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IT Project Management in Information System

Development : A Systematic Lirerature Review


Riswanto
Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia
riswanto81@ui.ac.id

Abstract— To achieve maximum results in an information an overview of methods and standards in information system
system development project, standards and best practices are project management. Similarly, project management
needed to help a manager complete an IS project with good certification has evolved into a profession and something
results. Standards and best practices in project management important in project management. Project management
consist of processes and techniques that have been developed in competencies and expertise are key factors to realize a
the past few decades by international standardization agencies to successful project [5].
handle project management in providing the best results in IS
development. Some standards including PMBOK, ISO 21500: The primary method used for the synthesis of literary
2012, and PRINCE2 have been widely used in IS projects around journals is a systematic literature review (SLR). SLR is a
the world to achieve maximum results.. rigorous methodological review of research results that aims to
gather all available evidence on research questions to support
Keywords—Information System; Project Management; the development of evidence-based guidelines for practitioners.
Information Technology; Standard; Best Practice; PMBOK, ISO The evidence here is defined as a synthesis of the results of
21500:2012, PRINCE2 Software Development scientific studies of the highest quality on a particular topic or
research question [6]. On this paper, we will conduct a
I. INTRODUCTION systematic literature review to look for methods, techniques,
Project management is a discipline that regulates skills, and tools used in information systems development projects, as
knowledge, tools, and techniques that help in the management well as existing standards and best practices and their
of a successful software development project. The project comparisons with each other.
management framework consists of stakeholders, knowledge,
tools, and methods for managing and controlling a software II. METHODOLOGY
development project [1]. According to [2] Project management
is the application of methods, tools, techniques, and A. Research question
competencies to a project. Project management includes the Based on the description given in the introduction section,
integration of the various phases of the project life cycle. and to maintain the focus of the research, the research
Project management is performed through processes. questions are arranged as follows :
The processes selected for performing a project should be
aligned in a systemic view. Each phase of the project life cycle RQ1. What are the project management methods, standards,
should have specific deliverables. These deliverables should be and best practices used in information system
regularly reviewed during the project to meet the requirements development?
of the sponsor, customers and other stakeholders. Standards on RQ.2 What are the differences between these methods,
project management are made by practitioners where project standards and their comparison?
managers must adhere to these standards. Standards on IT
project management were initially only developed for B. Search Process
organizational strategies and the development of project Searches are done on journal papers published from 2014 to
manager competencies [3]. Project management best practice 2019 through digital journal databases. The following is a list
guides consisting of processes and techniques have been of journal databases used:
developed in the past few decades to handle project
management to deliver the best results in software • ScienceDirect
development. However, project management is still a • ACM Digital Library
complicated job that many meet unsatisfactory results [4]. • IEEE Access
Effective project management techniques improve reliability, • Emerald Insight
productivity, employee morale, profits, and reduce • Scopus
development time and costs in software development [1].
Therefore, a comparison of methods and standards is needed PICOC (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome,
based on best practices and existing experiences that have been Context) criteria use to compile search strings in a journal
tested and give maximum results in information systems database and identify related research to the topic being
development projects. This comparison is expected to provide discussed [7]. Searches are limited to English language journal
papers only, then we select based on the abstraction, keyword contained in this standard has evolved from the recognized
and research conclusion contained in the journal paper which good practices of project management practitioners who have
falls into the category of PICOC criteria as shown in table 1. contributed to the development of this standard [12].
PM standards can have a significant impact on project success
Table 1. PICOC Summary because PM standards are organizational guidelines and the
way the project is managed, and how stakeholders outside the
Population Information system, IS/IT project management, best project view and trust the organization, and are responsible for
practice, standard, method, methodology the project [11]. There are several standards well known in
information system development projects, some of which are
Intervention Information system project management, software project developed by international standardization bodies that are
management, software development, framework, best already well known. It has been recognized over the past few
practice, project management standard
decades that project management is an efficient tool for
Comparison n/a handling new or complex project activities. It is essential to
Outcomes Project management standard or framework investigate the extent to which project management standards
are used, to identify opportunities for improvement [4].
Context Studies in information system development Following are some of the standards that exist in information
From the search results on the Scopus database using systems development projects:
predetermined keywords obtained 87 documents related to the 1. Project management bodies of knowledge (PMBOK)
topics discussed. Mendeley software is used to manage journal
search results, and then a selection is based on the title and PMBOK was developed by the Project Management
abstract related to the specified PICOC criteria. From the Institute to guide managing projects, programs, and
results of the selected preference, several journals were chosen portfolio. This standard is widely accepted which helps
which represent the topics being discussed. organizations achieve professional excellence when applied
consistently [13]. The PMBOK contains the globally
recognized standard and guide for the project management
III. RESEARCH RESULT profession. PMBOK has the following process groups:
Project management expertise and competency continually initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling,
emerge as a critical factor for realizing project success. and closing. Who identifies ten knowledge areas for
The CHAOS Chronicles and Prosperous report are two studies organizing processes, integration, stakeholders, scales,
that describe the level of performance of IT projects in the time, cost, risk, quality, procurement, and
United States and South Africa that report the success, communication [4].
challenges, and failures of IT projects with the following
categories [8], [9]: 1.1. Initiating Process Group

