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COMPUTER COLLEGE CALAMBA CAMPUS

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

BATTLE MATHIKA : AN EDUCATIONAL MATH GAME FOR ELEMENTARY


PUPILS

An undergraduate Thesis
Presented to the College of Computer Studies
AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE – CALAMBA CAMPUS

In Partial Fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of
Science in Information Technology

Erickarlo C. Tamayo

Archie M. Paglinawan

Mary Joyce M. Aranas

Sandy S. Catindig

April 2018
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CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEET


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ABSTRACT

Title :BATTLE MATHIKA : AN EDUCATIONAL


MATH GAME FOR ELEMENTARY PUPILS

Proponents : Erickarlo C. Tamayo


Archie M. Paglinawan
Mary Joyce Aranas
Sandy Catindig

Name of Institution : AMA Computer College Calamba Campus

Year Completed : 2018

Instructor / Facilitator : Laurice Mariquina

A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment

and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work,

which is usually carried out for remuneration, and form art, which is more

often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. Mathematics is an

excellent skills that is needed in one pupil to be successful in any career. In

improving skills, this game will help pupils to enhance their thinking skills

specially in math. This game also helps their strategic skills in solving

mathematics. This is the reason why proponents build this educational math

game for elementary pupils.

This research is developed to be an effective game to help the pupils

especially in elementary. They will easily understand and learn mathematics


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in this game. The purpose of this game or application is to provide a new

teaching way of learning and to entertain elementary pupils and also to gain

knowledge.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to express utmost gratitude and deepest

appreciation to the people who have extended their patience, talents, ideas

and expertise to make this research possible.

To Mr. Gerardo S. Manuel, thesis adviser.

To Ms. Shiella Natividad, thesis statistician.

To Dr. Ponciana Quimque. thesis grammarian.

To the panel members, Engr. Adelfo T. Dimayuga, Ch. E, Engr.

Rosenda A. CpE, MSCpE, Engr. Jose Ian Magdaug, ECE, Mr. Edelberto

Espiritu III, and Ms. Bettina Julia R. Bastro, Lpt.

To the School-Respondents who participated on this endeavor.

And above all, to Lord Almighty for the courage and strength.
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DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to Our God Almighty our Creator, our strong

pillar, our source of our inspiration, knowledge and understanding, wisdom

and who taught us the purpose of life. He has been the source of our

strength throughout this program. We also dedicate this work to our family

who has encouraged us all the way to finish this project.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

TITLE i

CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEET ii

ABSTRACT iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v

DEDICATION vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

LIST OF TABLES x

LIST OF FIGURES xi

LIST OF APPENDICES xii

CHAPTER I : THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND 1


Introduction 1
Background of the Study 2
Objectives of the Study 4
Statement of the Problem 4
Significance of the Study 5
Scope and Limitation 6
Hypothesis 7
Defenition of Terms 8

CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11


Foreign Literature 11
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Foreign Studies 14
Local Literature 18
Local Studies 21
Synthesis 26

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28


Research Design 28
Research Locale 28
Conceptual Framework 29
System Architecture 32
Context Diagram 33
Data Flow Diagram 34
Use Case Diagram 35
Graphic user interface 36
Gantt Chart 41
Research instrument 42
Software Methodology 43
Respondent of the Study 43
Sampling Design 44
Statistical Treatment 44

CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS 48


AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Data Analysis 48

CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS 58


AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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Summary 58
Conclusions 60
Recommendations 61

BIBLIOGRAPHY 62

APPENDICES 65
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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Percentage of Respondents

Table 4.1: Respondents Feedback on question #1

Table 4.2: Respondents Feedback on question #2

Table 4.3: Respondents Feedback on question #3

Table 4.4: Respondents Feedback on question #4

Table 4.5: Respondents Feedback on question #5

Table 4.6: Respondents Feedback on question #6

Table 4.7: Respondents Feedback on question #7

Table 4.8: Respondents Feedback on question #8

Table 4.9: Summary of evaluation of the respondents


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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework of the Game Flow of the proposed


Education Game – ―Battle Mathika‖

Figure 1.2 Paradigm of Study

Figure 1.3 System Architecture of Battle Mathika: An Educational Math


Game for Elementary Pupils
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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Page

A Letter to conduct a study 64

B Story board 65

C User manual 68

D Program listing 74

E Survey 89

F Curriculum Vitae 90

G Final Permit 91

H COR (Photocopy) 92
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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND

Introduction

Technology has revolutionized the way it works and set to transform

education. Children cannot be effective in tomorrow's world if they are trained

in yesterday's skills. Nor should teachers be denied the tools that other

professionals take for granted.

E-Learning exploits interactive technologies and communication

systems to improve the learning experience. It has the potential to transform

the way we teach and learn across the board. It can raise standards, and

widen participation in lifelong learning. It cannot replace teachers and

lecturers, but alongside existing methods it can enhance the quality and

reach of their teaching, and reduce the time spent on administration. It can

enable every learner to achieve his or her potential, and help to build an

educational workforce empowered to change. It makes possible a truly

ambitious education system for a future learning society

E-Learning exploits interactive technologies and communication

systems to improve the learning experience. It has the potential to transform

the way we teach and learn across the board. It can raise standards, and

widen participation in lifelong learning. It cannot replace teachers and


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lecturers, but alongside existing methods it can enhance the quality and

reach of their teaching, and reduce the time spent on administration. It can

enable every learner to achieve his or her potential, and help to build an

educational workforce empowered to change. It makes possible a truly

ambitious education system for a future learning society. One good example

of this is over-reliance to calculators of people which resulted in their decline

of basic mathematical skills such as addition, subtraction, division, and

multiplication.

Background of the Study

Today‘s generation, both young and old people are being attracted by

different applications that can be used for entertainment most especially by

games. But most games that are available on the market are not educational

or do not focus on sharpening one‘s mind. Games and apps that are

educational have shown that gamification of the learning experience has

helped the users learn more effectively as can be seen by the feedback and

reviews. ―Across 57 studies that compared teaching with a game to using

other instructional tools, incorporating a game was more effective.‖ Ellen

Jameson (2014). That is why the proponents would like to introduce their

own educational game to help pupils learn mathematics in a fun and game-

like way and that app is ―Battle Mathika‖.


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There are some schools that implemented e-learning methods around

the world, some of these schools used quiz games in their classes or for the

pupils; homework to make learning more fun and engaging. The researchers

of the system would like to implement Battle Mathika in math classes to help

pupils have a firmer grasp of basic math fundamentals.

