Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources

Vol. 3(3), September 2012, pp. 347-353

Study on functional properties of raw and blended Jackfruit seed flour


(a non-conventional source) for food application
A Roy Chowdhury1*, A K Bhattacharyya1 and P Chattopadhyay2
1
Department of Food Technology, Techno India, E.M. 4/1, Sector- V, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700 091, West Bengal, India
2
Department of Food Technology & Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032

Received 20 June 2011; Accepted 30 June 2012

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is widely cultivated in India and its neighbouring countries as well as in parts
of Africa. After the consumption of the edible portion of the ripe fruit, the seeds, rich in carbohydrate and protein, are
usually discarded as a waste. The present work was undertaken to investigate the functional properties of raw and blended
jackfruit seed flours with a view to provide useful information for its effective utilization along with wheat flour for various
food formulation. It was observed that lye-peeled seeds are low in nutrient content, but had a better acceptability in terms of
colour and flavour. The present study revealed that jackfruit seed flour has a great potential for new food formulation along
with wheat flour. The factors affecting the functional behaviours of the raw and blended jackfruit seed flours were studied.
As the flour and its blends have good water and oil absorption capacities along with other desirable properties, such a blend
can be used for developing bakery products and as protein supplements and functional ingredients in food formulations.

Keywords: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Flour blending, Food formulation, Functional properties, Jackfruit seed flour, Wheat flour.
IPC code; Int. cl. (2011.01)  A23L 1/00

Introduction Lectin, a class of glycoproteins found in jackfruit


Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.), a seed, has been reported to possess antibacterial,
member of the family Moraceae is a popular fruit of antifungal and anticarcinogenic properties5. The
the tropics. It grows widely and abundantly in India, present work is carried out to investigate the
Bangladesh1, South-East Asia and in the evergreen functional characteristics of jackfruit seed flour
forest zone of West Africa2. The edible bulbs of ripe blends with wheat flour for new food formulations.
jackfruit are usually consumed fresh or processed into Functional properties of jackfruit seed flour and
canned products; 10-15% of the total fruit weight is its protein digestibility as well as a comparative study
considered as its seed weight3,4. Though the seeds are on functional properties of raw and heat processed
rich in carbohydrate and protein3,4, jackfruit seed is Jackfruit seed flour have also been reported6,7. Not
used occasionally as a minor supplement in culinary much information is available on functional properties
recipes but are mostly wasted. Keeping the colossal of such blended flours.
waste of this nutritious seed in view, the present study In India, malnutrition is prevalent due to
focuses on making seed flour which can be stored for inadequate intake of protein. In view of this,
longer period and find varied industrial applications. effort was made for identifying and evaluating
The jackfruit seed flour may also be blended with under-utilized non-conventional cheap protein
wheat flour to explore the potential of low cost flour sources like jackfruit seed as an alternative.
from jackfruit seed as an alternative raw material for For efficient utilization of jackfruit seed flour, it is
bakery and confectionary products. The Jackfruit seed desirable to study the functional properties. The
flour is not only a rich source of protein, starch and functionality of plant proteins in food system is
dietary fibres but can also be regarded as an abundant influenced by the inherent chemical characteristics of
yet cheap source of the said nutrients2. the seed8. Processing and environmental conditions
also influence the functional properties of seed
——————
*Correspondent author: E-mail: aditi_royc@yahoo.co.in; proteins9. The successful utilization of seed flour as a
Tel : 91 9831424591, 03323577582-84 food ingredient and its blending with wheat flour
348 INDIAN J NAT PROD RESOUR, SEPTEMBER 2012

