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Tropisms, Nastic Movements, & Photoperiods

Plant Growth & Development

Tropisms

Defined as:

3 Types:

- Phototropism

-

- Thigmotropism

Tropisms

Defined as: Plant growth responses to environmental stimuli that occur in the direction of the stimuli

3 Types:

- Phototropism

- Gravitropism

- Thigmotropism

Phototropism

Defined as: the tendency of a plant to grow toward a light source

- Can be within hours

- Caused by

Cool corn
Cool
corn

Phototropism

Defined as: the tendency of a plant to grow toward a light source

- Can be within hours

- Caused by changes in auxin

concentrations; auxins migrate to shaded tissue, causing elongation

of cells

Cool corn
Cool
corn

Gravitropism

Defined as: tendency of shoots to grow

upwards ( grow downwards (

gravitropism) and roots to gravitropism)

Arabidopsis
Arabidopsis

- Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the light source

roots to gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the
roots to gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the
roots to gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the

Gravitropism

Defined as: tendency of shoots to grow upwards (negative gravitropism) and roots to grow downwards (positive gravitropism)

Arabidopsis
Arabidopsis

- Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the light source

gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the light source
gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the light source
gravitropism) Arabidopsis - Also related to auxin migration - Photoreceptors in shoots determine the light source

Gravitropism

(cells with starch grains instead of chloroplasts) in roots determine the gravitational pull

-

Gravitropism (cells with starch grains instead of chloroplasts) in roots determine the gravitational pull -

Gravitropism

- Stratoliths (cells with starch grains instead of chloroplasts) in roots determine the gravitational pull

Gravitropism - Stratoliths (cells with starch grains instead of chloroplasts) in roots determine the gravitational pull

Thigmotropism

Defined as:

- Usually found in plants that

need structures to wrap around as they grow (vines, climbing plants)

may wrap

- Stems or

tightly around objects they encounter to reach light

around as they grow (vines, climbing plants) may wrap - Stems or tightly around objects they
 

Thigmotropism

Defined as: a plant’s response to touch

 

-

Usually found in plants that

need structures to wrap around as they grow (vines, climbing plants)

 

-

Stems or tendrils may wrap

tightly around objects they encounter to reach light

Nastic Movements

Defined as: a plant’s response to an environmental stimulus

Example: Venus flytrap, sensitive plant

Nastic Movements Defined as: a plant’s response to an environmental stimulus Example: Venus flytrap, sensitive plant

Nastic Movements

Defined as: a plant’s response to an environmental stimulus that does not

necessarily take place in the direction of the stimulus

Example: Venus flytrap, sensitive plant

stimulus that does not necessarily take place in the direction of the stimulus Example: Venus flytrap,

Response to Seasons

determines

growth

and flowering of plants at various times of the year

- Phytochrome responsible for

to Seasons determines growth and flowering of plants at various times of the year - Phytochrome

Response to Seasons

Photoperiod determines growth and flowering of plants at various times of the year - Phytochrome responsible for plants’ photoperiod responses by detecting red light and activating signaling pathways in plant cells

responsible for plants’ photoperiod responses by detecting red light and activating signaling pathways in plant cells

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

: flowers only when

exposed to an extended period of darkness (Ex. Poinsettia)

exposed to an extended period of darkness (Ex. Poinsettia) Long-Day Plant: flowers when exposed to a

Long-Day Plant: flowers when exposed to

a

(Ex.

Iris)

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:
4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

Short-Day Plant: flowers only when exposed to an extended period of darkness (Ex. Poinsettia)

exposed to an extended period of darkness (Ex. Poinsettia) Long-Day Plant: flowerswhen exposed to a short

Long-Day Plant: flowerswhen exposed to a short period of darkness (Ex. Iris)

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering: : flowers when exposed to days & nights of approximately

: flowers

when exposed to days & nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower)

flowers when exposed to days & nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower) Day-Neutral
flowers when exposed to days & nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower) Day-Neutral

Day-Neutral Plant:

(Ex. corn)

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering:

4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering: Intermediate-Day Plant : flowers when exposed to days & nights
4 Effects of Photoperiod on Flowering: Intermediate-Day Plant : flowers when exposed to days & nights

Intermediate-Day Plant: flowers when exposed to days & nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower)

nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower) Day-Neutral Plant: flowers regardless of day or
nights of approximately the same length (Ex. cone flower) Day-Neutral Plant: flowers regardless of day or

Day-Neutral Plant: flowers regardless of day or night length (Ex. corn)