There are games, in the estimation, that can be used for educational

purposes, and one of this is called Battle Mathika. Battle Mathika is an e-

learning game based on mathematics, pupils and others that are in need of

basic knowledge in math or need to brush up owned basic math skills. The

game helps its users practice their math skills by challenging them to clear

stages in the game that will prompt them to solve basic math problems while

trying to react to the stages‘ surroundings and obstacles and in the process

make solving basic math problems more easy and natural for them. Although

the system is planned to be implemented in schools, it can also benefit

graduates or people who are out of school to practice their basic math skills.

A great portion of senior high education involves a proficiency in

computing. That is why it is important to insert computing drills into the earlier

curriculums. In this manner, those pupils completed their courses would be

adequately equipped with skills, both basic and advanced.

The proposed system, Battle Mathika was chosen and deemed highly

adaptable to the present landscape of Elementary schools.


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Computing drills will be integrated into appropriate subjects through it

while garnering a positive impression among pupils due to the feature of

enjoyability.

Objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of this study.

1. To develop an e-learning game to serve as an educational and

entertaining tool in the studies of pupils or those who want to learn.

2. To develop a system that enhances the speed of users in solving

mathematical problems

3. To develop a system that can prove that e-learning can be able to

improve a user‘s ability to compute just as much as the standardized

way, if not, more.

4. To develop a system that will help the player appreciate learning

mathematics through the use of technology.

Statement of the Problem

Today‘s generation, the technology is already in there, proper

implementation of it is needed. The purpose of this study is to enhance the

strategic thinking and speed in solving mathematical problem of the pupils in

elementary schools.
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At the end of the study the researchers would like to answer the

following specific statement of the problem:

1. How will the proposed e-learning game serve as an educational

and entertaining tool in their studies?

2. How will the proposed e-learning game boost the promptness in

solving the mathematical problem?

3. How will the proposed e-learning game measure user‘s

improvement?

4. How will the proposed e-learning game help the player appreciate

studying basic mathematics through the use of technology?

Significance of the Study

Most of the pupils are having great difficulty with the math subjects

due to the lack of basic foundations in mathematics which results in

discouragement or boredom of math related subjects. Battle Mathika will help

to appreciate numbers, take math subjects seriously and not to get bored

and not to skip the math subjects. Battle Mathika will help pupils sharpen the

minds and solve the math problems faster especially the basics.

Math tends to be the main factor of which how pupils choose their

courses in life, some will try even though they lack mathematical skills, some
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are scared of even trying and thus not giving them chance to polish their

skills and giving up their dream course.

The main goal of the proposed system is to help pupils realize that

math is not all that hard and to stop their fear of math-related subjects and in

doing so makes computer courses that have math related subjects more

accessible and more pupils will pick up the study without the fear or hardship

of math subjects.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This research is focused entirely on encouraging people who have

difficulty with math to build the basic foundations in mathematics and in turn

apply those skills in math subjects, to make learning math an enjoyable

experience while also being familiarized with some of the greatest scientists

in history, as an educational mobile application that will have basic math

problems, the scoring system in the game will measure how proficient a pupil

is in solving basic math problems, and the game will include a leaderboard

and a scoreboard so that pupils can easily see their scores and have a

friendly competition with their classmates or their peers in school.

However, this research is limited in several factors, firstly, the player

cannot customize avatars to personalize. Secondly, the system does not

support multiplayer. Thirdly, the system only focuses on building basic


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foundations of mathematics and does not provide drills for more advanced

math concepts. Fourthly, strictly for Android users, IOS is not yet supported

by the application. Lastly, the system does not possess an overarching

narrative, that it only focuses on the core gameplay and mathematical skills.

Hypothesis

The proposed system will be implemented in elementary schools, the

pupils will have a better foundation for math and its related subjects which in

turn make appreciate the vast applications of mathematics in the world and

especially in computers. The pupils also be familiarized with different great

scientists that have contributed a great deal in the development of

mathematical techniques and great scientific discoveries that have shaped

the world and its technology.

The proposed system gives excitement and stimulation to pupils

playing it and all pupils have their own handheld devices to use it, then math

class exercises will become more interesting and fun for the pupils and help

them promote and retain an interest in practicing the basic fundamentals of

mathematics.

The proponents‘ research project has the following hypothesis:

H0 – The proposed math game of the proponents did not significantly help

increase the learning of pupils in math related subjects.


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H1 – The proposed math game of the proponents significantly helped

increase the learning of pupils in math related subjects.

Measurement of H0 and H1 – Built into the proposed system are

mechanisms of testing and the achievement of certain skills pertinent to the

stages and the amount of time spent in each stage.

Definition of Terms

To enhance a better understanding in the terms used in this context

the following terminologies are defined:

A. Operational Terms

Computer-based learning refers to the use of computers as a key

component of the educational environment. While this can refer to the use of

computers in a classroom, the term more broadly refers to a structured

environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes.

E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and

teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked

or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term

will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom

educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in

regard to devices and curriculum.


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Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the

standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users

worldwide.

Pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

B. Technical Terms

Application also known as a software application, application or app, is

computer software designed to help the user to perform a singular or multiple

related specific tasks. Typical examples are word processors, spreadsheets,

media players and database applications.

Database is an integrated collection of logically-related records or files

consolidated into a common pool that provides data for one or more multiple

uses. One way of classifying databases involves the type of content, for

example bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and image.

GUI (Graphical User Interface), is a type of user interface item that allows

people to interact with programs in more ways than typing such as

computers or hand-held devices such as Smart Phones.

Interface is a point of interaction between two systems or work groups.

Software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as

computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by

computers.
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User Interface In the industrial design field of human-machine interaction,

the user interface is where interaction between humans and machines

occurs.
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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter shows the narrative literature, both foreign and in local

and the related studies. It includes here the difference and similarities

between each literature and studies.

Foreign Literatures

According to Ellen Jameson (2014), Research Roundup: Studies

Support Game-based Learning: there is consistent evidence that games can

benefit all pupils, especially those with the greatest need. In a survey by the

Joan Ganz Cooney Center(2014), teachers reported that pupils that were

participating in game-based learning, especially the lower-performing pupils

benefited the most and became more engaged in their studies.

In line with the article by Jessica Trybus (2014), Game-Based

Learning: What it is, Why it Works, and Where it's Going: ―Learning‖ doesn‘t

mean rote memorization—it means acquiring the skills and thought

processes needed to respond appropriately under pressure, in a variety of

situations. Game-based learning provides pupils and learners alike to be

more engaged in their learning. Game-based learning is effective because


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the players of the game work toward a goal, experience the consequences

along the way. The players make mistakes in a risk-free setting, and through

experimentation, they actively learn. Making mistakes and learning from

them is part of the learning process which is one of the reasons that game-

based learning is so effective. In contrast to a normal classroom setting

which is not a ―risk-free setting‖ where normally each the mistake that a pupil

makes has the consequence of a lower grade or point in a given quiz or

activity which results in lower self-esteem. Another reason why traditional

training may fall short compared to game-based learning is the fact that it

usually focuses more on rote memorization or drilling pupils on now

procedures, then evaluate them on their memory of what they are told rather

than practicing skills and concepts in an interactive and or in an interesting

way.

