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No.

Years Author 1 Title of Paper


1 2018 Mohamad Combustion performance and exhaust
Azrin Ahmad emissions fuelled with non-surfactant
water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from
different water sources

2 2010 A. Alahmer, J Engine performance using emulsified diesel


fuel

3 2018 Nurul Aiyshah Effects of different water percentages in


Mazlan non-surfactant emulsion fuel on
performance and exhaust emissions of a
light-duty truck
4 2016 Nur Atiqah Performance and emissions of light-duty
Ramlan diesel vehicle fuelled with non-surfactant
low grade diesel emulsion compared with a
high grade diesel in Malaysia

5 2018 Pijush Kanti Experimental investigation on the


Mondal combustion, performance and emissions
characteristic of a diesel engine using water
emulsified diesel prepared by
ultrasonication
6 2011 J. Sadhik Basha An Experimental Study in a CI Engine Using
Nanoadditive Blended Water-diesel
emulsion fuels

7 2013 Wei Zhang Influence of water emulsified diesel oxygen


enriched air on diesel engine NO smoke
emissions and combustion characteristics

8 2015 Suresh V. Combustion and Performance


Characteristics of Water-in-diesel Emulsion
Fuel
9 2015 Ahmad Muhsin Combustion performance and emission
Ithnin analysis of diesel engine fuelled with water-
in-diesel emulsion fuel made from low-
grade diesel fuel

10 2018 Dhani Avianto Diesel engine emission analysis using fuel


Sugeng from diverse emulsification methods
11 2016 A.K. Durability studies of single cylinder diesel
Hasannuddin engine running on emulsion fuel
12 2016 A.K. Performance, emissions and lubricant oil
Hasannuddin analysis of diesel engine running on
emulsion fuel
13 2014 Ming Huo Study on the spray and combustion
characteristics of water–emulsified diesel

14 2011 Alain Maiboom NOx and PM emissions reduction on an


automotive HSDI Diesel engine with water-
in-diesel emulsion and EGR: An
experimental study
15 2009 M. T. Ghannam Stability Behavior of Water-in-Diesel Fuel
Emulsion

16 2013 M. Ebna Alam Experimental investigation of the


Fahd performance and emission characteristics
of direct injection diesel engine by water
emulsion diesel under varying engine load
condition
17 2018 Ahmad Muhsin Emulsifier-free Water-in-Diesel emulsion
Ithnin fuel: Its stability behaviour, engine
performance and exhaust emission
18 2014 A.K. Stability Studies of Water-in-Diesel
Hasannuddin Emulsion
19 2008 Cherng-Yuan Comparison of fuel properties and emission
Lin characteristics of two- and three-phase
emulsions prepared by ultrasonically
vibrating and mechanically homogenizing
emulsification methods
20 2015 Jin-Yuan Syu Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel
engine generator’s thermal efficiency and
exhaust

21 2018 D.R. Emberson Optical investigations in a CI engine fueled


with water in diesel emulsion produced
through microchannels
22 2011 Zuogang Guo Bio-oil emulsion fuels production using
power ultrasound

23 2016 Mohammad Experimental investigation of a diesel


Reza Seifi engine power, torque and noise emission
using water–diesel emulsions

24 1977 F. L. DRYER Water Addition To Practical Combustion


Systems - concepts And Applications
Journal Name Quartiles Link % water General Description
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Q2 Link 5 Water in diesel fuel emulsions
( 5% water ) is tested to determine
the effect of performance and
emissions.
Diesel fuel mixed with 3 types of
water namely tapwater, rainwater,
and seawater.

Energy Conversion and Management Q1 Link 0,5,10,15, In this study, research was
20,25,30 conducted on comparing the
use of diesel fuel mixed water
with a percentage of 5% to
30%, and effect on
performance and emissions by
means of theoretical and
experimental studies.

Journal of Cleaner Production Q1 Link Diesel fuel This study discusses the use of
Euro5, 5, diesel fuel for Euro 5 standards
6.5, 10.8, 30 with 4 variations of water
emulsion. The fuel is produced
with Real Time Non Surfactant
Emulsions Fuel supply system. The
truck is run with a chassis
dynamometer.
Energy Conversion and Management Q1 Link DE5 ( diesel This study discusses about the
fuel Euro 5 ); effectiveness of RTES equipment
in terms of reducing fuel
consumption and emissions by
DE2 ( diesel conducting an experimental study
fuel Euro 2 ); on light duty truck isuzu vehicles.
The vehicle tested
EDE2 on a chassis dynamometer with
( Diesel fuel the (WVU) 5-Peak Cycle test
Euro 2 + method and using diesel fuel euro
6,5% water ) 5, diesel fuel euro 2, and diesel
fuel euro 2 + 6,5% water.
Comparison
of the results of the test
( performance and emissions )
with the 3 types of fuels
mentioned above.

Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences


Q2 and Engineering
Link 10 this research explains about: The
process of mixing water with WED
using an ultrasonic device
Water
emulsion combustion process
Performace and
emission characteristic WED
Emulsions stability
Physical and Caloric properties
of WED
Testing of engines with diesel fuel
and WED
International Journal of Green Energy Q3 Link 15 This study describes the addition
of alumina nano particles in a
mixture of water emulsion with
surfactan which aims to shorten
ignition delay (where by adding
water emulsion, the ignition delay
is longer than without water
emulsions, so additives need to be
added), and investigate the effect
on combustion characteristics ,
performance and emissions.

Energy Q1 Link 10, 20, 30 In this research, experiments were


conducted on a turbo-charged
direct injection diesel engine
under the two conditions of 2000
rpm and 180 Nm equivalent
power (57% of the original max
load at 2000 rpm) as well as 100%
load of this speed. The
combination of intake oxygen
enrichment and water emulsified
diesel was used to improve the
NOsmoke emissions without
serious penalty in brake specific
fuel consumption (BSFC).

Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental


Q3 Link Effects
0, 5, 10 In this study, combustion and
performance characteristics of
water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (0, 5,
and 10% of water-in-diesel) are
studied in variable compression
ratio (15 to 18), single-cylinder
four-stroke diesel engine
Energy Conversion and Management Q1 Link 5, 10, 15, 20 An experiment is designed and
conducted to investigate the effect
of W/D originating from low-grade
diesel fuel (D2) on the combustion
performance and emission
characteristics of a direct injection
diesel engine under varying
engine loads (25–100%) and
constant engine speed (3000
rpm). Four types of W/D are
tested, which consist of different
water percentages (5%, 10%, 15%
and 20%), with constant 2% of
surfactant and labelled as E5, E10,
E15 and E20, respectively