• Successful project A successful project is a project that is The initiation phase seeks to understand
delivered on time, within budget, within scope and stakeholder expectations, define project scope,
complies with the quality requirements. It delivers strong determine project success criteria, resources initiation,
value, the expected value. and authorize the project at the end of this phase.
The Initiation Process helps establish a vision of what
• Challenged project A challenged project is a project that is must be achieved. This is where the sponsor
completed, but is either late, over-budget or does not meet authorizes the official project, the initial scope is
all the requirements. It delivers moderate value, less than determined, and stakeholders are identified.
what was anticipated. Identification of stakeholders is critical here because
of correct identification (and subsequent management)
• Failed project A failed project is a project that is never of stakeholders can make or break the project. This
completed or does not meet customer requirements. It process group is carried out so that projects and
delivers very little value or no value at all. programs are not only approved by the sponsoring
A project is a unique set of processes consisting of entity but also so that the project is aligned with the
coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, organization's strategic goals. If this is not done, the
undertaken to achieve an objective [10]. The project has its project can be started and carried out carelessly,
uniqueness related to the time frame, building Site, results, without any stated goals or real objectives [14].
stakeholders, constraints, and resources needed. Its uniqueness 1.2. Planning Process Group
makes each project a particular case, which is often only a few
lessons that can be transferred to other projects. Therefore, At this stage, the project management plan is
projects generally require planning and management that are defined along with the project documents that will be
far more complex than repetitive work. Especially in long-term used in the entire project. This process is carried out
projects, these characteristics are often more challenging repeatedly and continuously. Therefore any new
because of their long duration, high costs and many information obtained and having an effect on the
stakeholders involved [11]. change of plan must be reviewed. An essential
element of planning is to determine the total scope of
A standard is a formal document that describes established the project. While it might seem as if it was achieved
norms, methods, processes, and practices. The knowledge
in Getting Started, the scope (along with risks, Time 1. Plan Schedule management
milestones, summaries, and budgets) is defined there 2. Define activities Sequence
3. Sequence activities
at a high level. Here, through a repetitive and more 4. Estimate activity resources
detailed planning process, called progressive 5. Estimate activity duration
elaboration, project documents are developed at a 6. Develop schedule
much more detailed level [14]. 7. Control schedule