depends on functional characteristics and sensory Flour blends


attributes which it would impart to the end-product To study the functional properties, the jackfruit
thus affecting consumers’ acceptance. The functional seed flour (lye peeled variety) was mixed in different
properties also play an important role in the physical proportions with wheat flour (Ganesh Maida) to have
behaviour of foods or their ingredients during 10, 15 and 20% w/w blends. The various functional
preparation, processing and storage. properties were determined along with unblended raw
The efforts have geared towards jackfruit seeds as a jackfruit seed flour as control. All the flour samples
cheap non-conventional protein source. Jackfruit seed were packed in polyethylene bags (0.7 mm/0.7 ×
could be a potential source of protein for many 10-3 m thickness) and stored at around 8°C/281 K.
developing as well as under developed nations.
Proximate compositional analysis of whole seed and defatted
Jackfruit seed flour and its blends with wheat flour
jackfruit seed flour
can be sold as a low cost flour meeting up the
The crude protein (Kjeldahl N × 6.25), fat (solvent
requirement for protein for poor people.
extraction with petroleum ether, b.p. 40-60°C/313-
Various functional properties were studied which
333 K), crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were
include foaming, emulsifying and gelation properties,
determined according to standard methods of AOAC10.
water and oil absorption capacities and protein
The digestible carbohydrates were calculated by the
solubility. This study will provide the useful
difference. Analyses were carried out in triplicates.
information towards effective utilization of jackfruit
seed flour and wheat flour blends in various food Functional properties
formulation applications.
Bulk density
This was determined by taking the flour sample in
Materials and Methods
measuring cylinder filled up to a certain mark, the
Materials initial volume and the initial weight of the sample
Indian Jackfruit seeds (58.43% average moisture were recorded. Then the flour samples were given
content) with white seed coverings were collected equal tapping and the final volume was recorded. The
from local markets of Bengal and were used for this bulk density of the sample was calculated from these
study. Commercial wheat flour (Ganesh Maida data. The method adopted was slightly modified from
Variety) was procured from local market. the method of Narayana & Narasinga Rao11.

Preparation of Jackfruit seed flour Water and oil absorption capacity


The seeds (4 kg) were cleaned and the white seed Water absorption capacity was evaluated following
covers were removed. Seeds with brown seed coats Abbey & Ibeh12 method with minor modifications. 1 g
were then lye-peeled with 2% NaOH for 5 minutes (0.001 kg) of flour was dissolved in 25 ml (25 ×
under hot condition (~80°C/ 353 K) to remove the 10-6 m3) of distilled water and vortexed thoroughly
thin brown coat. After washing, the fleshy white and centrifuged at 2500 g for 10 minutes. The
cotyledons were collected by scrubbing. Seeds were residue obtained upon decanting the soluble fraction
sliced into thin chips by rotary slicer and then tray was weighed. The water absorption capacity was
dried at around 60°C/333 K for about 16 h to reduce expressed as ml of water absorbed by 1 g of flour or
the moisture content to 10% level. The chips were in % (v/w) (% values remain unaltered in SI units).
ground to flour by using grinder (Bajaj make Oil absorption capacity was determined using 1 g
Grinder). The flour was sieved (100 mesh), collected (0.001 kg) of flour and 10 ml (10 × 10-6 m3) of refined
and stored in plastic pouches at around 8°C/281 K till vegetable oil (sunflower oil, ITC brand, density
further use. The yield of the flour was 46%. 0.89 g/ ml). The method of Beuchat13 was employed
Another variant of flour was prepared without for the oil absorption capacity determination. The
removing the outer brown seed coat followed by sample was then allowed to stand at room temperature
drying the chips at ~ 60°C/333 K and grinding. (30+/- 2°C/303+/-2 K) for 30 min followed by the
The colour of the flour thus obtained was brown and centrifugation at 5000 g for 30 minutes. The volume
was collected in polyethylene pouch pack after of the supernatant was noted in a 10 ml measuring
passing through a 100 mesh sieve and was stored cylinder. It was expressed as ml of oil absorbed by 1 g
at 8°C/281 K. of flour or in % value (for SI unit also).
ROY CHOWDHURY et al: FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RAW AND BLENDED SEED FLOUR OF JACKFRUIT 349