Environmental Science and Pollution Research Q2 Link 10 with The emulsion preparation was
surfactan performed in real time without
using any surfactant. Instead of
6,2% mechanically breaking the water
with steam down into droplets, the water is
( S/D ) delivered thermally, by changing
its phase from gas to liquid. Steam
is used in this proposed process,
where it will be converted into
suspended water droplets once it
meets colder diesel. The product
is called steam-generated water-
in-diesel emulsion fuel (S/D). The
method is expected to reduce the
moving components of a previous
surfactant-less system; therefore,
reducing costs and increasing the
system reliability. The emission
characteristics of S/D were
compared with EURO 2 diesel
(D2), and a conventional emulsion
denoted as E10.
Energy Q1 Link 10, 20 This study is to investigate the
durability of a diesel engine that is
running on emulsion fuels. Two
emulsion fuels contain water, low
grade diesel fuel and surfactant in
the ratio of 10:89:1 v/v% (E10)
and 20:79:1 v/v% (E20) has been
tested for 200 h. The results of
using emulsion fuels were then
compared with that of Malaysian
conventional diesel fuel (D2). The
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon
Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide
(CO2), PM (particulate matter) and
exhaust temperature from the
tested fuel were measured before
and after 200 h durability test.
Analyses were also conducted on
the wear of the engine
components, viscosity change of
the lubricant and carbon deposit
formation in the combustion
chamber.
Energy Conversion and Management Q1 Link 10, 20 lack of studies have been
conducted to investigate the effect
of emulsion fuel usage for long
run. Therefore, this study aims to
investigate the effect of lubricant
oil in diesel engine that operated
using emulsion fuels for 200 h in
comparison with Malaysian
conventional diesel fuel (D2). Two
emulsion fuels were used in the
experiment comprising of water,
low grade diesel fuel and
surfactant; with ratio of 10:89:1
v/v% (E10) and 20:79:1 v/v%
(E20). Engine tests were focused
on fuel consumption, NOx, PM,
Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon
Dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2) and
exhaust temperature. Parameters
for the lubricant oil analysis
measured were included
kinematic viscosity, Total Acid
Number (TAN), ash, water
content, flash point, soot, wear
metals and additive elements.
Fuel Q1 Link Base fuel : Emulsified diesels with 10% and
Ultra low 20% water by volume were
sulfur diesel studied. The stability of the water
(ULSD) emulsified diesel was first
investigated in terms of the
hydrophilic-lipophilic balance
(HLB) value. The emulsions were
later injected and combusted in a
pre-burn type constant volume
chamber, which is able to provide
high ambient temperature and
pressure to mimic real engine
operation conditions. High speed
imaging was used to capture the
spray and combustion process
under various conditions. Puffing
and disruptive droplet combustion
was consistently observed at high
ambient temperature in the
central lift-off region with
emulsified diesel indicating the
occurrence of micro-explosion in a
burning spray flame

Fuel Q1 Link 20 In this paper an experimental


study is conducted on a modern
automotive 1.5 l HSDI Diesel
engine while injecting a water-in-
diesel emulsion (WDE) with a
volumetric water-to-fuel ratio of
25.6%. Four injection strategies
are considered with and without
pilot injection, with two levels of
injection pressure. First, the
injection of WDE is compared to
diesel-fuel in terms of combustion
and NOx and PM emissions
without using exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR).
Petroleum Science and Technology Q3 Link 0, 10, 20, 30, Emulsion of W/D was prepared by
40, 50 high-speed mixing and gradually
adding water into the diesel fuel
containing a small amount of
emulsified agent. Measured the
physical properties of diesel fuel
and W/D emulsions : density,
viscosity, surface tension.
Investigate the water droplet fuel
interaction and the water droplet
distribution within the diesel
phase.

Applied Energy Q1 Link 10 A detailed experimental study has


been conducted to evaluate the
effect of 10% water emulsion
diesel (ED10) on engine
performance and emission, and
comparison is made against base
diesel fuel. The experiments were
performed in a four cylinder 2.5 L
DI turbocharged Toyota diesel
engine at four different engine
loading conditions (25%, 50%,
75% and 100% load). During
experiments, the engine speed
was varied from 800 rpm to 3600
rpm in steps of 400 rpm for each
load condition. Results of in-
cylinder pressure
traces, heat release rate, engine
power output, brake thermal
efficiency and brake specific fuel
consumption is presented as
engine performance parameters
while measurement of exhaust
gas temperature, nitric oxide (NO)
and carbon mono-oxide (CO)
output is reported as emission
parameters.
Fuel Q1 Link 5 This paper presents the W/D
without surfactant is being used in
a conventional compression
ignition engine. Diesel fuel and
water, being stored in different
units, are quantitatively
transferred and instantaneously
emulsified by a mixing system
combination of high shear mixer
and ultrasonic mixer before
emulsion fuel, is tested in a single
cylinder, direct injection diesel
engine. The engine is tested under
four different load conditions (1
kW (25%), 2 kW (50%), 3 kW
(74%), 4 kW (100%)) and with a
constant speed of 3000 rpm. As
for comparison, a surfactant
added emulsion, and neat diesel
fuel (D2) are also tested. 5% of
water is used for both unstable
emulsion and stable emulsion.
The surfactant used for making
the SW/D is SPAN 80 with 0.2% of
volume fraction
Applied Mechanics and Materials Q4-Not Link 20, 40 Water in Diesel ( W/D ) emulsion
Active was usually produced by addition
of water into the diesel fuel with a
slight quantity of surfactant at
high speed of propeller mixing.
The studies examine the result of
several aspects on emulsion
stability. Investigated variables are
type of surfactant, mixing speed
and mixing time. Surfactant used
are span 80 and many type of
glycerines which have been
derived from a corn oil, palm oil,
soy oil, rice bran oil and sunflower
oil. The results show that the type
of surfactant gives a big impact on
the stability period of the
emulsion fuel
Fuel Q1 Link 15 two-phase W/O and threephase
O/W/O emulsions, prepared by a
mechanical homogenizer and an
ultrasonic vibrator, respectively,
were prepared and used as engine
fuel. The emulsion properties,
engine performance, and engine
emission characteristics between
these two emulsification methods
were measured and compared.
The potential of the ultrasonic
emulsification method was also
evaluated.
When comparing the two-phase
W/O and the three-phase O/W/O
emulsions prepared by either the
ultrasonic vibrator or the
mechanical homogenizer, the two-
phase W/O emulsions appeared
to have a lower fuel consumption
rate, bsfc, CO, and a lower black
smoke opacity than the three-
phase O/W/O emulsions.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Q2 Link 5, 10, 15 This paper focuses on an
investigation into the thermal
efficiency and pollution emission
analysis of a light-duty diesel
engine generator fueled with
different water content emulsified
diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0,
WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this
study, nitric oxide, carbon
monoxide, hydrocarbons, and
carbon dioxide were analyzed by a
vehicle emission gas analyzer, and
the particle size and number
concentration were measured by
an electrical low-pressure
impactor. In addition, engine
loading and fuel consumption
were also measured to calculate
the thermal efficiency.
Measurement results suggested
that water-emulsified diesel was
useful to improve the thermal
efficiency and the exhaust
emission of a diesel engine.