Pursuant to Jacob Lowell Bishop (2013), The Flipped Classroom: A

Survey of the Research: Recent advances in technology and in ideology

have unlocked entirely new directions for education research. Mounting

pressure from increasing tuition costs and free, online course offerings is

opening discussion and catalyzing change in the physical classroom. The

flipped classroom is at the center of this discussion. The flipped classroom is

a new pedagogical method, which employs asynchronous video lectures and

practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem-solving


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activities in the classroom. It represents a unique combination of learning

theories once thought to be incompatible—active, problem-based learning

activities founded upon a constructivist ideology and instructional lectures

derived from direct instruction methods founded upon behaviorist principles.

In consonance with Jeffrey B. Holmes (2015), A framework for

understanding game-based teaching and learning: A a decade or so ago, a

single course on the topic of games and their significance would have been

hard to find at most universities, much less an entire series of courses. Now,

however, it is not uncommon to find multiple courses as well as entire

programs of study around games at postsecondary institutions such as our

own. While many courses and programs are focused on training professional

game designers (such as our Game Design certificate), a growing number of

courses use games as an object of study, such as we do in the courses in

our games for impact certificate. We give pupils the opportunity to examine,

for example, the role of culture in shaping games and gameplay, or how

particular game mechanics support player learning. But we also use games

to introduce pupils with larger concepts and ideas; for example, we use

games to illustrate principles of learning and how games can serve as hubs

for distributed teaching and learning systems.


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Foreign Studies

Conforming to Ellen Jameson (2014): ‗‘Across 57 studies that

compared teaching with a game to using other instructional tools,

incorporating a game was more effective. Using a game improved cognitive

learning outcomes along with intrapersonal and interpersonal

outcomes. Researchers looking at other collections of studies have found

that games help pupils retain what they‘ve learned.‘‘

A significant number of studies around the world have shown the

effectiveness of e-learning which includes game-based learning. This has

urged some schools around the world to try this new style of teaching. Some

teachers used websites online to help them motivate their pupils to study and

appreciate learning and studying more. One website has been very influential

to the spread of e-learning and the concept of gamifying the learning process

is Khan Academy. Khan Academy has reported in their studies from different

schools that have used their website that pupils have shown more interest in

learning their lesson. Pupils were more engaged because the exercises have

the game feel to it and give them points or badges for their accomplishments.

This one of the very reasons why game-based learning is so effective across

different studies. Pupils like to get constant feedback on their progress just

like they do when they play video games. It gives them a feel of where they

would want to focus their efforts on. Giving points or badges for doing
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exercises give pupils motivation to study because it gives them incentives for

their hard work. In general, e-learning has shown a lot of promise in different

schools around the world.

In short e-learning, specifically game-based learning has the following

advantages when it is being used in classroom environments:

 Eases the stress and tension of practicing and doing exercises by

making the experience more of a fun activity instead of an arduous

trial.

 Gives constant feedback on right and wrong answers which can

enable pupils to see where the need to work on more.

 Encourages pupils to be more active and adventurous due to the fact

it is a risk-free setting and in the process to learn more quickly by

learning from their mistakes.

 Giving incentives such as points, badges or unlocking new items,

stages or characters can serve as good motivations to achieve more

and practice their skills.

 Gives pupils fun mini goals that can serve to sharpen their skills.

As reported by Henk Frencken, Ria Jacobi, and Karen Jager (2012),

European education today is characterized by two dominant trends. First, e-

learning has made impressive advances in the past five years. Second,
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European higher education has become increasingly internationalized. We

wanted to determine how e-learning is used in higher education in The

Netherlands, our home country, to increase and improve the

internationalization of education.

On the surface, the two trends appear to have developed

independently. We started from the assumption, however, that e-learning

could be a prime tool for new and better forms of international education. Our

research methodology consisted of a survey aimed at selecting case studies

or good practices that would confirm our assumption. Our final goal was to

formulate a number of lessons learned from these good practices.

As stated by Viorica Banciut , Mircea Gordan and Simona Stanciu

(2012), the development of new technologies in communications leads to

new approaches to the educational process. E-learning is a new concept that

designates a specific way of distance learning training. E-learning is a term

that designates a learning process that relies on the use of computers as a

source of information and access to knowledge. The term e-learning is

synonymous with the E-learning, online education, online education, web

education, distance learning, etc. Distance learning physics involves the

distance between teacher and pupil/pupil communication between them

achieved by exchanging messages or electronic documents. In distance


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education, a particularly important role is held by the technological factors

which should ensure that the pupils/pupils, and communication between

them and their teachers. A professor in the education system can address

simultaneously a large number of pupils/pupils, but can have a dialogue with

each of them individually. Those who study in this way can benefit from

knowledge and experience of renowned teachers that could not address

directly. We can say that within distance education, the role of the human

factor is the guidance.

Congruous to Moravec et al. (2015), The influence of using e-learning

tools on the results of pupils at the test. They showed how e-learning tools

impact pupils‘ achievement. The study was attended by nearly 2000 pupils.

The study compares the results of questions from the area of law where the

tool was provided in a pilot version with the results of questions, where the e-

learning tool was not provided. The researchers found that the e-learning

tools have affected the pupils‘ results. Nevertheless, the belief of the e-

learning tool may possibly have a negative effect on pupils who will depend

on given materials was disproved.

In keeping with Scholtzand Kapeso (2014) and Almajali et al (2016),

Shannak (2013) explored the factors of mobile learning (m-learning)

approach which can be used for enterprise resource planning (ERP) system.
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The technology acceptance model(TAM) was applied to assess the

acceptance, usefulness and perceived ease of use of the m-learning. The

researchers found that the m-learning system was correlated positively for

perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness as such findings confirmed

other studies which stressed the importance of the quality of course content

in e-learning and-learning projects.

Local Literatures

According to Dela Cruz in 2017: The Intel Microelectronics Philippines

Inc. will continue to join hands with the Department of Education (DepEd) this

year in implementing the e-learning project where each teacher and pupil has

its own computer. Intel Microelectronics Philippines Inc. and DepEd‘s will to

support e-learning is a good indication that e-learning can help schools in the

Philippines to improve the quality of education as stated by both Intel and

DepEd during a pressed state, the optimal ratio for e-learning model is 1:1.

