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201O 2nd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

Design of Fuzzy Neural Network Based Control

System for Cement Rotary Kiln

Zheng LI
School of Electrical Engineering and Information Science
Hebei University of Science and Technology
Shijiazhuang, China

Abstract-This paper presents a fuzzy neural network control the temperature higher; and when the feed volume of raw
system for the process of cement production with rotary cement material increases, the reaction material in the kiln is added to
kiln. Since the dynamic characteristics and reaction process make the temperature higher. But when the temperature
parameters are with large inertia, pure hysteresis, nonlinearity increases to a certain value, since the material can not get a
and strong coupling, a fuzzy neural network controller fully reaction, the temperature of inner kiln drops. So the input
combining both the advantages of neural network and fuzzy volume of inner kiln material should be in a certain
control is applied. This fuzzy neural network controller adjusts proportional relationship with the feed volume of coal to make
the parameters of membership functions in order to acquire the them in a fully reaction state. The feed volume of coal and raw
required control performance. The fuzzy neural network is an
material are controlled by the speed of coal feed motor and raw
adaptive neural network whose parameters can be corrected by
learning algorithms automatically. The main control system
material motor respectively. The rotary kiln should be
structure includes three control loops as the pressure control loop, remaining a micro-negative pressure state, because in the
the burning zone control loop and the back-end of kiln positive pressure state, the ventilation is poor and the fuel can
temperature control loop. The simulation results show the not be burned completely; in the large negative pressure state,
effectiveness of the control scheme with quick response time and the fast ventilation will take away the heat. The inner pressure
lower overshoot, also with small temperature deviation. of kiln is controlled by the speed of flue blower. The whole
system can be shown as figure 1.
Index Terms-FNN, neural network, control system, cement
rotary kiln
Head-end of the CoollnC BwrinC Reac1ion Decomposilt Dryinc Ptt-htatlnc Raw Material
kiln Zoot Zoot Exothermic Zone Zone Zoot Zone

In the process of cement production, the rotary kiln

calcination is the most important technology link which
includes complicated physical and chemical reaction process
with large inertia, pure hysteresis, nonlinearity and strong
coupling characteristics. It is hard to derive the exact
mathematical model and can not reach satisfied results with
conventional control algorithms [1-5]. Up to now, the cement
rotary kilns are mainly controlled manually or semi-
automatically, which is based on the experience of operators to
attain acceptable performances with low production rate. This
Figure I. Cement rotary kiln system
paper presents the application of fuzzy neural networks to
implement the monitoring, analysis and optimization based on
the field bus technology to the conventional cement production

II. ANALYSIS OF CEMENT ROTARY KILN A. System Structure ofthe Cement Rotary Kiln
Cement rotary kiln thermal system decides the production, Figure 2 denotes the control system of cement rotary kiln.
quality and energy consumption. There are several factors The control links contain the burning zone temperature (feed
impact the thermal system of rotary kiln, including the rotation volume of coal control), back-end of kiln temperature (feed
speed, the feed volume of coal, the feed volume of raw material volume of raw material control), and the inner pressure (blower
and inner pressure of rotary kiln. When the kiln rotation speed speed control) three parts [6]. The control system contains AID,
increases, the temperature drops slightly and usually the speed D/A converter and I/O modules together with a number of
is kept constantly. When the feed volume of coal increases, the sensors or transformers. There are three control loops in the
reaction of decomposition furnace can be exacerbated to make system, which are the pressure control loop, burning zone
control loop and back-end of kiln temperature control loop. The

_---t-~ kiln
CAR 2010
PID neuron network control algorithm is implemented by the where Xi' is the command error between the desired command
IPC of the highest level in the system.
and the actual output value, N denotes the number of iterations,
IPC PID Neuron Networks
Controller Field Bus y: is the output of the FNN.

Modules IConvert
Layer 2: Membership Layer
In this layer, each node performs a membership function.
va The Gaussian function is adopted as the membership function.
AID L....::Dor/A,----------,
For the jth node
net~ (N) = (x j - mij )2
y~(N) = If(net~ (N)) = exp(net~(N)),j = 1,...,n (4)

where mij and (T ij are, respectively, the mean and the

Figure 2. Cement rotary kiln control system
standard deviation of the Gaussian function in the jth term of
Fuzzy Neural Network Control System 2
B. the ith input linguistic variable x j to the node of layer 2, and
The fuzzy neural network control system can be shown as n is the total number of the linguistic variables with respect to
in figure 3. In the figure,yi(k) (i=1,2,3) denote the actual output the input nodes.
of the burning zone temperature, back-end of kiln temperature
and the inner pressure respectively. ydi denote the desired Layer 3: Rule Layer
output of the system. The fuzzy neural network is tuned by
Each Each node k in this layer is denoted by II, which
online learning algorithm. The 3 sub-networks are connected in
multiplies the input signals and outputs the result of product.
parallel. The controlled objects of this system have 3 inputs and
For the kth rule node