1.3. Executing Process Group Cost 1. Plan Cost management Estimate


2. Estimate costs
In this phase, there are several core tasks, 3. Determine budget
4. Control costs
including acquiring, developing, managing the project Human Resources 1. Plan Human Resource management
team, and distributing information. Here is where the 2. Acquire project team Develop
project team starts doing the work of creating the 3. Develop project team Managent
deliverables while the project manager coordinates 4. Manage project team
those resources. And if that were the only thing that Quality 1. Plan Quality management Perform
2. Perform quality assurance
occurred, that might be enough. But several other 3. Control quality
things must happen during executing. [14]. Risk 1. Plan Risk managemen
2. Identify risks
1.4. Monitoring and controlling Process Group 3. Perform qualitative risk analysis
4. Perform quantitative risk analysis
While the other process groups occur sequentially, 5. Plan risk responses
Monitoring and Controlling hover over the whole 6. Control risks
project and so, happen throughout the project and are Stakeholder 1. Identify stakeholders
not linear. This phase is talking about the process of 2. Plan stakeholders management
3. Manage stakeholders engagement
supervision and control of the budget and time. The 4. Control stakeholders engagement
project manager needs to always update information
with stakeholders about project progress and team Communication 1. Plan Communications management Manage
2. Manage communications
performance through ongoing reports and 3. Control communications
documentation [14]. Procurement 1. Plan Procurement management Conduct
2. Conduct procurements Control
1.5. Closing Process Group 3. Control procurements Close
This phase is the last in PMBOK; the Closing 4. Close procurements
process contains documentation of experiences that
have been obtained during project implementation. 2. ISO 21500:2012
Closing does not only close the project formally, but
you also get sign-offs and receipts from customers. ISO 21500 is an international de jure standard which is
Even though this must be clear, too often the project a general guide to project management throughout the
fails. People stopped coming to meetings, and world [11]. ISO 21500:2012 provides guidance for project
everyone only appeared at the next meeting. Best management and can be used by any type of organization,
practice determines that the rigidity applied to the rest including public, private or community organizations, and
of the project must be used here too. The project for any type of project, irrespective of complexity, size or
manager must formally close the project by filing duration. ISO (the International Organization for
notes, holding lesson sessions, and celebrating and Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national
releasing the team. And the lessons learned along with standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of
other historical information must be archived centrally preparing International Standards is normally carried out
to be used as input for future projects to prevent the through ISO technical committees. Each member body
re-creation of wheels [11]. interested in a subject for which a technical committee has
been established has the right to be represented on that
Table 2. Ten knowledge areas of PMBOK [4] [11] [15] committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the
Integration 1. Develop Project Charter Develop work. ISO collaborates closely with the International
2. Develop project management plan
3. Direct and manage project work Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
4. Monitor and control project work electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are
5. Perform integrated Change Control drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC
6. Close project or phase Directives [16]. ISO 21500: 2012 guides essential concepts
Scope 1. Plan Scope management Collect and processes in project management, and has an impact on
2. Collect requirements
3. Define scope Create improving project performance. These standards provide
4. Create WBS high-level descriptions of concepts and procedures that are
5. Validate scope considered to form good practices in project management.
6. Control scope Projects are placed in the context of the program and
project portfolio. However, this International Standard does
not provide detailed guidance on the management of project
programs and portfolios [4]. ISO 21500 guides project be taken and change requests made, when necessary,
management and can be used by all types of organizations, in order to achieve project objectives [2].
for all kinds of projects, regardless of complexity, size or
duration. This international standard describes high-level 2.5. Closing process group
concepts and processes that are considered to form good As in the PMBOK phase, this phase is the last
practices in project management. It identifies project phase at ISO 21500, the Closing process contains
management processes that are recommended for use documentation of the experience that has been
throughout the project as a whole, for the individual phase obtained during project implementation [14] [11].
or both. ISO 21500 is currently an informative standard, The closing processes are used to formally establish
based on best practices accepted throughout the world [17]. that the project phase or project is finished, and to
provide lessons learned to be considered and
ISO 21500: 2012 identifies the following process
groups: initiating, planning, implementing, controlling and implemented as necessary [2].
closing. It also identifies 10 "subjects" for the organizing
process which include: integration; stakeholders, scope, Table 3. Project Management processes per subject/knowledge
source, time, cost, risk; quality; purchase; and area [4] [11] [15] of ISO 21500:2012
communication [4]. These 5 group life cycle processes can Integration 1. Develop Project Charter
be described as follow: 2. Develop project plans Direct
3. Direct project work
2.1. Initiating process group 4. Control project work Control
5. Control changes
In ISO 21500, Initiating are used to start a project 6. Close project phase or project
or a project phase, to define the project phase or 7. Collect lessons learned
Scope 1. Define scope
project objectives and to authorize the project 2. Create Work Breakdown Structure
manager to proceed with the project work. This 3. Define activities
process contains the development of a project base, 4. Control scope
such as the definition of the project phase and project Time 1. Sequence activities
2. Estimate activity durations
objectives [11]. The initiating processes are used to 3. Develop schedule
start a project phase or project, to define the project 4. Control schedule
phase or project objectives and to authorize the project Cost 1. Estimate costs
manager to proceed with the project work [2]. 2. Develop budget
3. Control costs
2.2. Planning process group Resources 1. Establish project team
2. Estimate resources
The ISO 21500 Planning process group contains 3. Define project organization
detailed plan development and dissociation of other 4. Develop project team
5. Control resources
projects. This process contains time and cost planning, 6. Manage project team
risk management, quality and communication which Quality 1. Plan quality
is the content of the ISO 21500 Planning process 2. Perform quality assurance
group. The planning processes are used to develop 3. Perform quality control
planning detail. This detail should be sufficient to Risk 1. Identify risks
2. Assess risk
establish baselines against which project 3. Treat risks
implementation can be managed and project 4. Control risks
performance can be measured and controlled [2] [11]. Stakeholder 1. Identify stakeholders
2. Manage stakeholders
2.3. Implementing process group Communication 1. Plan Communications
2. Distribute information
The realization of the planning process is 3. Manage communications
explained in the ISO 21500 Implementation process Procurement 1. Plan procurements
group [11]. The implementing processes are used to 2. Select suppliers
perform the project management activities and to 3. Administer contracts
support the provision of the project’s deliverables in
accordance with the project plans [2].
3. PRINCE2
2.4. Controlling process group
PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environment) is a
In ISO 21500, the Control process group is well-known standard in project management. Prince2 was
separated by the implementation phase and deals with proposed in 1996 after PMBOK by APMG in the UK and
project monitoring to detect irregularities that occur was expanded by the British government. Prince2 is the
outside of the plan, as well as to serve preventive result of the experience of managers, experts, and
measures if necessary [14] [11]. The controlling consultants in the field of project management [18].
processes are used to monitor, measure and control Based on the definition of [19] PRINCE2 is a de facto
project performance against the project plan. process-based method for effective project management.
Consequently, preventive and corrective actions may Widely used by the British Government, PRINCE2 is also
widely recognized and used in the private sector, both in the checked, planned, how communication will be done.
UK and internationally. The PRINCE2 method is in the [24].
public domain and offers guidance on non-ownership best
practices in project management. • Directing a Project (DP)

