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System for Cement Rotary Kiln

Zheng LI

School of Electrical Engineering and Information Science

Hebei University of Science and Technology

Shijiazhuang, China

lzhfgd@163.com

Abstract-This paper presents a fuzzy neural network control the temperature higher; and when the feed volume of raw

system for the process of cement production with rotary cement material increases, the reaction material in the kiln is added to

kiln. Since the dynamic characteristics and reaction process make the temperature higher. But when the temperature

parameters are with large inertia, pure hysteresis, nonlinearity increases to a certain value, since the material can not get a

and strong coupling, a fuzzy neural network controller fully reaction, the temperature of inner kiln drops. So the input

combining both the advantages of neural network and fuzzy volume of inner kiln material should be in a certain

control is applied. This fuzzy neural network controller adjusts proportional relationship with the feed volume of coal to make

the parameters of membership functions in order to acquire the them in a fully reaction state. The feed volume of coal and raw

required control performance. The fuzzy neural network is an

material are controlled by the speed of coal feed motor and raw

adaptive neural network whose parameters can be corrected by

learning algorithms automatically. The main control system

material motor respectively. The rotary kiln should be

structure includes three control loops as the pressure control loop, remaining a micro-negative pressure state, because in the

the burning zone control loop and the back-end of kiln positive pressure state, the ventilation is poor and the fuel can

temperature control loop. The simulation results show the not be burned completely; in the large negative pressure state,

effectiveness of the control scheme with quick response time and the fast ventilation will take away the heat. The inner pressure

lower overshoot, also with small temperature deviation. of kiln is controlled by the speed of flue blower. The whole

system can be shown as figure 1.

Index Terms-FNN, neural network, control system, cement

rotary kiln

Head-end of the CoollnC BwrinC Reac1ion Decomposilt Dryinc Ptt-htatlnc Raw Material

kiln Zoot Zoot Exothermic Zone Zone Zoot Zone

I. INTRODUCTION Coal Powder

calcination is the most important technology link which

includes complicated physical and chemical reaction process

with large inertia, pure hysteresis, nonlinearity and strong

coupling characteristics. It is hard to derive the exact

mathematical model and can not reach satisfied results with

conventional control algorithms [1-5]. Up to now, the cement

rotary kilns are mainly controlled manually or semi-

automatically, which is based on the experience of operators to

attain acceptable performances with low production rate. This

Figure I. Cement rotary kiln system

paper presents the application of fuzzy neural networks to

implement the monitoring, analysis and optimization based on

the field bus technology to the conventional cement production

defects. III. FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK SYSTEM DESIGN

II. ANALYSIS OF CEMENT ROTARY KILN A. System Structure ofthe Cement Rotary Kiln

Cement rotary kiln thermal system decides the production, Figure 2 denotes the control system of cement rotary kiln.

quality and energy consumption. There are several factors The control links contain the burning zone temperature (feed

impact the thermal system of rotary kiln, including the rotation volume of coal control), back-end of kiln temperature (feed

speed, the feed volume of coal, the feed volume of raw material volume of raw material control), and the inner pressure (blower

and inner pressure of rotary kiln. When the kiln rotation speed speed control) three parts [6]. The control system contains AID,

increases, the temperature drops slightly and usually the speed D/A converter and I/O modules together with a number of

is kept constantly. When the feed volume of coal increases, the sensors or transformers. There are three control loops in the

reaction of decomposition furnace can be exacerbated to make system, which are the pressure control loop, burning zone

control loop and back-end of kiln temperature control loop. The

ack-endorlhe

_---t-~ kiln

290

CAR 2010

PID neuron network control algorithm is implemented by the where Xi' is the command error between the desired command

IPC of the highest level in the system.

and the actual output value, N denotes the number of iterations,

IPC PID Neuron Networks

Controller Field Bus y: is the output of the FNN.

€tHau.

Modules IConvert

Layer 2: Membership Layer

In this layer, each node performs a membership function.

va The Gaussian function is adopted as the membership function.