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science Q1 Link 9,1 The paper reports the results of
an experimental investigation
carried out on a prototype
optically accessible compression
ignition engine fueled with water
in diesel emulsion (WiDE) and
Diesel only. The effect of WiDE on
combustion process evolution and
exhaust emissions was
investigated through standard
engine benchmark and optical
diagnostics. 2D chemiluminescent
emission measurements centered
at 690 nm were carried out during
the whole combustion process to
discriminate the soot emission
from other excited chemical
species
Advanced Materials Research Canceled- Link Bio-Oil Ultrasound was adopted to
2014 prepare emulsion fuels between
bio-oil and 0# diesel. The effects
of ultrasound power and treating
time on the stability of emulsion
fuels were investigated. Excellent
stability with stable time as long
as 35 hours was obtained under
an ultrasound power of 80W and
a treating time of 3 minutes.

Fuel Q1 Link 2, 5, 8, 10 In the present study, the results of


an investigation on a Perkins
A63544 direct injection diesel
engine
using water–diesel emulsions (2%,
5%, 8% and 10% water by volume)
are reported. The engine was run
at different engine speeds ranging
from 1400 to 1900 rpm, with
steps of 100 rpm, for power and
torque analysis, and evaluate
noise emissions. And four engine
load conditions (25%, 50%, 75%
and 100%) were selected.

link paper online N/A Link


Research Purposes Mixing Equipment
Investigate combustion In line mixing system : High shear mixer and ultrasonic device
performance and emissions

The Effect of water in diesel No Description


fuel emulsions on the engine
performance and emissions.

The effects of non-surfactant Real Time Non Surfactant Emulsions Fuel supply system ( RTES ) is a
emulsion fuel produced with combination of strong mixers that are able to emulsify
Euro 5 diesel towards the diesel and water without using surfactant. Diesel fuel and water were stored
exhaust emissions and fuel in two different units
consumption. The
optimum water percentage for
the utilization of non-surfactant
emulsion fuel in vehicle.
To evaluate the efficiency of RTES, which consists of an in-line mixing system, combining two strong mixing
using RTES under a real driving devices (high shear mixer and ultrasonic mixer)
cycle, and to predict the
potential of W/D emulsion from
low grade diesel (Euro 2) as a
substitute of ULSD (Euro 5).
To estimate the effects of using
two types of diesel fuel and
emulsion from low grade diesel,
and to look into the fuel
consumption and gases
emissions

comparing combustion Ultrasonicator, model-VCX 750 of SONICS & Materials Inc., USA, operated at
performance and emissions 80% amplitude.
between pure diesel fuel and
Water emulsions diesel
The effect of addition alumina Mechanical agitator @ 2500 rpm, 15 minutes, and ultrasonicator
nanoparticle on combustion
characteristic ( cylinder
pressure, heat release, ignition
delay ), performance ( brake
thermal efficiency, brake
spesific fuel consumption ) and
emissions ( NOx, CO, HC, and
Smoke Opacity )

Explore the coupling effects of Real time mixing, Ultrasonic emulsions meter
inlet oxygen concentrations and
water contents of emulsified
diesel fuel on NO, Smoke
emissions, cylinder pressure,
heat release rate and brake
specific fuel consumption.

study the combustion and The fuel mixing chamber and stirred at high speed (15000 rpm) constantly for
performance characteristics of about 30 min.
W/D emulsion fuel under
varying load conditions for
different compression ratios
(CRs).
investigate the effect of W/D A high shear mixer (constant speed of 5000 rpm for 5 min).
originating from low-grade
diesel fuel (D2) on the
combustion performance and
emission characteristics

Investigate the emission A steam generator was used to produce the water vapor which enters the
characteristics of a stationary column from one of the bottom nozzles. After the 10-minute warm-up, the
diesel engine while utilizing an steam was supplied to the column and bubbles of steam rose from the steam
emulsion fuel from a novel nozzle creating a turbulent mixing. Some steam leaves the bulk liquid
preparation process uncondensed as vapor. Also, some water collected at the bottom of the
column as the condensed droplets coalesced with each other forming bigger
droplets and separated from the emulsion. Thus, the column was equipped
with an exit for the uncondensed steam and the separated bottom
condensate. The water content in a steam-generated emulsion can also be
predicted with simple energy balance and follows a dimensionless number,
the so-called Jakob’s number. The Jakob’s number of diesel Jad and steam Jas
are given as respectively:
Investigate the durability of a Electrical mixer at a propeller speed of 2500 rpm for 5 min
diesel engine that is running on
emulsion fuels. Efect on
emissions, lubricant, and
deposit.
Investigation on detail analyses Electrical mixer at a propeller speed of 2500 rpm for 5 min
on lubricant oil is required for
diesel engine that operates for
long period using emulsion fuel.
To explore micro-explosion in a Magnetic Stirer, 10.000 rpm, 5 minutes
spray flame by investigating the
spray and combustion
characteristics of emulsified
diesel under a wide range of
conditions.
To address the
stability issue of emulsified
diesel in view of the
hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance
(HLB) value.

to experimentally study the No Description


potential of WDE in parallel
with EGR as an in-cylinder
strategy for both NOx and PM
emissions reduction on a
modern automotive
commonrail DI Diesel engine for
future emissions standards.
The objective of the current High speed mixing : Silent Crusher M homogenizer ( range 5.000 rpm - 26.000
study was to investigate the rpm )
effect of various factors (water
concentration, surfactant
concentration, mixing time, and
speed) on the stability behavior
of W/D fuel emulsion.

To compare the engine High speed rotary blending machine


performance and emission
characteristics for base fossil
diesel (Euro IV quality) and 10%
water emulsion diesel (ED10)
fuels.
this paper aims to investigate RTES System : High shear mixing and Ultrasonic system
and characterize the
destabilization process of UW/D
through the changes of the
water droplet size over period
of time and evaluate the effect
of the said fuel in the diesel
engine through engine
performance and exhaust
emission and compare with
surfactant added W/D.
This study explores the result of No Description
several aspects (water
proportion, surfactant, mixing
time, and mixing speed) for
stability period of W/D
emulsion.
In this study, two-phase W/O 1. Ultrasonic Vibration
and three-phase O/W/O 2. Mechanical Homogenizer
emulsions were prepared, and
their engine emission Water droplet size with Ultrasonic vibration smaller than mechanical
characteristics and engine homogenizer
performance were analyzed and
compared among emulsions
prepared using an ultrasonic
vibrator and emulsions using a
mechanical homogenizer, in
order to evaluate any possible
advantages and the potential of
using the ultrasonic vibration
technique for the preparation of
diesel emulsions over that of
using a mechanical
homogenizer.
Investigated the different water No Description
content of emulsified diesel in
terms of emissions for small
diesel engine at different
loading
Tested the thermal efficiency
with different water content of
emulsified diesel at different
loading.

