

• Compact discs players use holograms to handle light.


• Grocery store scanners use spinning holograms.

• High resolution spectrometers use holographic gratings.

• Holographic interferometry is used in numerous laboratories for non-destructive testing. It visually


reveals structural faults without damaging the specimen.

DBIT/TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS/APPLIED PHYSICS II NOTES/ DOC 1/REV -0/AY 2016-17


COSTOMISED BY- JYOTI NIMBHORKAR
DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

2.12.2 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS


1] Many surgical procedures are now completely painless or comparatively less painful with the help of
‘laser scalpel’ which is absolutely sterile and does not introduce any secondary infection.
2] Because of its high intensity laser light can be used to incise tissues or burn tumors etc.
3] Power pulses of neodymium laser energy transmitted through optical fibres are useful in treatment of liver
cancers.
4] Laser beam transmitted through the fibre was successfully used to disintegrate urinary stones.

2.12.3 DEFENCE APPLICATION

LASER RANGE FINDING (LRF) SYSTEMS


Distance measurement by laser radiation is one of the earliest uses of lasers. The shorter wavelength of the
laser radiations makes it possible to range different specific target, a few meters in size, at distances up to 20
km. The laser range finder used in defence is called pulse optical radar. Multiple echo discrimination is one
essential feature of LRF which can detect and discriminate individual structure

2.12.4 INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS

A] LASER CUTTING
Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high power laser, by computer, at the material to be cut. The
material then melts, burns, vaporizes away or is blown away by a jet gas, leaving an edge with a high quality
surface finish.

B] LASER WELDING
This type of welding competes well with familiar welding techniques as arc welding, resistance welding and
electron beam welding. Moreover, it offers a number of advantages which make it preferable in many
circumstances. This welding is contact less, therefore there is no possibility for introducing deleterious
impurities in the weldment.

C] LASER HEAT TREATMENT


A powerful laser output rapidly warms up the surface layer in an item it hits. As the beam moves away to
other areas the heated spot cools down as rapidly. This procedure is used for heat treatment of surface layers
of metal items, which considerably enhances the item strength.

DBIT/TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS/APPLIED PHYSICS II NOTES/ DOC 1/REV -0/AY 2016-17


COSTOMISED BY- JYOTI NIMBHORKAR
DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURLA(W), MUMBAI 400070
MODULE 2 : LASER

DBIT/TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS/APPLIED PHYSICS II NOTES/ DOC 1/REV -0/AY 2016-17


COSTOMISED BY- JYOTI NIMBHORKAR