Prince2 contains four modules: principles that provide The purpose of the Directing a Project process is to
guidance for successful PMs, themes that provide PM enable the Project Board to be accountable for the
subjects, processes and adaptations to the environment, for project by making critical decisions, to have overall
example cultural differences [11]. There are several main control and delegate day-to-day management of the
features of Prince2, including focusing on business project to the Project Manager [25]. This process is
justification, the organizational structure set for project intended for the Project Board. The Project Board is in
management teams, product-based planning approaches, charge of managing and monitoring through reports and
emphasis on sharing projects into manageable and controls from several decision points. The key
controllable stages, a flexibility that can be applied at the processes for the Project Board break into four main
appropriate level to the project [19]. In PRINCE2 there are areas [25] [22] :
seven processes, including a set of activities required for - Initiation (starting the project off on the right foot)
project control, management and successful delivery of the - Stage boundaries (commitment of more resources
projects [18][20]. The seven processes in PRINCE2 are after checking results so far)
[21]: - Ad hoc direction (monitoring progress, providing
• Starting up a Project (SU) advice and guidance, reacting to exception
situations)
This is the first process in PRINCE2. These are the - Project closure (confirming the project outcome
stages of the pre-project process, which are designed to and controlled close)
ensure that the prerequisites for starting the project - This process does not cover the day-to-day
already exist. This process expects a Project Mandate activities of the Project Manager
that defines in terms of the high level of reasons for the
project and what results are sought. Starting a Project • Controlling a Stage CS)
must be very short. Process work is built around the
production of three elements, namely ensuring that the This process explains the monitoring activities and
information needed for the project team is available, control of the Project Manager involved in the project
design and designate the Project Management Team, and ensures that a stage stays on track and reacts to
and make a Plan for the Initiation Phase [22]. unexpected events. The process forms the core of the
The purpose of this process is to answer the question Project Manager's efforts on the project, becoming a
about worthwhile and viable project. The project process that handles day-to-day project management
mandate is usually the only document that exists when [22]. The purpose of the Controlling a Stage process
this process starts, and this is not enough information (CS) is for the Project Manager to assign the work to be
for the Project Board to decide to begin the Initiation done, monitor this work, deal with issues, report
Stage. Therefore, the purpose of this process is to progress to the Project Board and take corrective action
provide the Project Board with the information required to ensure that the stage remains within tolerance [26].
to judge if the project is worthwhile. They use the In this process there will be a cycle consisting of :
Project Brief, which will contain information on the - Authorising work to be done
Business Case. Another essential purpose of the - Gathering progress information about that work
Starting Up a Project process is to prevent poor projects - Watching for changes
from starting up. This process should be brief; perhaps - Reviewing the situation
that’s where we get the name, Project Brief. The aim is - Reporting
to do the minimum necessary to see if it is worthwhile - Taking any necessary corrective action.
doing the Initiation stage [23].
• Initiating a Project (IP) • Managing Product Delivery (MP)