This can be accomplished by easily if each pupil in a school had their own

computer, handheld device or a laptop to use for e-learning. E-learning can

easily provide learners a 1:1 the ratio in their learning experience. Software

such as an educational game can now be used to give pupils drill while their

teachers can intervene and help pupils who are struggling with their learning.
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In accordance to Philippine Basic Education‘s article (Feb. 20, 2013),

Technology in the classroom can truly make a difference if it enables

something unique inside the classroom. One unique learning strategy with

technology is the technology itself. A lot of children play computer or internet

games. Games seem to be engaging, if not addictive. How can games help

in learning is a key question in designing effective technology inside a

classroom. Designing games, of course, takes technology to a real

educational level. Writing one obviously requires an introduction to a

structure and a language that allows translation of ideas into a computer,

tablet or phone screen. Constructing a computer game introduces a child into

how systems work while probing concepts in the sciences and the arts. A

game, after all, should make sense, and, at the same time, should be

appealing to the senses. Imagining a game paves the way to anticipating and

participating in social online interactions. Games can indeed serve as a

gateway for most children to digital literacy. Designing a game truly takes

technology into a classroom far beyond merely gluing a kid's eyes and

fingers to a screen.

In line with AsTEN Journal of Teacher Education(2016): In this

technological age, science subdues and even drives societies with its ideas

and products and it is very likely that the impact of science and technology
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on people‘s lives will persist to exist and increase in the coming years.

Through science, the way people think shifts to a more critical approach.

Frequently, science has been recognized to be of great significance because

of its connection to technology, which, in a government perspective, is a

priority area for economic development (Elkington, 2015). The reason

probably why many countries have embedded the very sense of science in

their respective educational system so as to enable citizens to actively

participate in modern societies. In fact, sympathetic to Ogena, Lana and

Sasota (2010), the major factor in a nation‘s development is the emphasis on

science and mathematics education which brings the nation to integrate

science and technology in their national agenda.

Conforming to Espinosa, John Paul M. (Sep 17, 2016), Learning with

the help of technology: The convenience and effectiveness of e-learning had

long been recognized by educational institutions and education officials. A

number of schools in the country have embraced with enthusiasm emerging

education technology in that lectures are boosted by computer-based, or

gadget-based, learning. Today, in some schools, netbooks have replaced

notebooks and some lessons are delivered electronically.

In accordance with Capili, Arjay and Manuel, Kenneth (March

2014), Development of e-learning system for Philippine Literature subject of


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College of Arts and Sciences in Cavite State University: E-Learning or

Electronic learning is an inclusive term that describes educational technology

that electronically or technologically supports learning and teaching. It

includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, and

streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes. It is an

education using the internet, network, and computer. It is essentially the

network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge, refers to use electronic

applications and processes to learn. E-learning applications and processes

include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms

and digital collaboration. E-learning means connectivity, communication,

collaboration and contents.

The local literature in the Philippines regarding e-learning coincides

with other literature from other countries which also support the

implementation of e-learning in schools in order to improve the learning and

teaching process of pupils and teachers alike.

Local Studies

One of the sources that can verify the effectivity of e-learning are

feedbacks from pupils and the pupils‘ performance themselves. Esperanza,

Peter (2012) is a teacher that supports e-learning and started teaching his
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pupils both Filipinos and Americans by recording his lectures in video and

focus on exercises or activities during class hours. Feedbacks of pupils

indicate that it is working for them and that they are learning more. Their

performance in Peter Esperanza‘s class also supports their claims of their

improvements. They all have better performances in Peter Esperanza‘s math

classes.

Sympathetic to the study on e-Learning for the Philippines by

Arimbuyutan, Reynato C. Seoksoo Kim, Jae-gu Song, and WooyoungSo

(2014), ―The first to adopt online corporate training methods in the

Philippines were the multinationals. Big local corporations followed suit

namely: the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Manila

Electric Company (MERALCO), the Aboitiz Group, Unilab among others.

These companies applied e-learning methodologies to cut cost and improve

their human resource development system. Take into account the experience

of PLDT, they used e-learning techniques to significantly increase its number

of certified CISCO network associates and to train employees across various

operational functions. Using their customized solution Smart force as its

packaged software they were able to encourage employees to pursue

training in any area of the business they had interest in and blending e-

learning with hands-on projects. PLDT estimated that this kind of ―e-cross
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training has saved the company over US$400,000 in training expenses over

the past five years.‖

Consonant to Teo (2014), aimed to clarify the extent of teacher

satisfaction of the application of e-learning program among persevere

teachers. Teo (2014) investigated the key drivers of teachers‘ e-learning

satisfaction. 387 participants in a postgraduate diploma in education

completed a survey questionnaire to measure 6 constructs (tutor quality,

perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, course delivery, facilitating

conditions ,and course satisfaction). By using structural equation modeling,

data analysis showed that, apart from facilitating conditions, all other

constructs were significant predictors of e-learning satisfaction. Nevertheless,

the facilitating conditions construct was found to be a significant mediator of

perceived ease of use and satisfaction.

Congenial to Dumanig, Jopal Matthew M., Fabio, Berlin Jade L.

Ibanez, Mavis Joy C. and Rendon, Hazel May V. (2013), the study intended

to provide an E-Learning Management System with Screen Share

Technology for Thompson Christian School to cater the needs of the pupils

by providing the course materials, taking of examination/quizzes online and

by providing screen share during discussions. The proponents used the Web

Engineering process model throughout the study. The proponents did some
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interviews and observation on the company to evaluate the current system

and to be able to propose an alternative for the betterment of the company.

The E-Learning will be working with the Screen Share during class hours.

The E-Learning Management System with Screen Share Technology

ensures quality education for the pupils and for quality teaching of the

teachers. Modules are given and are very useful for the pupils and of the

teachers. The computation of the cost and benefit analysis are also provided

for the school to implement the system. The development of this system had

gone to different processes and circumstances. This system ensures that the

benefits of the school observe quality standards and quality assurance. In

lieu of this, the proponents recommended that the company will have a faster

internet connection and a person who will maintain or observe the system for

the errors as time goes by for quality satisfaction.

Coherent to Dela Pena-Bandalaria, Melinda., (2014), in the

Philippines, the term e-learning is used synonymously with online learning

and concerns the online delivery of instructional content as well as

associated support services to pupils. This article is primarily based on

experiences at the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). It

showcases the development of e-learning in the country from just a

supplement within once-a-month face-to-face (FTF) sessions in a university


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learning center to more extensive use of a learning management system

(LMS) as a venue for academic discussions as well as learning

assessments, sharing learning resources and content, and pupils

submissions of course requirements. Also discussed is how the mobile

phone is being used to bridge the digital divide and make the digitally

excluded sectors of the Filipino society become part of the online learning

program of the university. The mechanisms being used to ensure quality

education in e-learning as well as the challenges faced by e-learning

institutions are extensively detailed.