AID L....::Dor/A,----------,

For the jth node

2

net~ (N) = (x j - mij )2

(3)

(Tij)2

y~(N) = If(net~ (N)) = exp(net~(N)),j = 1,...,n (4)

Figure 2. Cement rotary kiln control system

standard deviation of the Gaussian function in the jth term of

Fuzzy Neural Network Control System 2

B. the ith input linguistic variable x j to the node of layer 2, and

The fuzzy neural network control system can be shown as n is the total number of the linguistic variables with respect to

in figure 3. In the figure,yi(k) (i=1,2,3) denote the actual output the input nodes.

of the burning zone temperature, back-end of kiln temperature

and the inner pressure respectively. ydi denote the desired Layer 3: Rule Layer

output of the system. The fuzzy neural network is tuned by

Each Each node k in this layer is denoted by II, which

online learning algorithm. The 3 sub-networks are connected in

multiplies the input signals and outputs the result of product.

parallel. The controlled objects of this system have 3 inputs and

For the kth rule node

n

3 outputs.

net~(N) = w~kx~(N), (5)

j

the weights between the membership layer and the rule layer,

are assumed to be unity; 1 = (n / iy

is the number of rules

YoO

with complete rule connection of each input node has the same

linguistic variables.

y'

Layer 4: Output Layer

The single node a in this layer is labeled with L, which

computes the overall output as the summation of all input

signals

=I

Figure 3 Cement rotary kiln fuzzy neural network control system

net: (N) wtoxt (7)

k

A four-layer FNN as shown in Fig. 4, which comprises the

input (the i layer), membership (the j layer), rule (the k layer) y: (N) = 104 (net: (N)) = net: (N) 0 = 1,2,3

and output layer (the a layer), is adopted to implement the (8)

FNN controller in this study. The signal propagation and the

basic function in each layer of the FNN are introduced as where the connecting weight wto is the output action strength

follows [7]: of the 0 th output associated with the kth rule; xt represents

Layer 1: Input Layer the kth input to the 0 th node of layer 4. The output of the

Tr"' ....nofu.... ,\Ira'o...." ...",

• and the net FNN is the is the controlled signal.

To described the online learning algorithm of the FNN

using the supervised gradient decent method, the following

yo (1) equation is dermed as

Cement

ROht')'

, ,2,3 (2)

Kiln

y'

291

Tr"' ....notu.... Mrllsu........."f

The whole fuzzy set can be derived from every fuzzy input

variable using the maximum belonging function. The intensity

of each rule can be written as

OJk =PA(x\)APB(X

, 2) (14)

~

}

y: The fuzzy determination method is based on the weighted

average method and the exact control variable u can be

~ derived from

y;

~

y; (16)

~o

_':__ 0

In the previous section, a fuzzy neural network controller

for the rotary cement kiln has been developed. In this section, it

is tested on the simulation model. Based on the above training

data of real system, 1000 sets data points are used for training

the neural network model as shown in table I. In MATLAB

Figure 4. Structure ofFNN simulation programs, the learning effects are simulated as

shown in figure 5.

TABLE I. SOMERARAMETERS DATA OF REAL CEMENT ROTARY KiLN

The purpose of BP neural network algorithm is to fmd the

Bumning Back-

learning parameters, as the last layer connection weights OJdk ' Rotatio

zone

Raw

end of

Kiln

Wind n speed material rotatio

the center value of the belonging function and width value, NO temperatur kiln

Speed of coal motor n

e temper

making J the minimum value of complete process. (m/s) motor speed

ature

speed(r

(rim) (0C) (rim) (0C) 1m)

The adjustment of weights adopts the first order of

gradient method, so I 24.13 643.15 1378.23 1234.61 670.12 464

0.1

dOJ dk = -lJ-- = lJY; (1- Y; )(Ydi - Y; )Ok

d

= lJ8k O kd 2 22.69 638.26 1363.21 1219.86 659.36 471

OOJdk

3 23.88 651.76 1354.47 1310.37 671.23 479.43

(10)

8 k =Y;(1-Y;)(Ydi -Y;) (II) 4 24.35 649.38 1321.83 1287.69 668.32 473.24

I

(12)

6 24.76 652.82 1405.68 1295.62 668.85 472.11

uning process.