Foaming capacity Narayana & Narasinga Rao16 suggested for nitrogen


Foaming capacity and stability were measured solubility in varied pH (2-12) range, using 2 g/0.002 kg
following method of Lawhon et al14 with slight flour and 100 ml/100 × 10-6 m3 of distilled
modifications. A weighed amount of flour was water (flour: water =1:50) shaken for 30 min with the
dissolved in 100 ml/ 100 × 10-6 m3 distilled water, help of a magnetic stirrer at high speed. After
stirred at room temperature for 5 min with the help of extraction, the suspension was centrifuged for 20 min
a magnetic stirrer at high speed. The material was at 4500 rpm at room temperature and the soluble
immediately transferred to a measuring cylinder. protein extracted was estimated by Lowry method17.
Volume of foam (ml/10-6 m3) after mixing was All extractions and determinations were performed
expressed as foaming capacity. The volume of foam in triplicates.
recorded over a time period of 20-120 min is foam
stability for mentioned time period. Foam capacity Results and Discussion
measurements were also done using NaCl solution of
Proximate composition
0.2-1.0 M/Mol concentrations. The percentage
The proximate analyses of the base flour (Ganesh
volume increase was calculated as follows: % volume
maida) and Bengal variety jackfruit seed (j.f.s)
increase = (V2 – V1) / V1 × 100 Where V2 is the
flour have been shown in the Table 1. The flour
volume of the solution after whipping and V1 is the
composition of the present study reveals that there is
original volume of the flour suspension.
variation in the amount of protein content in the two
Emulsifying capacity flours obtained with or without lye-peeling. It is
Standard method of Beuchat et al13 was followed as observed that the removal of seed coats by lye-peeling
a procedure for this study at room temperature. 5 g/ has an effect on the proximate composition of flour.
0.005 Kg of flour sample was mixed with 65ml/ However, lye-peeled flour had better acceptability in
65/10-6 m3 of distilled water or NaCl (0.2-1.0 M/ Mol) terms of colour and flavour and was used for
solution and were agitated in a mixer. Along with the subsequent studies.
previous dispersed content, 2 ml/2 × 10-6 m3 oil Different blends of jackfruit seed were prepared
(refined vegetable oil- ITC brand, density 0.89 g/ml) by supplementation of the base flour with jackfruit
was added drop-wise at a time from the burette seed flour to study the various functionalities. The
and blending was continued until emulsion break compositions of the blends are: 100% wheat flour,
point was reached. After getting the separation into wheat flour blended with 10, 15 and 20% jackfruit
two layers, emulsion capacity was calculated as seed flour and 100% jackfruit seed flour.
ml/10-6 m3 of oil that was emulsified by 1 g/0.001kg
of flour sample. Water absorption and oil absorption capacity
These capacities of the jackfruit seed flour and its
Gelation study blends are reported in Table 2 which indicates that
To study the gelation capacity of raw and blended jackfruit seed flour has very high water absorption
jackfruit seed flour, 5 ml/5×10-6 m3 distilled water capacity compared to wheat flour whereas for the
was mixed with flour sample taken in test tubes to blends of 10, 15 and 20% (w/w), it goes on increasing
obtain suspension of 2-15% (w/v) concentration. Gel with supplementation. Protein and carbohydrate play
stability was studied following method of Coffman &
Garcia15 as modified by Abbey & Ibeh12. The test Table 1  Proximate analysis of wheat flour and Jackfruit seed
tubes were heated in a boiling water bath for hours till flour (sieved through 100-mesh)
gel are formed. It was immediately cooled rapidly and Proximate Wheat Flour with Flour without
further cooled under refrigerated condition at 4~8°C/ analysis (%) flour Brown seed Brown seed coat
277-281 K. All the samples were then cooled for 10 h coat (without (with Lye-peeling)
Lye-peeling)
and least gelation concentration was assessed as that
concentration which would hold the sample tightly on Moisture content 11.5 10.7 10.1
the wall of the inverted test tube and the sample did Crude protein 8.9 14.02 12.6
Ash 0.63 2.54 2.24
not fall or drop.
Crude fat 1.4 4.08 3.37
Protein solubility Crude fibre 0.78 1.8 1.47
Protein solubility of raw and blended jackfruit seed Total digestible 76.79 66.86 70.22
flours were studied by application of the method of carbohydrate
350 INDIAN J NAT PROD RESOUR, SEPTEMBER 2012