3 outputs.
net~(N) = w~kx~(N), (5)

y~ (N) = I: (net~ (N)) = net~ (N), k = 1,...,1 (6)

where X~ represents the jth input to the node of layer 3; W~k'

the weights between the membership layer and the rule layer,
are assumed to be unity; 1 = (n / iy
is the number of rules
with complete rule connection of each input node has the same
linguistic variables.
Layer 4: Output Layer
The single node a in this layer is labeled with L, which
computes the overall output as the summation of all input

Figure 3 Cement rotary kiln fuzzy neural network control system
net: (N) wtoxt (7)
A four-layer FNN as shown in Fig. 4, which comprises the
input (the i layer), membership (the j layer), rule (the k layer) y: (N) = 104 (net: (N)) = net: (N) 0 = 1,2,3
and output layer (the a layer), is adopted to implement the (8)
FNN controller in this study. The signal propagation and the
basic function in each layer of the FNN are introduced as where the connecting weight wto is the output action strength
follows [7]: of the 0 th output associated with the kth rule; xt represents
Layer 1: Input Layer the kth input to the 0 th node of layer 4. The output of the
Tr"' ....nofu.... ,\Ira'o...." ...",
• and the net FNN is the is the controlled signal.
To described the online learning algorithm of the FNN
using the supervised gradient decent method, the following
yo (1) equation is dermed as

, ,2,3 (2)

Tr"' ....notu.... Mrllsu........."f
The whole fuzzy set can be derived from every fuzzy input
variable using the maximum belonging function. The intensity
of each rule can be written as

OJk =PA(x\)APB(X
, 2) (14)

So by inference, the result of each rule can be derived as

~ ak = OJkApc; (u) (15)

y: The fuzzy determination method is based on the weighted
average method and the exact control variable u can be
~ derived from
y; (16)



_':__ 0
In the previous section, a fuzzy neural network controller
for the rotary cement kiln has been developed. In this section, it
is tested on the simulation model. Based on the above training
data of real system, 1000 sets data points are used for training
the neural network model as shown in table I. In MATLAB
Figure 4. Structure ofFNN simulation programs, the learning effects are simulated as
shown in figure 5.
The purpose of BP neural network algorithm is to fmd the
Bumning Back-
learning parameters, as the last layer connection weights OJdk ' Rotatio
end of
Wind n speed material rotatio
the center value of the belonging function and width value, NO temperatur kiln
Speed of coal motor n
e temper
making J the minimum value of complete process. (m/s) motor speed
(rim) (0C) (rim) (0C) 1m)
The adjustment of weights adopts the first order of
gradient method, so I 24.13 643.15 1378.23 1234.61 670.12 464

dOJ dk = -lJ-- = lJY; (1- Y; )(Ydi - Y; )Ok
= lJ8k O kd 2 22.69 638.26 1363.21 1219.86 659.36 471
3 23.88 651.76 1354.47 1310.37 671.23 479.43
8 k =Y;(1-Y;)(Ydi -Y;) (II) 4 24.35 649.38 1321.83 1287.69 668.32 473.24

0.1 - ) 5 25.23 658.36 1409.91 1269.71 672.43 469.56

6 24.76 652.82 1405.68 1295.62 668.85 472.11
uning process.
... ... ... ... ... '" ...
>e accelerated by
>n can be written
The given input of the system is the step function
'OJdk(t-l)] (13) T] = [t( (k),t z (k),t) (k)y = [1,O.8,O.6f , with training 100 times,
and each time is accompanied with 300 sampling points. The
controlled object deal with quantization (normalization), the
t relations of one back-end temperature of the kiln is 0 °C ~ 600 °c ,
corresponding to 0-1, with sampling period of T=2ms; the
burning zone temperature is 0 0 C ~ 1400 °C , corresponding to
y; C k i=I,2, ... ,7; 0-1, with sampling period of T=2ms; the inner pressure
OP-20000P, corresponding to 0-1, with sampling period of
~o T=2ms.

_x~_ _ o 292
Perfonnance is 0.00575525, Goal is 0
10' r-~-~-~~-~-~~-~~~---, 0.9





10" '--------'-_----'-_'--------'-_----'-_'-------'-_---'-------''------J
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0
If stop Training 1 100 Epochs 0 20 40 60 80 100S

Figure 5. Error curves of network training process (c)

In the second condition, the initial step response is
1; = [I, (k),12(k),13(k)f = [0.65,0.76,0.85t ' and the given value Figure 6. System step response curves after 200 times training
(a) t1(k) , (b) t2(k), (c) t3(k)
changed to 1; = [I, (k),12(k),13(k)f = [0.65,0.7,0.68t for testing the
From the results, the presented control system operated
control ability at the time of 35s, trained with 100 times and
steadily with a quick response time and lower overshoot, also
each time is accompanied with 300 sampling points. After 200
with small temperature and pressure deviation, which proves
times of training, the response curves of the system can be
the effectiveness of the control scheme.
shown as figure 6.
The paper presents the application of fuzzy neural networks
f"--./ as controllers to control the temperature and pressure of the
cement rotary kiln, and simulation results based on
0.5 MATLAB/SIMULINK were derived. The results show that the
presented method can reach satisfied performance by network
~ learning and self-adjusting without establishing accurate
;: 0.4
mathematical model and independent on the model
0.3 identification. It is expected that the presented method can give
a reference for further development of advanced control
schemes of rotary cement kiln.

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