... ... ... ... ... '" ...

>e accelerated by

>n can be written

The given input of the system is the step function

'OJdk(t-l)] (13) T] = [t( (k),t z (k),t) (k)y = [1,O.8,O.6f , with training 100 times,

and each time is accompanied with 300 sampling points. The

controlled object deal with quantization (normalization), the

t relations of one back-end temperature of the kiln is 0 °C ~ 600 °c ,

)----'-'y;'---

corresponding to 0-1, with sampling period of T=2ms; the

burning zone temperature is 0 0 C ~ 1400 °C , corresponding to

y; C k i=I,2, ... ,7; 0-1, with sampling period of T=2ms; the inner pressure

OP-20000P, corresponding to 0-1, with sampling period of

~o T=2ms.

_x~_ _ o 292

Perfonnance is 0.00575525, Goal is 0

10' r-~-~-~~-~-~~-~~~---, 0.9

0.75

0.6

~

~

0.45

0.3

0.15

10" '--------'-_----'-_'--------'-_----'-_'-------'-_---'-------''------J

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0

If stop Training 1 100 Epochs 0 20 40 60 80 100S

In the second condition, the initial step response is

1; = [I, (k),12(k),13(k)f = [0.65,0.76,0.85t ' and the given value Figure 6. System step response curves after 200 times training

(a) t1(k) , (b) t2(k), (c) t3(k)

changed to 1; = [I, (k),12(k),13(k)f = [0.65,0.7,0.68t for testing the

From the results, the presented control system operated

control ability at the time of 35s, trained with 100 times and

steadily with a quick response time and lower overshoot, also

each time is accompanied with 300 sampling points. After 200

with small temperature and pressure deviation, which proves

times of training, the response curves of the system can be

the effectiveness of the control scheme.

shown as figure 6.

V. CONCLUSION

0.7

The paper presents the application of fuzzy neural networks

0.6

f"--./ as controllers to control the temperature and pressure of the

cement rotary kiln, and simulation results based on

0.5 MATLAB/SIMULINK were derived. The results show that the

presented method can reach satisfied performance by network

~ learning and self-adjusting without establishing accurate

;: 0.4

mathematical model and independent on the model

0.3 identification. It is expected that the presented method can give

a reference for further development of advanced control

0.2

schemes of rotary cement kiln.

0.1 REFERENCES

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 S [1] Mintus F, Hamel S, Krumm W. "Wet Process Rotary Cement Kilns:

Modeling and Simulation". Clean Techn. Environ. Policy, 2006,8(2):

112-122.

(a) [21 Mujumdar K S,Arora A,Ranade V V. "Modeling of Rotary Cement

Kilns: Applications to Reduction in Energy Consumption". Ind. Eng.

Chern. Res., 2006,45(7): 2315-2330.

0.8

[3] Mujumdar K S,Ranade V V. "Simulation of Rotary Cement Kilns Using

0.7

a One-Dimensional Model," Chemical Engineering Reasearch and

Design, 2006, 84(A3): 165-177.

0.6 [4] Mujumdar K S,Ganesh K V,Kulkarni S B,Ranade V V. "Rotary Cement

Kiln Simulator (Rocks): Integrated Modeling of Pre-Heater,Calciner,

0.5 Kiln and Clinker Cooler," Chemical Engineering Science, 2007, 62(9):

~ 2590-2607.

<;:J 0.4

[5] Wang Z,Yuan M Z,Wang B,Wang H,Wang T R. "Dynamic Model of

Cement Precalcination Process," Proceedings of the 27 th lASTED

0.3

International Conference on Modeling, Identification, and Control.

0.2

Innsbruck,Austria; lASTED, 2008: 160-165.

[61 Luyben W L. Process Modeling, Simulation and Control for Chemical

0.1 Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hili, 1990.

[71 F. 1. Lin, W. 1. Huang, and R. 1. Wai, "A supervisory fuzzy neural

0 network control system for tracking periodic inputs," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy

0 20 40 60 80 100S

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