This paper discusses the results Microchannel Emulsifier


concerning the spray Two turbo-pumps were arranged in series for the diesel fuel allowing to reach
combustion of WiDE (9.1%v a flow rate more than 300 ml/min with a pressure drop of 0.4 MPa. Diesel
water concentration), produced and emulsion channels cross section sizes 600 µm×600 µm, while the water
through an especially designed one is 300 µm×300 µm.
microchannels emulsifier water and Diesel are forced to impact head-on, with a slight misalignment to
promote a swirl flow in the impingement zone.
The effects of ultrasound power Ultrasound / ultrasonic
and treating time on the - Variation power ultrasonic : 60 until 100 Watt, increment 5
stability of emulsion fuels were
investigated

The aim of this study is the


investigation of a MF399 tractor
engine
power, torque and noise
emission, without any
modificatio in engine systems,
at different engine loads and
speeds using different
percentages of water in water–
diesel emulsions.
Surfactan / Engine Type
Additive
Non-Surfactan 4-stroke, single cylinder,
direct injection, 406 cc

2% Surfactan Theoritical studies using


Tween 20 DIESEL RK Software.
Experiment studies using
four stroke, 4-cylinder diesel
engine, direct injection,
water cooled.

Non-Surfactan Light duty truck ISUZU


NHR55E, Direct injection
diesel engine, 4-cylinder,
watercooled, 2800 cc,
Non-Surfactan Light duty truck ISUZU
NHR55E, Direct injection
diesel engine, 4-cylinder,
watercooled, 2800 cc,

2 % surfactan Single cylinder diesel engine


Span 80 & Tween 3,5 kW, four stroke, water
80 cooled, 87,5 mm x 110 mm
2 % Surfactan, Single Cylinder diesel
Alumina engine, four stroke, direct
nanoparticle : 25 injection, air cooled, 661 cc,
ppm, 50 ppm, 100 4.4 kW @ 1500 rpm
ppm

< 1 % of surfactan Inline 4 cylinder, water-


Span 80, Tween 80, cooled, 4 stroke, 80
n-Butanol kW/3200 rpm, 3.6 L, Turbo-
charging, inter-cooler

Sorbitan Single cylinder diesel


monolanrate (HLB: engine, four stroke, 661.45
8.6) cc, four stroke, variable
compression ratio diesel
2% surfactan, 0.406 L single cylinder, four
Polyoxyethyleneno stroke, air-cooled, direct
nylphenyl ether, or injection diesel engine.
so called span 80
with a HLB
(Hydrophilic–
Lipophilic Balance)
of 4.3

1% Span 80 for E10 4-stroke, single cylinder, air-


fuel, non-surfactan cooled, direct injection,
for S/D 0.406 L, power max. 5 kW.
1% surfactan SPAN One cylinder, D I, air cooled,
80 vertical engine, 400 cc
1% surfactan SPAN One cylinder, D I, air cooled,
80 vertical engine, 400 cc
2% surfactan : Not use the Engine, but use
Tween 80 with 15 a constant volume chamber
HLB value, and with a bore of 110 mmand a
Span 80 with 4,3 height of 65 mm. A
HLB value hydraulic-actuated
electronic-controlled unit
injector (HEUI) was
mounted at the center of
the chamber head.

1.3% Span 80, and 1.5 l water-cooled HSDI 4-


0.7% Tween 85 cylinders diesel engine, with
two valves per cylinder and
which conforms to Euro III
standards. It is equipped
with a common-rail solenoid
injection system with a
maximum injection pressure
of 1600 bar, re-entrant
bowl-in-piston combustion
chambers, a Variable
Geometry Turbine (VGT)
turbocharger, an intercooler,
and a Diesel Oxidising
Catalyst (DOC).
Non-ioninc No Engine
surfactan : Triton X-
100
( concentrasion

10% biodegradable Engine model Toyota 2KD-


surfactant FTV, Engine type 4 Cylinder,
16 valves DOHC turbo,
Displacement volume (cc)
2494, Max power 75 KW at
3.600 rpm, Max torque 200
N.m at 1.400–3.400 rpm,
Fuel supply system Common
rail,
Maximum fuel injection
pressure 1200 bars,
Engine EGR type Internal
EGR
tested : without Engine type Single cylinder,
surfactan and with 4 stroke, direct injection
surfactan ( 0.2% diesel engine
Span 80, with 4,3 Cooling system Force air
HLB ) cooling by flywheel
Displacement volume (L)
0.406
without surfactan not use engine
2% surfactan Span
80
rice bran oil
glycerine
corn oil glycerine
palm oil glycerine
soy oil glycerine
sunflower oil
glycerine
2% Surfactan Span The specifications of the
80 and Tween 80 engine were: four stroke,
water-cooled, direct
injection, compression ratio
= 17, a total displacement
volume of 3856 cc, and a
maximum output
horsepower/ engine speed
of 88 ps/2800 rpm.
5% surfactan ( Span Engine :
83 and Tween 80 ) four stroke diesel engine,
air-cooled, single-cylinder,
direct-injection,
compression ignition,
Displacement (cc) 418,
Continuous rated output
(kW/rpm) 6.3 kW (7.7
hp)/3600 rpm Compression
ratio 20:1
Generator :
Type Two-electrode single-
phase alternating current
generator
Frequency (Hz) 60
Rated output (KVA) 5.0
Maximum output (KVA) 5.3

0.2% Nonionic Single cylinder, 2 stroke


surfactan ( SPAN 80 compression ignition
) engine, commonrail
injection system
Non-Surfactan No Engine

Perkins A63544 DI diesel


engine specifications :
- Direct injection
- Number of cylinder 6
- Compression ratio 16:1
- Bore stroke 98.6 x 127 mm
- Cylinder volume 5.8 L
- Maximum power at 2300
rpm 110 hp (82 kW)
- Maximum torque at 1300
rpm 376 Nm
Test Condition
Constant speed 3750 rpm and different load conditions ( 1,2 3, 4 kW ).
3 variation water in diesel fuel : tap water, rain water, seawater @ 5% )

Variation of engine speed ( rpm ) : 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000

Testing using Chasis Dynamometer (Rotronics Autoscan X4 ET X4+).


Test cycle : the West Virginia University
(WVU) 5-Peak Cycle methode, consist 5 segment of speed : 32, 40, 48,
56 and 64 km/h
Testing using Chasis Dynamometer (Rotronics Autoscan X4 ET X4+).
Test cycle : the West Virginia University
(WVU) 5-Peak Cycle methode, consist 5 segment of speed : 32, 40, 48,
56 and 64 km/h

The engine was run at compression ratio of 17.5 and at a constant


speed of 1500 rpm. All the experimental tests were conducted at a
static injection timing of 23° before TDC.
The Testo 350 flue gas analyzer was used to record NOx, CO and HC
emission from the engine.
Fuel : neat diesel, water-diesel fuel + 2%surfactan ( D2S15W ),
D2S15W + 25 ppm alumina nanoparticle ( D2S15W25A), + 50 ppm
( D2S15W50A), + 100 ppm ( D2S15W100A).
Constant speed 1500 rpm at constant injection timing on 26
deg. bTDC, full load.