Coherent to Capili, Arjay C., and Manuel, Kenneth B., (2014), E-

learning or Electronic ,earning is an inclusive term that describes educational

technology that electronically or technologically supports learning and

teaching" It includesnumerous types of media that deliver text, audio,

images, and streaming video, and includestechnology applications and

processes" It is an Education using the Internet, network, and computer. It is

essentially the network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge, refers to

use electronic applications and processes to learn. E-learning applications

and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual

classrooms and digital collaboration. E-learning means Connectivity,

Communication, Collaboration and Contents.


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Synthesis

The gathered studies and literature of both foreign and local literature

both focus on the benefits and potential of using technology to enhance the

learning process and experience of pupils. E-learning in its many forms is

considered by some education experts to be the future of education due to

the results found in the studies regarding-learning and in particular, the

proponents focused branch of e-learning, game-based learning has resulted

in pupils being more interested and motivated to do exercises. E-learning has

proven to be very effective in raising the curiosity to move forward of the

pupil because they do not see it as tedious and looks at e-learning as like

that of a game and they show more interest in learning using technology than

textbooks. E-learning is also very accessible because data can easily be

transferred and shared, giving more flexibility in studies and more advanced

concepts can be tackled sooner because the pupil has access on the

technology to reach out to various sources of information that can be

provided by the professor or someone else. Another positive of e-learning is

the ability to save and store documents safely without ever decaying like

textbooks. In terms of storage and accessibility, e-learning has shown to be

superior to that of standard learning.


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Hence, with the advent of today‘s technology, a great deal can now be

accomplished more economically in education.


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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the use of Descriptive Method of Research.

Research Design

Descriptive method was used for this research study. A survey

questionnaire was used by the descriptive method to gather information from

the respondents of the proposed system.

Research Locale

The proponents chose to lead a study in SirangLupa Elementary

School. Since the school accepted that the study appropriates led in whole

organization and pupil of the school with the capacities to answer the

directed survey. Since the population of the school is over a thousand pupils,

the proponents will have a hundred pupils answer the survey conducted and

conveniently chosen as respondents. The proponents will implement the

conventional technique to answer the coordinated survey, it will answer the

capability of the school to handle the proposed system.


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Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework is a conceptual perspective. The conceptual

framework of Battle Mathika explains the flow of the game, that is how a

player of the game would progress while they are playing and how the

system can help the player know which math skills they need to focus and

improve.

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework of the Game Flow of the proposed

Education Game – “Battle Mathika”


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Figure 1.2 Paradigm of the Study


Figure 1.1 explains how the educational game, Battle Mathika‘s

gameplay flows while a player is using it to practice or brush up their basic

math skills. First the player would select a character to use and the game will

start. During playing the game the player will start encountering enemies

which will prompt the player to answer simple math problems, each correct

answer will allow the player to deal damage and defeat each enemy he may

encounter and earn points during the process. The player will be able to

proceed to the next stage in the game once he reaches the end of the

present stage and the whole process will repeat for the next until the final

stage has been cleared by the player.

Figure 1.2 explains the input and output of the system while Figure 1.1

explains the process and game flow of the proposed e-learning game. The

input of the system is the amount of time it takes a user to clear a stage and
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the users score on given math problems which indicate their level of

understanding. The output of the system is the user‘s performance feedback

which displays a message of how well a user performed in the given

problems and exercises in the e-learning game. The performance feedback

will include information about the areas the user needs to focus and improve

on.
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System Architecture

The proponents used the visual models to describe the interaction of

the user with a system.

Figure 1.3 System Architecture of Battle Mathika: An Educational Math


Game for Elementary Pupils

Figure 1.3 shows from the user to hardware and software and vice

versa. The user to mobile runs on android where the application will be

installed accordingly.
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Context Diagram
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Data Flow Diagram


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Use Case Diagram


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Graphic User Interface


“Menu”

“Stage Selection”
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“Leaderboard”
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“Character Selection”
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“Inside The Game”


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“End of the Game”

Gantt Chart

The Gantt Chart helped the proponents in planning ahead towards the

development progress of the system. Each activity was represented by a bar.

The position, length, and color of the bar reflect to the start date, duration

and end date of an activity.


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Research Instrument

The proponents will choose the following instrumentation for data

gathering: Interview, Questionnaire, Evaluation, and Observation.

1. Interview – The proponents will conduct an interview with the

Elementary pupils for initial gathering data.

2. Questionnaire – The proponents will give the questionnaire to the

elementary pupils further assembling information that comprises of

a progression of inquiries and different prompts.

3. Survey - The proponents used this technique to gather information

how the proponents can improve the system before it implements

to Elementary Schools. With this approach, the proponents will

recover the data in a fast and proficient path from the respondents.

4. Observation – The proponents will conduct an observation during

the system testing to monitor if the users are comfortable with the

proposed system and to recognize the conceivable mistakes and

what does the proposed system should be progressed.


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Software Methodology

Software methodology refers to the processes used to plan strategies

for software development. There is a variety of software approaches

developed over time.

Requirement Quick Building


Gathering Design Prototype

Refining User
Deployment Evaluation
Prototype

Respondents of the study

The proponents chose the 100 pupils of SirangLupa Elementary

School to be the respondents of the study that composed of four (4) pupils

per session based on the availability of android phone/tablet. They will be

responsible for the testing and evaluation of the proposed system based on

the provided criteria by the proponents to achieve the objectives of the study.
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Sampling Design

The proponents used survey sampling using a Likert scale with the

help of a survey of the users that can be used by the proponents for the

future updates of the proposed system. Also, testing is another way to

determine the possible errors of the proposed system. This process will

determine if the proposed system achieves the satisfaction of the beneficiary

and the users of the system.

Statistical Treatment

In order to acquire the statistical treatment of data, the proponents use

the Likert scale system to measure the collected information gathered from

the respondents of this research study.

For this study, the proponents will use Likert Scale as the statistical

treatment to measure the collected data from the survey-questionnaires. The

response of the respondents will vary according to the following: Strongly

Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Agree (3) and Strongly Agree (4). The proponents

will combine the result to create a measurement scale.


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The following statistical tools were used in the analysis of data:

Likert Scale System

Formula:

Where:

n = Number of respondents in a single gender classification


T = Total number of respondents including all the gender classification

1. Weighted Mean
Formula:

Where:
WM = weighted mean n = total number of respondents
W = weighted factor ∑ = summation
value of eacf facror
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Table 3.1 Percentage of Respondents


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Battle Mathika Survey form

Name (optional ): __________________ Date :________________

Gender (optional) : ___________________ Grade/Section:___________________

Direction (Panuto ) : Answer the following statement by filling the appropriate


boxes. Put () check the box that matches your answer, ( ) encircle the wrong
answer then fill another box (Sagutan ang mga sumusunod na pahayag. Lagyan ng
() tsek ang kahon na tumutugma sayong sagot, ( )bilugan ang maling sagot at
sagutan ng panibago).
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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, and INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter discussed analytic data interpretation using tables and

graphs. This data and graphical representation helped the proponents

formulate a non-bias conclusion. This chapter covers the presentation

interpretations, the analysis of the proponents on the observation and

evaluation of the proposed software.