an important role in binding water16. It can be that they may find useful application in formulation of
suggested that the proteins in Jackfruit seed consist of bakery products like cake and cookies.
more hydrophilic subunit structure than wheat flour
Bulk density
protein which can bind more water. This could be the
There is no appreciable change in bulk density
reason for higher water absorption by higher % of
value (Table 2) of wheat flour with raw and
blends of jackfruit seed flour with wheat flour. The
blended jackfruit seed flour. Raw jackfruit seed flour
high value of carbohydrate (may be presence of
(100-mesh) was compared with the flour having
hydrocolloids, starch) could lead to increased water
seed coat which has got high bulk density value which
absorption on higher supplementation16. The jackfruit
is in accordance with its high ash content value.
seed flour was prepared by dry milling method.
However when the blends are concerned, bulk density
However, the process of lye-peeling and milling
goes on increasing with increase in blend % compared
equipment and milling time can affect the properties
to control.
of jackfruit seed flour. It may affect the starch quality
which is reflected on higher water absorption value. Foam capacity and foam stability
Fat absorption is an important property in food The foaming capacity of flours is related to the
formulations because fats improve the flavour and amount of native protein20. Yasumatsu et al21 have
mouth feel of food18. The significance of protein- shown that native protein gives higher foam stability
lipid interactions was examined by Chung & than the denatured protein. Upon continuation of
Pomeranz19 in bread making. High oil absorption blending, foam stability increases. Surface active
suggests the hydrophobic structures of jackfruit seed proteins control aeration and the texture by allowing
protein in protein subunits. The oil absorption the uniform distribution of fine air cells throughout
capacity of jackfruit seed flour and its blends suggests the matrix22. Hence, it may be suggested that jackfruit
seed protein has high surface viscosity property from
Table 2  Functional properties of raw and blended Jackfruit the viewpoint of foam stability (Tables 3 a & 3 b)
seed flour: Bulk density, Water & Oil absorption capacity and upon blending with wheat flour, surface activity
Flour type Water Oil absorption Bulk density increases which allows more air to get entrapped for a
absorption capacity g/cc longer time period. Simultaneously the hydrophobic
capacity (%) (%) (103 kg / M 3) nature of the protein matrix goes on increasing upon
Raw jackfruit seed blending which is reflected in the noted data. This
flour (100mesh) 203.4 97 0.80 property may be utilised for aerated health drink.
Without seed coat
10% blend 74.6 88 0.74 Emulsifying capacity
15% blend 79.3 89.8 0.76 The emulsifying capacity of the jackfruit seed flour
20% blend 86.1 90.2 0.77 and its blends are reported in Table 4 a & b which
Wheat flour 65.5 86 0.73 indicate that jackfruit seed flour showed less
Table 3a  Foam Capacity ( at 0 hr. ) and Foam stability of Jackfruit seed flour blends
Time in minute
Volume of foam in 0 20 40 60 120
Jackfruit Seed Flour,60oC, Lye peeled ml /(1× 10-6 M3 ) 10 7 5 5 4
10% blend 6 5.4 4.0 3.6 2.8
15% blend 7 6.0 5.8 5.2 5.2
20% blend 7.6 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8
Wheat flour 5 4 3.2 3.0 2.2
Table 3b  Effect of Varying NaCl concentration on Foaming Capacity ( ml / 1× 10-6 M3 )
NaCl Conc. Mol/dm3 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Jackfruit Seed Flour,600C, Lye peeled 10 11.4 11.6 10.8 10.4 10.2
10% blend 6 7.1 7.4 7.4 6.8 6.4
15% blend 7 8.0 8.4 7.8 7.4 7.2
20% blend 7.6 8.8 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.4
Wheat flour 5 6.2 6.4 6 5.4 4.8
ROY CHOWDHURY et al: FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RAW AND BLENDED SEED FLOUR OF JACKFRUIT 351