Mixing oxygen directly in engine intake air with variation


concentrations 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%.
Operated in 2 methode : constant speed 2000 rpm with torque load at
180 Nm ( 57% max load @ 2000rpm ), and constant speed 2000 rpm
with full load 100% max torque ( full throtle ).

The experiments are performed under varying load conditions (no


load, 25%, 50%, 75%, and full load) at different CRs (15, 16, 17, and
18). The engine initially runs for 10–12 min to attain steady state
condition.
Tested under four different load conditions (1 kW (25%), 2 kW(50%), 3
kW(74%), 4 kW(100%)) and with a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

variable loads between 0 to 5 kW. The tests followed the SAE Engine
Test Code J816b and focused on monitoring the emissions.
D2 : diesel fuel, E10 : Diesel fuel with 10% water +
1% surfactan, S/D : Steam Generated Water In Diesel Emulsions Fuel
The durability test was conducted for 200 h. For the first 100 h, the
engine was loaded with 3 kWand for the remaining hours by 1 kWat
the constant speed of 3000 rpm. The test was run for about 5 h per
session and two sessions per day. Throughout the test run, the level of
the lubricant was monitored. The lubricant was changed after 100 h of
operation as recommended by the engine manufacturer. A mixer with
propeller rotation of 60 rpm was installed in the emulsion fuel tank to
maintain the stability of the fuel throughout the durability test. 500
mL sample of the lubricant was collected from each engine for every
40 h of operation Constant engine speed 3000
rpm with variying loads 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%.
A constant speed of 3000 rpm with varying engine loads ( 1, 2, 3, 4,
and 5 kW ).
A constant volume chamber with a bore of 110 mm and a height of 65
mm was used in this study. The chamber could mimic the real diesel
engine environment by burning a pre-mixture of acetylene, oxygen
and nitrogen. A hydraulic-actuated electronic-controlled unit injector
(HEUI) was mounted at the center of the chamber head . After the
burning of the mixture, the chamber’s ambient environment
contained 21% oxygen, 66.7% nitrogen, 8.2% carbon dioxide and 4.1%
water vapor by volume. The molecular weight for the post combustion
gas mixture was 29.74 kg/kmole, and the density was 14.8 kg/m3. The
ambient temperatures upon the injection ranged from 800 K to 1200
K, covering both low-temperature combustion and conventional
combustion in diesel engines.
variation of test condition : mixing speed ( 5.000 rpm, 10.000 rpm,
15.000 rpm, 20.000 rpm ), water ( 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% ),
surfactan ( 0,2; 0,5; 0,75; 1; 1,75; 2; 3; 5 )

Variation load condition : 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load

Speed variation :
800–3600 rpm in step of 400 rpm
Constant speed at 3.000 rpm, and variation engine load : 1 kW (25%),
2 kW (50%), 3 kW (75%) and 4 kW (100%)
The first test is to investigate the effect of different type of surfactant
used.
Then the mixing speed will be varies from 1000-5000 rpm.
The third test will focus on the mixing duration
The diesel engine was set at a constant engine speed of 1600 rpm and
the varied engine torques ranged from 0 kgf m to 15 kgf m
Testing at rated power of the generator of 900, 1800, 2700, and
3600Wand at rated speed of the engine of 3600 rpm.

Variation Start Of Injection ( SOI ) : -23, -20, -17, -14, -11, -8 CAD
( Crank Angle Degre ) diesel fuel and emulsions.
Effect on :
- In-Cylinder pressure
- Ignition Delay
- NOx and Smoke Concentration
- Image of Soot Emissions
- Soot emissions intensity
Emulsification with ultrasonic :
- ultrasonic power variation : 60 - 100 watt, increment 5 watt
- ultrasonic time variation : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 minute
- ultrasound power and time variation on the droplet size
Test Diagram

No Description
No Description
The engine test setup and conducted is based on standard SAE J1995
No Description
No Description
Results
Performance Emissions
SFC decreases 6%, NOx and PM decreases,
Thermal efficiency increases 5.73% CO increases

Power & torque maximum at 5% water, % water increases→ exhaust gas


increases the percentage of water in emulsion, temperatur, NO, NOx, decreases.
the produced power decreases.

At higher speed, the percentage of water in the CO2 increases if compare with
emulsion increases, the BSFC increases. pure diesel fuel
The highest average of thermal eficiency at 5%
water.

Reduced the exhaust temperature, E30 lowest NOx reduced, E6.5 highest
value ( 3.26% reduction ). reduction ( 45% ).
Reduced Fuel Consumption (only diesel fuel was Smoke emissions reduced.
considered as the total fuel consumption ) , E6.5
highest average reduction ( 8.56% reduction ). CO increased, E30 highest
increased ( 159 % ).

CO2 reduced, E30 lowest average


reduction ( 0.13% )
Reduced the fuel consumption, EDE2-7,39% Reduced NOx, EDE2 - 23%
compare with DE5 compare with DE5
Reduced the exhaust temperatur, EDE2-3,67% Reduced CO2, EDE2 -
compare with DE5, . 0,12% compare with DE5
Reduced the Smoke
number
Increased CO 41% compare with
DE2, and double compare with
DE5

power is comparable, higher net heat release, NOx decreased by an average of


smaller Brake Thermal Efficiency, IMEP higher, 32.6%, HC and CO is higher,
BSFC higher but neat BSFC is comparable. Lower smoke with an average of
49%.
The cylinder peak pressure and ignition delay NOx, HC, and Smoke Opacity are
are reduced, BSFC not significant reduced, Brake reduced, but CO not significant
Thermal Efficiency not significant increase. reduced
The
addition of potential alumina nanoparticles to
the water–diesel emulsion fuel, which has lead
to quick evaporation, high cetane number, and
improved ignition. In
general, the fuel with higher cetane number
value will lead to shortened ignition delay in a
diesel engine.

With the increase of intake oxygen Smoke and NO emission reduced


concentration, the ignition time advanced with the increase of oxygen
gradually, the cylinder peak pressure increased concentration and water
slightly and the combustion accelerated. With emulsion ratio.
the increase of water emulsion ratio, the
combustion temperature decreased and the the BSFC does not exceed 5% of
combustion delay prolonged. that of the original

Decreasing the CR from 18 to 15 decreases the Low CRs the mean gas
peak pressure, addition of water increases the temperature is depressed,
peak pressure of the cylinder. reduced by increasing water
concentration.
The net heat release rate increases with an
increase in CR, slightly lowered for W/D
emulsion.

BSFC and BTE are improved with the addition of


water in diesel at all load conditions
SFC reduced ( diesel fuel only ) NOx is reduced when the
percentage of water in the
aforementioned fuel increases.