Data Analysis

Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical

and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and

evaluate data.

The total respondents of the survey are 100. The table below shows

the computation of weighted-mean in every question in the survey.

Legend:

Points Rating scale Verbal interpretation

4 3.26-4.00 Strongly Agree

3 2.51-3.25 Agree

2 1.76-2.50 Disagree

1 1.00-1.75 Strongly Disagree


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Survey Result of Battle Mathika

Table 4.1 : Respondents feedback on question #1

Table 4.1 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 1, 55% rated themselves 4

(Strongly Agree), 44% rated themselves 3 (Agree), 1% rated themselves 2

(Disagree). 0% 1 (Strongly disagree)

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 4

(Strongly Agree). The weighted mean is 3.54. The interpretation result of the

data is Strongly Agree.


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Table 4.2 : Respondents feedback on question #2

Table 4.2 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 2, 51% rated themselves 3

(Agree), 47% rated themselves 4 (Strongly Agree), 2% rated themselves 2

(Disagree), and 0% 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 3

(Agree). The weighted mean is 3.45. The interpretation result of the data is

Strongly Agree.
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Table 4.3 : Respondents feedback on question #3

Table 4.3 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 3, 55% rated themselves

3 (Agree), 41% rated themselves 4 (Strongly Agree), 4% rated themselves 2

(Disagree) and 0% 1 (strongly disagree)

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 3

(Agree). The weighted mean is 3.37. The interpretation result of the data is

Strongly Agree.
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Table 4.4 : Respondents feedback on question #4

Table 4.4 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 4, 49% rated themselves

3 (Agree), 48% rated themselves 3 (Strongly Agree), 3% rated themselves 2

(disagree), and 0% 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 3

(Agree). The weighted mean is 3.45. The interpretation result of the data is

Strongly Agree.
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Table 4.5 : Respondents feedback on question #5

Table 4.5 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 5, 62% rated themselves

3 (Agree), 35% rated themselves 4 (Strongly Agree), and 0% both 2

(Disagree) and 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that most of the respondents rated themselves 3 (Agree).

The weighted mean is 3.32. The interpretation result of the data is Strongly

Agree.
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Table 4.6 : Respondents feedback on question #6

Table 4.6 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 6, 66% rated themselves

3 (Agree), 36% rated themselves 4 (Strongly Agree), 4% rated themselves 2

(Disagree), and 0% 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 3

(Agree). The weighted mean is 3.32. The interpretation result of the data is

Strongly Agree.
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Table 4.7 : Respondents feedback on question #7

Table 4.7 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 7, 53% rated themselves

3 (Agree), 47% rated themselves 4 (Strongly Agree), 1% rated themselves 2

(Disagree), and 0% 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that most of the respondents rated themselves 3 ( Agree).

The weighted mean is 3.47. The interpretation result of the data is Strongly

Agree.
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Table 4.8 : Respondents feedback on question #8

Table 4.8 shows the respondents feedback of grade V and grade VI of

Siranglupa Elementary School in Question number 8, 57% rated themselves

4 (Strongly Agree), 42% rated themselves 3 (Agree), 1% rated themselves 2

(Disagree), and 0% 1 (strongly disagree).

This means that majority of the respondents rated themselves 3

(Agree). The weighted mean is 3.56. The interpretation result of the data is

Strongly Agree.
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Table 4.9 Summary of evaluation of the respondents

Table 4.9 shows the summary of an evaluation of the respondents

about the proposed system. The weighted means of each criterion shows

that the proposed software performs on the excellent rate with a 3.435

weighted mean, the interpretation result of the data is Strongly Agree and

proving that it is a good idea and concept for the teachers and pupils of

Sirang Lupa Elementary School.


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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, and RECOMMENDATION

This chapter discusses the summary of the analysis and findings of

the proposed software that was tackled, the conclusion and

recommendations. The summary is the main points of previously stated facts

or statements. The conclusion is the end result and recommendation is

where the proponents will suggest using the proposed system.

Summary

Educational games are useful in making pupils enjoy doing their

exercises and skills. The proponents‘ system Battle Mathika strives to make

pupils more engaged in practicing their math skills.

Based on the results of the survey conducted by the proponents,

implementing the proposed software gave the following validity in terms of:

Table 4.1 with a weighted mean of 3.54 shows that the respondents

personally enjoyed playing the proposed system. This means that the

proposed system achieved the goal of providing enjoyment to the pupils

playing the proposed system.

Table 4.2 with a weighted mean of 3.32 shows that the respondents

agree that implementation of the proposed system will help the class enjoy
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studying math. This means that the proposed system makes practicing and

studying math enjoyable for the Respondents.

Table 4.3 with a weighted mean of 3.45 shows that the proposed

system helped the respondents improve their problem solving skills. This

means that the proposed game application is good for the curriculum of the

pupil.

Table 4.4 with a weighted mean of 3.37 shows that the proposed

system boosts the respondents‘ speed in solving mathematical problems.

This means that the proposed system improved the respondents‘ solving

speed of mathematical problems.

Table 4.5 with a weighted mean of 3.37 shows that the proposed

system is effective on practicing math concepts for the pupil. This means that

incorporating the proposed system will help the respondents to polish their

mathematical concepts and reinforce their basic math skills.

Table 4.6 with a weighted mean of 3.47 shows that the game provides

appreciation on practicing mathematical skills. This means that the proposed

system is a good learning tool for the pupils especially for math.

Table 4.7 with a weighted mean of 3.45 shows that the proposed game

application can be recommended to others who are interested in math. This

means that the proposed game application can reduce the discomfort of

studying math for pupils.


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Table 4.8 with a weighted mean of 3.32 shows that the respondents

personally like to have this implanted as part of class exercises or activities.

This means that the proposed system is suitable to be part of the curriculum

for the pupils.

Table 4.9 with a weighted mean of 3.435 shows that the respondents

acknowledge the advantages the proposed system offers. This means that

the proposed system will be achieving maximum productivity with minimum

wasted effort or expense for the respondents.

Conclusion

The proponents concluded that the educational game Battle Mathika

can really help pupils to be more engaged in practicing their math skills and

that the game is included as part of math exercises.

In addition, the educational game Battle Mathika was verified to be

acceptable in terms of serving as an educational and entertaining tool in

elementary math studies, improving the speed of which the pupils solve math

problems, producing noticeable results on the improvement of the pupils, and

helping the latter understand and appreciate the integration of technology

into our daily lives. It is also verified that using Battle Mathika provides pupils

with sufficient amount of exercises to help them practice their math skills.
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Recommendation

The proponents recommend that the educational game Battle Mathika

to be included in pupils‘ math exercises during their math-related classes.