emulsifying capacity in comparison with wheat flour charge on protein to its hydrophobicity is a better
whereas that could be extended with increase in predictor than hydrophobicity alone, of the type of gel
blend percentage with wheat flour. The result of network formation (coagulum type gel and translucent
emulsifying capacity by varying NaCl concentration type gel). 20% (w/w) concentration of 15% (w/w)
revealed that this functional property was initially blend was found effective in gel formation which can
increased upon increase in molar concentration up be utilized as a gelling agent for developing new food
to 0.4-0.6 and decrease in value with higher items like soup, sauces, pudding and cake and can be
concentration of NaCl. The result might be due to the used in food additives. Hermansson25 discussed the
fact that within a composite matrix there could be significance of aggregation and denaturation of protein
interaction of starch and protein both. Though the in gel formation. In association with starch and
flour showed a very high water and oil absorption carbohydrate, the protein-protein interaction involving
values in comparison to wheat flour, still the non-covalent bonds was found to be increasing on
emulsifying capacity of protein in a cohesive or blending. This indicates that jackfruit seed proteins
composite matrix showed a reverse observation. aggregate and get denatured to make gel.
Gelation Protein solubility
Variations in gelation (Table 5) of different flours Protein solubility of flours is presented in Fig. 1.
(raw jackfruit seed and their blends with wheat flour) The result indicates that minimum solubility for
can be attributed to the change in the ratios of jackfruit seed flours and its blends with wheat flour is
different constituents such as carbohydrate, lipids and at around pH 4 -6, while in all cases, the maximum
protein. The gelling capacity of flours has been solubility was observed at pH 10. Normally, solubility
attributed to denaturation, aggregation and thermal gets increased as the pH increases whereas least
degradation of starch23. Gelation involves the swelling solubility was observed at pH 4, followed by gradual
of starch and protein components in flour matrix on increase in solubility profile as pH increases.
heating. According to Damodaran24 the ratio of net Maximum solubility was achieved around pH 10 for
Table 4a  Emulsifying capacity of Jackfruit seed flour blends flour blends. Similar results have been reported for
Flour type Emulsifying capacity
flours of different kinds such as mung bean26 and
ml/g ( × 10-3 M3 /kg ) black gram27. The minimum protein solubility of 23%
Jackfruit seed flour 8.1
at pH 4.5 for winged bean16 and 19.36% at pH 4 for
10% blend 9.0 cowpea powder28 had been reported. Low protein
15% blend 10.5 solubility of heat-treated jackfruit seed flour may be
20% blend 11 due to the protein denaturation. High temperature
Wheat Flour 13 causes irreversible denaturation, association and
Table 4b  Effect of NaCl concentration on Emulsification capacity ml/g ( × 10-3 M3 / kg )
NaCl Conc. Mol/dm3 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Jackfruit Seed Flour,60oC, Lye peeled 8.1 8.6 9.0 8.2 7.2 6.1
10% blend 9.0 9.8 10.2 9.6 8.4 8.0
15% blend 10.5 11.2 11.8 10.5 9.6 8.8
20% blend 11.0 12.1 12.8 11.1 10.4 9.0
Wheat flour 13 13.6 13.8 12.8 12 11.1
Table 5  Gelation properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour Blends a
Flour concentration ( %, w/v )
Flour Type 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Jackfruit Seed Flour - +/- + + + + + + + +
10% blend - - +/- + + + + + + +
15% blend - +/- + + + + + + + +
20% blend - +/- + + + + + + + +
Wheat Flour - - +/- +/- + + + + + +
a
- not gelled ; +/- slightly gelled ; + gelled
352 INDIAN J NAT PROD RESOUR, SEPTEMBER 2012

developing bakery and confectionary items, extended


meat batters, etc in non-wheat producing countries
and even during scarcity for wheat production or
unavailability of wheat flour in local market.