PM reduced 45% @ 20% water

CO increase
CO2 slightly lower than D2

No Descriptions E10 emitted 42 to 58% less NOx


than D2, while S/D released 18
to 40%less NOx. This can be
attributed to the lower water
content of S/D, which can only
reach 6.2% compared to the 10%
of E10
PM reduction of S/D was more
pronounced at a maximum of
57%, while E10 reduced only up
to 20%.
E10 produce 62% more CO than
D2, S/D produce 172% more CO
than D2.
E10 produce 100% more UHC
than D2, S/D produce 517%
more UHC than D2.
No abnormal wear could be observed when Emulsion fuel operation in the
using emulsion fuels. test engine reduced the PM and
Emulsion fuels produced less carbon deposit NOx by 15.47% and 54.40%
with 65% and 52% reduction for E10 and E20 respectively but CO and CO2
respectively increased by 95% and 34.12%
Rating engine component : Cylinder block, top respectively as compared to D2.
cylinder, midle cylinder, bottom cylnder, 1st amd
2nd compression ring, oil ring, piston skirt, fuel
injector hole, fuel pipe line intake and outlet
hole, tappet fuel pump, cam fuel pump.
SFC increase with total fuel ( water + diesel NOx decreased ( E10 : 14,4%,
fuel ), and slightly decrease with only diesel fuel E20 : 54,4% ).
( E10 9,57%, E20 8,23% ).

Lubricant Oil Analysis after 200h :

PM decreased ( E10 : 7,5%, E20 :


15,47% ).
Kinematic viscosity after 200h
( D2<E10<E20 )

Water content ( D2>E10>E20 ) Exhaust Temperature decreased (


E10 : 18,77%, E20 : 24% ).

Flash point ( ori 250, D2-207,


E10-208, E20-210) CO
increased ( E10 : 43,64%, E20 :
78,1% ).
Ash Content
( 100h E10,E20 lower than D2, become similar
@200h )

CO2 ( E10 decreased, E20


Soot ( E10, E20 lower than D2 ) comparable with D2)

TAN ( E10, E20 lower than D2, 14%


and 18% ) Increasing water concentration
reduced the O2 emissions

Wear debris : The common


metallic components found in lubricating oil
after the engine operation were iron (Fe),
copper (Cu), aluminum (Al) and lead (Pb).
Additives depletion
analysis : In general, lubricant oil containing 10–
25% additives increases the performance of
lubrication ( Zn, Ca, P)
Emulsified diesel manifested longer liquid No Description
penetration and longer ignition delay under low
ambient temperatures due to the lower
volatility and higher viscosity of the water. At
high ambient temperature, the physical
properties of the fuel are weakened; the spread
spray cone angles indicated violent breakup
events taking place upstream of the spray jet.

WDE increases Ignition Delay up to 29% with the lower injection


pressure, NOx reduced ( 30-
50%), when injection pressure
increase, Nox increase (24%)
Cold-start may be impossible with
WDE, so that injection system should be
purged before engine stop in order to use pure at low lod condition,
diesel fuel for engine start. PM reduce up to 94%, when high
load and injection presure
increase PM increase

when used in
combination with EGR, WDE
allows reducing both NOx and
PM emissions.
To stabilize higher water concentration, required to increase the surfactant
concentration and the total number of mixing revolutions.
Due to the polydispersity effect of added
surfactant, the optimum surfactant concentration for 40% W/D emulsion is about
2% surfactant. Water
droplet distribution decreases gradually with water concentration for 10%, 20%,
and 30% W/D emulsions due to the increase of the total number of mixing
revolutions.
Water
droplet distribution increases gradually with water concentration for 30%, 40%,
and 50% W/D emulsions due to the application of the same total number of
mixing revolutions.

The density of W/D emulsion increases with water content. The temperature has
significant influence to lower the density of W/D emulsion.

In-Cylinder pressure and Heat release are Reduction in exhaust gas


comparable both fuels temperature

Power and
engine efficiency decreased
Lower NO emissions

BSFC
increase

Higher CO emissions
improvement of the combustion efficiency with NOx and PM reduced 31.67%
3.89% fuel saving and 3.59% increased of and 16.33%
thermal efficien CO Increased
Without surfactan, stability emulsions E20 and E40 is less than 2 minutes
Surfactant gives a significant impact on the stability of W/D emulsion fuels.
Stability of W/D emulsion fuels is proportion to the increment of mixing speed.
The optimum mixing period to produce W/D emulsion fuels is approximately 5
minutes with the mixing speed of 2500 rpm.
Lower water percentage gives better stability for W/D emulsion fuels.
Compare : Compare :
Ultrasonic Vibration : Ultrasonic Vibration :
BSFC lower than mechanical homogenizer but NOx slightly higher than
higher than neat diesel Mechanical Homogenizer, but
lower than neat diesel.
CO lower than Mechanical
Homogenizer, but Higher than
neat diesel
Black smoke opacity slightly
higher than Mechanical
Homogenizer, but lower than
neat diesel.
Heating value of emulsified decreased as the Compare with WD-0 :
water content emulified increase Significant reduction of NO
compare with net diesel fuel ( 0% water ) : emissions of 18.3% (WD-5),
Thermal efficiency improved about 1.2 -19.9 % 42.9% (WD-10), and 45.4% (WD-
Fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature 15).
decreased with increasing water content of fuel. Significant increase of CO and HC
NO emission of WD-10 had better reduction. exhaust emission.

The WD-10 fuel gave the best


improvement of the exhaust
emissions and engine
performance.

Compare with diesel fuel : Compare with diesel fuel :


Increase ignition time Reduction PM and NOx
Increase Maximum In-Cylinder pressure Soot mass formation smaller
Reduction in soot intensity
CO emissions below 0.05%

Stability emulsions :
the WiDE formed by means of the
microchannels system was reasonably stable
due to the very fine size distribution of the
dispersed water phase
Stability of emulsions increased before 80 W and Decreased after 80 W
80 W is optimal power ultrasonic value.
Stability of emulsions increased before 3 minute and Decreased after 3 minute.
3 minute is optimal time ultrasonic value.
Droplet size of emulsions optimal on 80W power ultrasonic and 3 minute time
ultrasonic.
Droplet size : 0,4 μm.
Results showed that the most stable emulsion had the smallest droplet size (about 0.4 um). It
also implied that smaller droplet size was preferable for the emulsion stability
Sitasi
Mini Review on Latest Mixing Technology of Paper

Water-Fuel Emulsion and It’s Affecting


Parameters
Introduction 26
PARAMETERS RELATED TO WATER EMULSIONS
Effect of Temperature Parameters 3
Effect of Mixing Speed Parameters 3
Effect of Mixing Time Parameters 3
Effect of Surfactant Parameters 7
Effect of Water Ratio Parameter 4
MIXING TECHNOLOGY OF WATER-FUEL EMULSION
Mixing Technology with Surfactant
sistem kerja peralatan
ukuran water droplet
16
performance campuran ( tingkat kestabilan campuran )
Efek terhadap performa mesin
Efek terhadap emisi
Mixing Technology without Surfactant
sistem kerja peralatan
ukuran water droplet
11
performance campuran ( tingkat kestabilan campuran )
Efek terhadap performa mesin
Efek terhadap emisi
Highlight and Future Prospect

73
Mixing
Author % water Surfactan Engine Type
Equipment
Cherng-Yuan 15 2% Surfactan Ultrasonic Four stroke, water-cooled,
Lin 2008 Span 80 and Vibration 3856 cc, and 88 ps/2800
Tween 80 Mechanical rpm.
Homogenizer

A. Alahmer, J 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 2% No Description Simulate :


2010 and 30 Surfactan DIESEL RK Software
Tween 20 Experiment :
4-cylinder diesel engine
direct injection

Alain Maiboom 20 1.3% Span 80, No Description 1.5 l water-cooled HSDI


2011 and 0.7% 4-cylinders diesel engine,
Tween 85 Euro III standards.
common-rail solenoid
injection system 1600 bar.