The purpose of the Initiating a Project process is to Managing Product Delivery process is to manage and
understand the work that needs to be done to deliver the control the work between the Project Manager and the
required products. This understanding is necessary Team Manager by placing specific formal requirements
before deciding to continue with the project. Some on the accepting, executing, and delivery of products.
questions to ask about the project like reasons for doing The Managing Product Delivery process views the
the project and the Benefits and Risks, Scope, a quality project from the Team Manager’s point of view in the
that will be achieved, risks, project monitoring, and how same way the Controlling a Stage process is from the
will PRINCE2 be tailored to suit the project. During Project Manager [27]. The objective of this process is to
Initiating a Project, the Project Manager will be creating ensure that planned products are created and delivered
a collection of management products to show: how the by [22]:
project will be managed, the cost, how quality will be
- Making certain that work on products allocated to - Confirm that maintenance and operation
the team is effectively authorized and agreed on arrangements are in place (where appropriate)
accepting and checking Work Packages - Make any recommendations for follow-on actions
- Ensuring that work conforms to the requirements - Capture lessons resulting from the project and
of interfaces identified in the Work Package complete the Lessons Learned Report
- Ensuring that the work is done - Prepare an End Project Report
- Assessing work progress and forecasts regularly - Notify the host organisation of the intention to
- Ensuring that completed products meet quality disband the project organisation and resources.
criteria
- Obtaining approval for the completed products
IV. CONCLUSIONS
• Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) In the previous chapter, we described three standards in
Managing a Stage Boundary process has two parts, first project management that are popularly used in information
the Project Manager has to provide the Project Board systems development projects. But in addition to these
with an overview of the performance of the current standards, there are still many standards that are commonly
stage, update the Project Plan and Business Case, and used in information systems development projects but are not
create a Stage Plan for the next step, second this discussed in the literature review this time. From the previous
information will enable the Project Board to review the discussion we can summarize the management project
current scene, approve the next stage, consider the standards as follows:
updated Project Plan, and confirm Continued Business
Table 4. Project management group process comparison
Justification [28]. This process provides the Project
Board with key decision points on whether to continue PMBOK ISO 21500:2012 PRINCE2
with the project or not [22]. The objectives of the Initiating Process Initiating process group Starting up a Project
process are to: Group (SU)

- Assure the Project Board that all deliverables Planning Process Group Planning process group Initiating a Project (IP)
planned in the current Stage Plan have been Executing Process Implementing process Directing a Project (DP)
completed as defined Group group
- Provide the information needed for the Project
Monitoring and Controlling process Controlling a Stage CS)
Board to assess the continuing viability of the controlling Process group
project Group
- Provide the Project Board with information needed
Closing Process Group Closing process group Managing Product
to approve the current stage's completion and Delivery (MP)
authorize the start of the next stage, together with
its delegated tolerance level Managing a Stage
Boundary (SB)
- Record any measurements or lessons which can
help later stages of this project and/or other Closing a Project (CP)
projects
The structure of PMBOK and ISO 21500:2012 is quite
• Closing a Project (CP) similar, and the comparison between these two standards is
The Closing a Project process is to provide a fixed point rather simple. In contrast to that, the mapping of the processes
to check that the project has reached its objectives and of ISO 21500 and PMBOK to processes of PRINCE2 is more
that the products have been accepted [29]. The purpose difficult. In PRINCE2 there is no explicit mapping between
of this process is to execute a controlled close to the processes and subject groups. Comparing standards can be
project. This process includes the work of the Project done by looking for comparable content from groups of
Manager to complete the project either in the end or at subjects in the PRINCE2 theme and principle [11].
an early closing. Most of the work is to prepare input to
the Project Board to get confirmation that the project Table 5. Project management subject groups comparison
can be closed [22]. The objectives of Closing a Project PMBOK ISO 21500:2012 PRINCE2
are therefore to:
Integration Integration (Theme: Business Case)
- Check the extent to which the objectives or aims
Scope Scope (Theme: Business Case)
set out in the Project Initiation Document (PID)
have been met Time Time Plans
- Confirm the extent of the fulfillment of the Project Cost Cost Plans
Initiation Document (PID) and the Customer's
satisfaction with the deliverables Human Resources Resources Plans
- Obtain formal acceptance of the deliverables Quality Quality Quality
- Ensure to what extent all expected products have
Risk Risk Risk/Change
been handed over and accepted by the Customer
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