References
1 Rahman M A, Nahar N, Mian A J and Mosihuzzaman M,
Variation of carbohydrate composition of two forms of fruit
from jack tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus Linn.) with maturity
and climatic conditions, Food Chem, 1999, 65, 91-97.
2 Burkill H M, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Vol.
4, 2nd Edn, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1997, pp. 160-161.
3 Bobbio F O, El-Dash A A, Bobbio P A and Rodriguis L R,
Isolation and characterization of the physico-chemical
properties of the starch of Jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus
heterophyllus), Cereal Chem, 1978, 55, 505-511.
4 Kumar S, Singh A B, Abidi A B, Upadhyay R and Singh A,
Proximate composition of Jackfruit Seed, J Food Sci Technol,
1988, 25, 308-309.
5 Kely C C, Leandro L O, Camila F P, Patrícia E V, Roberto M
et al, Therapeutic administration of KM+ lectin protects mice
against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection via interleukin-
12, Amer J Path, 2008, 173 , 423-432
6 Singh A, Kumar S and Singh I S, Functional properties
of Jackfruit seed flour, Lebensm – Will u Technol, 1991, 24,
373-374.
7 Odoemalam S A, Functional Properties of raw and heat
processed Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Flour, Pak J
Nutr, 2005, 4(6), 366-370.
8 Mattil K F, Considerations for choosing the right plant
proteins, Food Prod Develop, 1973, 7, 40-42
9 Johnson D W, Functional properties of oilseed proteins,
J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1970, 47, 402-405.
10 AOAC, Official methods for analysis, 14th Edn.,Washington
DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1984
Fig. 1Effect of pH on protein solubility of raw and blended 11 Narayana K and Rao Narasinga M S, Effect of partial
jackfruit seed flour proteolysis on the functional properties of winged bean
(Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) flour, J Food Sci, 1984, 49,
followed by precipitation of polypeptide chain as high 944-947.
molecular weight compound29. Mild heat treatment on 12 Abbey B W and Ibeh G O, Functional Properties of raw
protein may not drastically reduce its solubility30. and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, Walp) flour,
J Food Sci, 1988, 53, 1775-1777.
13 Beuchat L R , Cherry J P and Quinn M R, Physico-chemical
Conclusion properties of peanut flour as affected by proteolysis, J Agric
The present study reveals that jackfruit seed flour Food Chem , 1975, 23, 617-620.
has a great potential in new food formulation along 14 Lawhon J T, Cater C M and Mattil K F, A comparative study
with wheat flour. The different functional behaviors of whipping potential of an extract from several oil seed flours,
of the raw and blended jackfruit seed flour are Cereal Sci Today, 1972, 17, 240.
15 Coffman C W and Garcia V V, Functional Properties and
influenced by milling operation, concentration of amino acid content of protein isolate from mung bean flour,
NaCl, effect of pH and on heating. As the flour and its J Food Technol, 1977, 12, 473.
blends have good water and oil absorption capacities 16 Narayana K and Rao Narasinga M S, Functional properties of
up to 15% (w/w) blending could be suggested to use raw and heat processed winged bean (Psophocarpus
in developing bread with comparable sensory and tetragonolobus) flour, J Food Sci, 1982, 47, 1534-1538.
17 Lowry O H, Rosebrough N J, Farr A L and Randall R J,
chemical evaluation with control. The flour blends Protein measurement with the Folin-Phenol reagents, J Biol
could be used as protein supplements and functional Chem, 1951, 193, 265-275.
ingredients in human diets. The raw seed flour and its 18 Kinsella J E, Functional Properties of proteins in food – A
blends with wheat flour could also be used in survey, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 1976, 7, 219-280.
ROY CHOWDHURY et al: FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RAW AND BLENDED SEED FLOUR OF JACKFRUIT 353

19 Pomeranz Y and Chung O K, Interaction of lipids with 25 Hermansson A M, Aggregation and denaturation involved in
proteins and carbohydrates in bread making, J Amer Oil Chem gel formation, ACS symposium Series, 1978, 92, 81-104
Soc, 1978, 55(2), 285-289. 26 Thompson L U, Preparation and evaluation of mung bean
20 Lin M J Y, Humbert E S and Sosulki F W, Certain functional protein isolates, J Food Sci, 1977, 42, 202.
properties of Sunflower meal product, J Food Sci, 1974, 39, 27 Sathe S K and Salunkhe D K, Functional properties of
368-370. the great northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins,
21 Yasumatsu K, Sawada K, Moritaka S, Mikasi M, Toda J, emulsions, foaming, viscosity and gelation properties, J Food
Wada T and Ishi K, Whipping and emulsifying properties of Sci, 1981, 46, 71.
soybean products, Agric Biol Chem, 1972, 36, 719-727. 28 Okaka J C and Potter N N, Physicochemical and functional
22 Pomeranz Y, Functional Properties of Food Components, properties of cowpea powders processed to reduce beany
Academic Press, 1985. flavor, J Food Sci, 1979, 44, 1235-1240.
23 Enwere N J and Ngoddy P O, Effect of heat treatment on 29 Wolf W J and Tamura T, Heat denaturation of soybean 11s
selected functional properties of cowpea flour, J Trop Sci, protein, Cereal Chem, 1969, 46, 331-336.
1986, 26, 223-232. 30 Morr C V, German B, Kinsella J E, Regenstein J M, Van
24 Damodaran S, Protein-stabilized foams and emulsions, Chapt Buren JP et al, A collaborative study to develop a standard
3, In: Food Proteins and Their Applications, by A Damodaran food protein solubility procedure, J Food Sci, 1985, 50(6),
and A Paraf (Eds), Marcel Dekker : New York, 1997. 1715-1718.