J. Sadhik Basha 15 2 % Surfactan Mechanical Single Cylinder


2011 Alumina agitator four stroke, direct injection,
nanoparticle : @ 2500 rpm, 15 661 cc, 4.4 kW @ 1500 rpm
25 ppm, 50 min
ppm, 100 ppm and ultrasonicator

M. Ebna Alam 10 10% High speed rotary Toyota 2KD-FTV,


Fahd 2013 biodegradable blending machine 4 Cylinder, 16 valves DOHC
surfactant turbo,
2494 cc, Max power 75 KW
at 3.600 rpm,
Max torque 200 N.m at
1.400–3.400 rpm,
Common rail, Internal EGR

Wei Zhang 2013 10, 20, 30 < 1 % surfactan Real time mixing 4 cylinder,
Span 80, Tween with 4 stroke,
80, Ultrasonic 80 kW/3200 rpm, 3.6 L,
n-Butanol emulsions meter Turbo-charging, inter-cooler
Jin-Yuan Syu 5, 10, 15 5% surfactan No Description Four stroke, single-cylinder,
2015 ( Span 83 and 418 cc, 7.7 hp/3600 rpm
Tween 80 ) Generator : Rated output
(KVA) 5.0
Maximum output (KVA) 5.3

Suresh V. 2015 0, 5, 10 Sorbitan Stirred at high Single cylinder diesel


monolanrate speed engine,
(HLB: 8.6) (15000 rpm) 30 four stroke, 661.45 cc
min.

Ahmad Muhsin 5, 10, 15, 20 2% surfactan, A high shear 0.406 L single cylinder,
Ithnin 2015 Span 80 with a mixer four stroke, air-cooled.
HLB 4.3 constant speed of
5000 rpm
for 5 min

A.K. 10, 20 1% surfactan Electrical mixer at One cylinder,


Hasannuddin Span 80 a propeller speed vertical engine,
2016 of 2500 rpm for 5 400 cc
min

Nur Atiqah Euro 5, Non- RTES : strong ISUZU NHR55E,


Ramlan 2016 Euro 2, Surfactan mixers 4-cylinder,
Euro 2 and Ultrasonic 2800 cc
+ 6,5% water

D.R. Emberson 9,1 0.2% Nonionic Microchannel Single cylinder, 2 stroke


2018 surfactan SPAN Emulsifier compression ignition engine,
80 commonrail injection system

Pijush Kanti 10 2% Ultrasonicator, Single cylinder


Mondal 2018 surfactan model-VCX 750 3,5 kW, four stroke,
Span 80 & operated at 80% water cooled,
Tween 80 amplitude. 87,5 mm x 110 mm

Ahmad Muhsin 5 Non surfactan RTES System : Single cylinder, 4 stroke,


Ithnin 2018 and High shear mixing 0.406 L
0,2% surfactan and Ultrasonic
Nurul Aiyshah Euro 5 Non- RTES : strong ISUZU NHR55E,
Mazlan 2018 5; 6,5; 10,8; 30 Surfactan mixers 4-cylinder,
and Ultrasonic 2800 cc

Dhani Avianto 6,2 Non Surfactan Steam Generator 4-stroke, single cylinder,
Sugeng 2018 0.406 L, power max. 5 kW.

Mohamad Azrin 5 Non- High shear mixer 4-stroke


Ahmad 2018 Surfactan ultrasonic device single cylinder
406 cc
Results
Test Condition
Performance Emissions
Constant speed of 1600 rpm BSFC ultrasonic < NOx ultrasonic >
load 0 kgf m - 15 kgf m mech.homogenizer Mech.
Homogenizer,
CO < Mechanical
Homogenizer
Smoke opacity >
Mech
Homogenizer.

Engine speed ( rpm ) : % water ↑ → power Exhaust temp. ↓


1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, ↓ NO, NOx ↓
3000 % water ↑ → BSFC

CO2 ↑
Ignition Delay ↑ NOx ↓ ( 30-50%),
29% PM ↓ 94%

Constant speed 1500 rpm Cylinder peak NOx, HC, and


constant injection timing pressure ↓ Smoke ↓
on 26 deg. bTDC, full load. Ignition delay ↓, CO not significant
BSFC not significant ↓

BTE not significant

Load : 25%, 50%, 75% and In-Cylinder pressure Exhaust


100% and Heat release are temperature ↓
Speed variation : 800–3600 comparable NO emissions ↓
rpm in step of 400 rpm

2 methode : %water ↑ Smoke and NO ↓


57% max load @ 2000 rpm →Combustion temp.
100% max load @2000 rpm ↓
combustion delay ↑ BSFC < 5%
power of the generator of Thermal eff ↑ 1.2 NO emissions ↓
900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 -19.9 % 18.3% (WD-5),
W Fuel consumption ↓ 42.9% (WD-10),
and speed engine of 3600 Exhaust temp ↓ and 45.4% (WD-
rpm. NO ↓ 15).
CO and HC
exhaust ↑

varying load Peak Cylinder Gas temperature↓


(0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and pressure↑
full load)
at different CRs (15, 16, 17, heat release rate ↑
and 18).
steady state condition.

Different load conditions BSFC


SFC ↓ and BTE
diesel fuelare NOx ↓
(1 kW (25%), 2 kW(50%), improved
only
3 kW(74%), 4 kW(100%)) PM ↓ 45% @ 20%
Constant speed of 3000 rpm water

CO ↑
200 h durability Carbon deposit ↓ PM ↓ 15.47%
3 kW load @ 3000 rpm 65% NOx ↓ 54.40%
CO2 slightly ↓
Constant speed 3000 rpm CO ↑ 95%
variying loads 20%, 40%, CO2 ↑34.12%
60%, 80%, and 100%.