For the future researchers who will conduct the same field of study, the

concept and findings included in this study are recommended as their

reference for their study.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Bibliographies

A. Foreign Literature and Studies

Jameson, E. (Sep 18,2014). Research Roundup: Studies Support Game-


based Learning. filamentgames.com.

Trybus, J. (2014). Game-Based Learning: What it is, Why it Works, and


Where it's Going. New Media Institute.com.

Bishop, J.L (2013). The Flipped Classroom. Sophia.org.

Holmes, J.B. (2015). A framework for understanding game-based teaching


and learning. Emeraldinsight.com

Frencken, H., Jacobi, R., & Jager, K. (2012). European education today.
Eric.ed.gov.

Banciut, V., Gordan, M. & Stanciu, S. (2012), The development of new


technologies in communications. techwalla.com.

Moravec et al. (2015). The influence of using e-learning tools on the results
of pupils at the tests. sciencedirect.com.

Kapeso, S. (2014), Almajali et al. (2016), & Shannak (2013). A Review of

Literature on E-Learning Systems in Higher Education. researchgate.net.


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B. Local Literature and Studies

Dela Cruz, (2017). Intel Joins Philippine Education Department in E-Learning


Projec. allheadlinenews.com.

(Feb. 20, 2013). Teachers Should Be Seen and Heard. Philippine Basic
Education. philippinesbasiceducation.us.

(2016). JOURNAL OF TEACHER EDUCATIO. AsTEN Journal of Teacher


Education. pnuresearchportal.org

G Tongi, Effectiveness & Success of Peter Esperanza‘s Flipped Classroom,


Kabayan Today

Espinosa, J.P.M(Sep 17, 2016). Learning with the help of technology.


manilatimes.net.

Capili, A. & Manuel, K. (March, 2014). Development of e-learning system for


Philippine Literature subject of Colleg. academia.edu.

Esperanza, P. (2012). People‘s Feedback on Numberbender.com.


numberbender.com.

Arimbuyutan, R.C., Kim, S., Song, J. et al. (2014). study on e-Learning for
Philippines. sersc.org.

Teo (2014). programamong persevere teachers. repository.umac.mo.

Dumanig, J.M.M., Fabio, B.J.L., Ibanez, M.J.C. et al.(2013). E-Learning


Management System with Screen Share Technology. ejournals.ph.

Dela Pena-Bandalaria, M. (2014). Ensuring Quality Education in Open and


Distance eLearning. emeraldinsight.com.

Capili, A.C. & Manuel,K.B. (2014). E-learning. pmma.edu.ph.


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APPENDICES
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APPENDIX A : Letter to Conduct a Study


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APPENDIX B : Storyboard
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APPENDIX C : User Manual


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You can start the game by pressing the ―Play‖ button, see the high scores

using the ―High Score‖ button, select the stage which you wanna start in

usiing the ―Select Stage‖ button, View the instruction manual within the game

using the ―Help Guide‖ or exit the application by tapping the right button on

your phone or clicking the ―Exit‖ button.

If you tapped the high score button from the main menu or from the final

score panel, you can see the high scores from the different players in the
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Leader Board. The Leader Board is updated online each time a new high

score is recorded.

If you tapped the Select Stage button from the main menu you are presented

the options to select the stages 1,2,3 or return back to the Main menu using

the Main Menu button.


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If you tapped the Help Guide button, you are redirected to the instructions

manual on how the various buttons within the game by using the Next and

Return button to view each tutorial image and using return or main menu

button to be redirected back to the main menu.


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If you tapped the play button from the main menu, the character selection will

appear and you can select which character you would like to use to play the

game.
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Once the game has started, you can move around by tapping the left or right

arrow buttons on the bottom left of your screen to move towards the desired

direction on. To jump over obstacles, tap the circular button on the bottom

right of the screen. If a monster appears, you can attack it by answering the
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math problem by tapping the right answer in the choices given also at the

bottom right of your screen

Once you complete stages or your lives run out, you will go to the registration

where you can register your name with your score.


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After registering, you will go to the Final Score Panel where you can choose

to visit the Leader Board, Retry playing the game, and or go back to the main

menu.
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APPENDIX D : Program Listing


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//Controller 2D

//Controls and or manages parameters and functions of the game‘s gravity,

wall climb jump of player, and other separate codes controlling other 2D

movements in the game.

using UnityEngine;

using System.Collections;

public class Controller2D : RayCastController {

public float maxSlopeAngle = 80;

public CollisionInfo collisions;

[HideInInspector]

public Vector2 playerInput;

public override void Start() {

base.Start ();

collisions.faceDir = 1;

public void Move(Vector2 moveAmount, bool standingOnPlatform) {

Move (moveAmount, Vector2.zero, standingOnPlatform);

public void Move(Vector2 moveAmount, Vector2 input, bool

standingOnPlatform = false) {

UpdateRaycastOrigins ();
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collisions.Reset ();

collisions.moveAmountOld = moveAmount;

playerInput = input;

if (moveAmount.y < 0) {

DescendSlope(ref moveAmount);

if (moveAmount.x != 0) {

collisions.faceDir = (int)Mathf.Sign(moveAmount.x);

HorizontalCollisions (ref moveAmount);

if (moveAmount.y != 0) {

VerticalCollisions (ref moveAmount);

transform.Translate (moveAmount);

if (standingOnPlatform) {

collisions.below = true;

}
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void HorizontalCollisions(ref Vector2 moveAmount) {

float directionX = collisions.faceDir;

float rayLength = Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.x) + skinWidth;

if (Mathf.Abs(moveAmount.x) < skinWidth) {

rayLength = 2*skinWidth;

for (int i = 0; i < horizontalRayCount; i ++) {

Vector2 rayOrigin = (directionX == -

1)?raycastOrigins.bottomLeft:raycastOrigins.bottomRight;

rayOrigin += Vector2.up * (horizontalRaySpacing * i);

RaycastHit2D hit = Physics2D.Raycast(rayOrigin,

Vector2.right * directionX, rayLength, collisionMask);

Debug.DrawRay(rayOrigin, Vector2.right *

directionX,Color.red);

if (hit) {

if (hit.distance == 0) {
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continue;

float slopeAngle = Vector2.Angle(hit.normal,

Vector2.up);

if (i == 0 && slopeAngle <= maxSlopeAngle) {

if (collisions.descendingSlope) {

collisions.descendingSlope = false;

moveAmount =

collisions.moveAmountOld;

float distanceToSlopeStart = 0;

if (slopeAngle != collisions.slopeAngleOld) {

distanceToSlopeStart = hit.distance-skinWidth;

moveAmount.x -= distanceToSlopeStart *

directionX;