WVU 5-Peak Cycle methode Fuel cons. ↓ 7,39% NOx ↓ 23%


(32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 km/h) Exhaust temp. CO2 ↓ 0,12%
↓3,67% Smoke ↓
CO ↑ 41%

Variation Start Of Injection Ignition time ↑ PM and NOx ↓


( SOI ) : Max. In-Cylinder Soot intensity ↓
-23, -20, -17, -14, -11, -8 press. ↑ CO emissions
CAD ( Crank Angle Degre) below 0.05%
Comp. ratio of 17.5 power is comparable NOx ↓ 32.6%,
const speed 1500 rpm heat release ↑ HC and CO is
Brake Thermal higher,
Efficiency ↑ smoke ↓ 49%.
IMEP ↑
BSFC is
comparable.
Constant speed 3.000 rpm, 3.89% fuel saving NOx ↓31,67%
load : 1 kW (25%), 2 kW and PM ↓16.33%
(50%), thermal eff. ↑3.59% CO ↑
3 kW (75%) and 4 kW
(100%)
WVU 5-Peak Cycle methode Exhaust NOx ↓ 45%
(32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 km/h) temp.↓3.26%
Fuel Cons. ↓ 8.56% Smoke ↓

CO ↑ 159 %
variable loads between 0 to 5 No Descriptions NOx
CO2 ↓↓ 0.13%
18 to 40%
kW
PM ↓ 57%,

CO ↑ 172%
Const. speed 3750 rpm SFC ↓ 6%, NOx , PM ↓
load : 1,2, 3, 4 (kW) Therm. eff. ↑ 5.73% UHC
CO ↑ ↑ 517%
Kata Kunci Water diesel fuels emulsions Article + additive 2018
Tanggal Jumlah Jumlah Jumlah
19-Oct-18 822
21-Oct-18 822 177 33
Article + non-additive 2018

53 17
2018 Water in diesel fuels emulsions Article + additive
Jumlah Tanggal Jumlah Jumlah
19-Oct-18 777
33 21-Oct-18 777 171
2018
Jumlah

33
Mixing type link

1 Microchanel link
Title of Paper
Optical investigations in a CI engine fueled with water in diesel emulsion produced through
microchannels
Point pembahasan untuk review article
metode mixing antara diesel fuel dan water
hasil emulsinya : kestabilan, water droplet
performansi campuran
hasilnya terhadap engine : performance, emisi, efisinesi
pembahasan alat mixingnya
efek of mixing timw
efect of mixing temperatur
efect of emulsifier
efect of oil water ratio
efect of stiring intensity/putaran (rpm)
112.5
0.08321
English Indonesia
Carried out dilakukan
through melalui
discriminate membedakan
performed dilakukan
achieve mencapai
enhance menambah
composed tersusun
separate terpisah
Mixing
Author % water Surfactan Engine Type
Equipment
Cherng-Yuan 15 2% Surfactan Ultrasonic Four stroke, water-cooled,
Lin 2008 Span 80 and Vibration 3856 cc, and 88 ps/2800
Tween 80 Mechanical rpm.
Homogenizer

J. Sadhik Basha 15 2 % Surfactan Mechanical Single Cylinder


2011 Alumina agitator four stroke, direct injection,
nanoparticle : @ 2500 rpm, 15 661 cc, 4.4 kW @ 1500 rpm
25, 50, 100 min
ppm and ultrasonicator

M. Ebna Alam 10 10% High speed rotary Toyota 2KD-FTV,


Fahd 2013 biodegradable blending machine 4 Cylinder, 16 valves DOHC
surfactant turbo,
2494 cc, Max power 75 KW
at 3.600 rpm,
Max torque 200 N.m at
1.400–3.400 rpm,
Common rail, Internal EGR

Wei Zhang 2013 10, 20, 30 < 1 % surfactan Real time mixing 4 cylinder,
Span 80, Tween with 4 stroke,
80, Ultrasonic 80 kW/3200 rpm, 3.6 L,
n-Butanol emulsions meter Turbo-charging, inter-cooler

Suresh V. 2015 0, 5, 10 Sorbitan Stirred at high Single cylinder diesel


monolanrate speed engine,
(HLB: 8.6) (15000 rpm) 30 four stroke, 661.45 cc
min.

Ahmad Muhsin 5, 10, 15, 20 2% surfactan, A high shear 0.406 L single cylinder,
Ithnin 2015 Span 80 with a mixer four stroke, air-cooled.
HLB 4.3 constant speed of
5000 rpm
for 5 min

D.R. Emberson 9,1 0.2% Nonionic Microchannel Single cylinder, 2 stroke


2018 surfactan SPAN Emulsifier compression ignition engine,
80 commonrail injection system
Pijush Kanti 10 2% Ultrasonicator, Single cylinder
Mondal 2018 surfactan model-VCX 750 3,5 kW, four stroke,
Span 80 & operated at 80% water cooled,
Tween 80 amplitude. 87,5 mm x 110 mm

Nur Atiqah Euro 5, Non- RTES : strong ISUZU NHR55E,


Ramlan 2016 Euro 2, Surfactan mixers 4-cylinder,
Euro 2 and Ultrasonic 2800 cc
+ 6,5% water

Nurul Aiyshah Euro 5 Non- RTES : strong ISUZU NHR55E,


Mazlan 2018 5; 6,5; 10,8; 30 Surfactan mixers 4-cylinder,
and Ultrasonic 2800 cc

Dhani Avianto 6,2 Non Surfactan Steam Generator 4-stroke, single cylinder,
Sugeng 2018 0.406 L, power max. 5 kW.

Mohamad Azrin 5 Non- High shear mixer 4-stroke


Ahmad 2018 Surfactan ultrasonic device single cylinder
406 cc
Results
Performance Emissions
BSFC ultrasonic < NOx ultrasonic >
mech.homogenizer Mech.
Homogenizer,
CO < Mechanical
Homogenizer
Smoke opacity >
Mech
Homogenizer.

Cylinder peak NOx, HC, and


pressure ↓ Smoke ↓
Ignition delay ↓, CO not significant
BSFC not significant ↓

BTE not significant

In-Cylinder pressure Exhaust
and Heat release are temperature ↓
comparable NO emissions ↓

%water ↑ Smoke and NO ↓


→Combustion temp.

combustion delay ↑ BSFC < 5%

Peak Cylinder Gas temperature↓


pressure↑

heat release rate ↑

BSFC
SFC ↓ and BTE
diesel fuelare NOx ↓
improved
only
PM ↓

CO ↑

Ignition time ↑ PM
CO2and NOx ↓↓
slightly
Max. In-Cylinder Soot intensity ↓
press. ↑ CO emissions
below 0.05%
power is comparable NOx ↓ 32.6%,
heat release ↑ HC and CO is
Brake Thermal higher,
Efficiency ↑ smoke ↓ 49%.
IMEP ↑
BSFC is
comparable.
Fuel cons. ↓ 7,39% NOx ↓ 23%
Exhaust temp. CO2 ↓ 0,12%
↓3,67% Smoke ↓
CO ↑ 41%

Exhaust NOx ↓ 45%


temp.↓3.26%
Fuel Cons. ↓ 8.56% Smoke ↓

CO ↑ 159 %
No Descriptions NOx
CO2 ↓↓ 0.13%
18 to 40%

PM ↓ 57%,

CO ↑ 172%
SFC ↓ 6%, NOx , PM ↓
UHC↑ ↑ 517%
Therm. eff. ↑ 5.73% CO