ClimbSlope(ref moveAmount, slopeAngle,

hit.normal);

moveAmount.x += distanceToSlopeStart *

directionX;
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if (!collisions.climbingSlope || slopeAngle >

maxSlopeAngle) {

moveAmount.x = (hit.distance - skinWidth)

* directionX;

rayLength = hit.distance;

if (collisions.climbingSlope) {

moveAmount.y =

Mathf.Tan(collisions.slopeAngle * Mathf.Deg2Rad) *

Mathf.Abs(moveAmount.x);

collisions.left = directionX == -1;

collisions.right = directionX == 1;

void VerticalCollisions(ref Vector2 moveAmount) {

float directionY = Mathf.Sign (moveAmount.y);

float rayLength = Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.y) + skinWidth;


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for (int i = 0; i < verticalRayCount; i ++) {

Vector2 rayOrigin = (directionY == -

1)?raycastOrigins.bottomLeft:raycastOrigins.topLeft;

rayOrigin += Vector2.right * (verticalRaySpacing * i +

moveAmount.x);

RaycastHit2D hit = Physics2D.Raycast(rayOrigin,

Vector2.up * directionY, rayLength, collisionMask);

Debug.DrawRay(rayOrigin, Vector2.up *

directionY,Color.red);

if (hit) {

if (hit.collider.tag == "Through") {

if (directionY == 1 || hit.distance == 0) {

continue;

if (collisions.fallingThroughPlatform) {

continue;

if (playerInput.y == -1) {
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collisions.fallingThroughPlatform =

true;

Invoke("ResetFallingThroughPlatform",.5f);

continue;

moveAmount.y = (hit.distance - skinWidth) *

directionY;

rayLength = hit.distance;

if (collisions.climbingSlope) {

moveAmount.x = moveAmount.y /

Mathf.Tan(collisions.slopeAngle * Mathf.Deg2Rad) *

Mathf.Sign(moveAmount.x);

collisions.below = directionY == -1;

collisions.above = directionY == 1;

}
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if (collisions.climbingSlope) {

float directionX = Mathf.Sign(moveAmount.x);

rayLength = Mathf.Abs(moveAmount.x) + skinWidth;

Vector2 rayOrigin = ((directionX == -

1)?raycastOrigins.bottomLeft:raycastOrigins.bottomRight) + Vector2.up *

moveAmount.y;

RaycastHit2D hit =

Physics2D.Raycast(rayOrigin,Vector2.right *

directionX,rayLength,collisionMask);

if (hit) {

float slopeAngle =

Vector2.Angle(hit.normal,Vector2.up);

if (slopeAngle != collisions.slopeAngle) {

moveAmount.x = (hit.distance - skinWidth)

* directionX;

collisions.slopeAngle = slopeAngle;

collisions.slopeNormal = hit.normal;

}
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void ClimbSlope(ref Vector2 moveAmount, float slopeAngle, Vector2

slopeNormal) {

float moveDistance = Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.x);

float climbmoveAmountY = Mathf.Sin (slopeAngle *

Mathf.Deg2Rad) * moveDistance;

if (moveAmount.y <= climbmoveAmountY) {

moveAmount.y = climbmoveAmountY;

moveAmount.x = Mathf.Cos (slopeAngle *

Mathf.Deg2Rad) * moveDistance * Mathf.Sign (moveAmount.x);

collisions.below = true;

collisions.climbingSlope = true;

collisions.slopeAngle = slopeAngle;

collisions.slopeNormal = slopeNormal;

void DescendSlope(ref Vector2 moveAmount) {


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RaycastHit2D maxSlopeHitLeft = Physics2D.Raycast

(raycastOrigins.bottomLeft, Vector2.down, Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.y) +

skinWidth, collisionMask);

RaycastHit2D maxSlopeHitRight = Physics2D.Raycast

(raycastOrigins.bottomRight, Vector2.down, Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.y) +

skinWidth, collisionMask);

if (maxSlopeHitLeft ^ maxSlopeHitRight) {

SlideDownMaxSlope (maxSlopeHitLeft, ref

moveAmount);

SlideDownMaxSlope (maxSlopeHitRight, ref

moveAmount);

if (!collisions.slidingDownMaxSlope) {

float directionX = Mathf.Sign (moveAmount.x);

Vector2 rayOrigin = (directionX == -1) ?

raycastOrigins.bottomRight : raycastOrigins.bottomLeft;

RaycastHit2D hit = Physics2D.Raycast (rayOrigin, -

Vector2.up, Mathf.Infinity, collisionMask);

if (hit) {
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float slopeAngle = Vector2.Angle (hit.normal,

Vector2.up);

if (slopeAngle != 0 && slopeAngle <=

maxSlopeAngle) {

if (Mathf.Sign (hit.normal.x) == directionX) {

if (hit.distance - skinWidth <=

Mathf.Tan (slopeAngle * Mathf.Deg2Rad) * Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.x)) {

float moveDistance =

Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.x);

float descendmoveAmountY

= Mathf.Sin (slopeAngle * Mathf.Deg2Rad) * moveDistance;

moveAmount.x = Mathf.Cos

(slopeAngle * Mathf.Deg2Rad) * moveDistance * Mathf.Sign

(moveAmount.x);

moveAmount.y -= descendmoveAmountY;

collisions.slopeAngle = slopeAngle;

collisions.descendingSlope = true;

collisions.below = true;

collisions.slopeNormal =

hit.normal;

}
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void SlideDownMaxSlope(RaycastHit2D hit, ref Vector2 moveAmount)

if (hit) {

float slopeAngle = Vector2.Angle(hit.normal,

Vector2.up);

if (slopeAngle > maxSlopeAngle) {

moveAmount.x = Mathf.Sign(hit.normal.x) *

(Mathf.Abs (moveAmount.y) - hit.distance) / Mathf.Tan (slopeAngle *

Mathf.Deg2Rad);

collisions.slopeAngle = slopeAngle;

collisions.slidingDownMaxSlope = true;

collisions.slopeNormal = hit.normal;

}
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void ResetFallingThroughPlatform() {

collisions.fallingThroughPlatform = false;

public struct CollisionInfo {

public bool above, below;

public bool left, right;

public bool climbingSlope;

public bool descendingSlope;

public bool slidingDownMaxSlope;

public float slopeAngle, slopeAngleOld;

public Vector2 slopeNormal;

public Vector2 moveAmountOld;

public int faceDir;

public bool fallingThroughPlatform;

public void Reset() {

above = below = false;

left = right = false;

climbingSlope = false;

descendingSlope = false;

slidingDownMaxSlope = false;

slopeNormal = Vector2.zero;
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slopeAngleOld = slopeAngle;

slopeAngle = 0;

}
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APPENDIX E : Survey
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APPENDIX F : Curriculum Vitae


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APPENDIX G : FINAL PERMIT


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APPENDIX H : COR PHOTOCOPY