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5 TABLEOF SPECIFICATIONS (TOS) CONTENT VALIDITY and OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION (OBE)

My Learning Episode Overview

One moral sin that teachers commit is giving tests that lack content validity. This means that a number of teachers give tests which are not aligned to their leaning outcomes or objectives. This is contrary to outcomes-based education. The use of a Table of Specification (TOS) can help address the problem of tests lacking in content validity.

My Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this Episode, you must be able to:

Construct a Table of Specifications

Apply OBE by formulating test items with content validity

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

a. quality of my observations and documentation,

b. completeness and depth of my analysis

c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections,

d. completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and

e. time of submission of my portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

A Table of Specifications (TOS) is a table that specifies the learning outcomes/lesson objectives, the amount of time spent for each outcome / objective which will serve as basis in determining the corresponding number of test items.

TOS helps teacher align objectives, instruction, and assessment. It is sometimes called a test blueprint. This strategy can be used for a variety of assessment methods but is most commonly associated with constructing traditional summative tests.

Aligning assessment tools and tasks to learning outcomes is a must in Outcomes-Based Teaching-Learning.

A test or any assessment tool or task for that matter possesses content validity only when that assessment tool or task measures or assesses what is supposed to measure or assess. You are supposed to assess students’ ability to draw conclusions based on given facts but your assessment tool and task make the students define a conclusion. It is one thing to draw conclusion. It is another thing to define it.

The assessment task is not aligned to the learning outcome, therefore, it does not possess content validity. The assessment task that has content validity is to ask the students to draw conclusion from the facts the teacher gives.

Defining a conclusion is in the level of comprehension, perhaps even recall if definition is simply memorized, while drawing conclusion from a set of given facts is in the level of creating, synthesizing.

My Map

1.

Read My Learning Essentials.

2. Ask my Resource Teacher for a copy of her TOS

3. Surf the internet for more samples.

4. Study these samples of TOS.

5. Answer the LET-like test items.

6. Come up with my portfolio.

My Learning Activities

1. Study Sample TOS

I will study the sample of TOS below.

2 nd Semester SY 20

- 20

EDUC 11

FINAL

Course Catalog Number

Periodical Examination

Tables of Specifications

Assessment of Student Learning 2

 

Course Title

 

TOPICS

LEVELS / SKILLS

 
TOPICS LEVELS / SKILLS   TOTAL

TOTAL

 

Remembering

 

Understanding

 

Thinking

 
   

Declerative

 

(Comprehensing /

 

(Analying/

#

%

 

Applying)

Evaluating /

 

Creating)

#

%

Item #

#

%

Item #

Item

 

#

Authentic Assessment:

20

33.3

1-4,

           

20

33%

Basic Concepts

%

7-15,

20-26

Authentic Assessment:

10

17%

5,6,16-

10

17%

Advance Application

19,27-30

Discussion of Behavior Objectives Intended Learning Outcomes

           

10

17%

31

10

17%

Portfolio on Authentic

20

33%

32-

20

33%

 

35

Assessment

TOTAL

2

33%

1

17

3

50

6

100.0

0

0

%

0

%

0

%

Prepared by

Instructor

2.

Comparison of given TOS with other TOS that I reached on.

I will compare the given TOS with other TOS that I researched on.

My Analysis

1. For a TOS to ensure test content validity, what parts must it have?

2. Among the TOSs that you researched on, which is a better TOS? Why?

3. Can a teacher have a test with content validity even without making a TOS?

4. Explain why the use of a TOS enhances that content validity?

My Reflections

Read this conversation and reflect on teachers’ assessment practices. Write your reflection here.

But we only talked about Puerto Princesa

for – like 2 seconds last week. Why would she put that on the exam?”

“You know how teachers are… they’re always trying to trick you.”

“Yes, they find the most nit-picky little details to put on their

Test and don’t even care if the information is important.”

“It’s just not fair. I studied everything we discussed in class about the Philippines and the

things she made a big deal about, like comparing the Philippines

And to think all she asked was ‘What’s the capital of Singapore?

Really? Grrr,” (Adapted from Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, Vol. 18 No. 3, February 2013)

Did you have a similar experience? Reflect on it.

Integrating Theory and Practice

1. Here is lesson objective / intended learning outcome: “illustrate the law of supply and demand

with your original concrete example”. For content validity, which test item is aligned?

A.

Define the law of supply and demand and illustrate it with an example.

B.

Illustrate the law of supply and demand with a drawing.

C.

Illustrate the law of supply and demand with a concrete, original example.

D.

Explain the law of supply and demand and illustrate it with a diagram.

2.

Teacher Joji wrote this learning outcome: “To interpret a given quotation.” For content validity

which should she ask?

A. Interpret Nietsche’s statement: “He who has a why to live for can bear with any how.”

B. Did you believe in Nietsche’s statement “He who has a why to live for can with almost any

how”?

C. What is true in Nietsche’s statement “He who has a why tp live for can bear with almost any

how”?

D. Nitsche was an atheist. Do you believe that he can give this statement “HE who has a why to

live for can bear with almost any how”?

3. After teaching them the process of experimenting, Teacher Joe wanted his students to be able

to set up an experiment to find an answer to a scientific problem. Which will he ask his students to do?

A. Set up and experiment to find out if aerial plants can also live on land.

B. Can aerial plants also live on land? Research on experiments already conducted. Present your

finding in class.

C. Observe if aerial plants can survive when planted in soil. Note your observations and present

them in class.

D. Research on the answers to this scientific problem: Can aerial plants survive when transferred

I soil?

4.

Here is an intended learning outcome of a Health teacher: “Identify skill-related fitness and

activities suitable for the individual”. Does her test item measure this particular outcoe and therefore has content validity?

Question

1. Identify the components of Physical Fitness under the skill-related activities.

A.

Body Composition

C. Flexibility

B.

Agility

D. Organic Vigor

A.

Yes, very much.

B.

Yes because it asks something about skill-related activities.

C.

No.

D.

No, the options have nothing to do with skill-related activities.

5.

In Teacher Lea’s Table of Specifications (TOS), 60 percent of the 1 st grading test items are

applying questions based on Bloom’s taxonomy. A review of her test shows that 50% are

remembering items, 20% are analysing questions and 30% are applying questions.

Does Teacher’s test consist with her TOS?

A. No.

B. No, her analysing questions is supposed to be 60%

C. Yes.

D. Yes, her applying questions are also analysing questions, too.

My Learning Portfolio

Give an example of TOS that reflects of learning either by Bloom or by Kendall and Marzano.

Which TOS is better? Why?

My Learning Rubric

Field Study 5, Episode 5 – Table of Specification (TOS) Content Validity and

Outcome-Based Education (OBE)

Focused on:

Constructing a Table of Specification

Applying OBE by formulating test items with content validity.

Name of FS Student:

Date Submitted:

Year and section:

Course:

 

Learning Episodes

Exemplary

Superior

Satisfactory

 

Needs Improvement

4

3

2

1

Learning Activities

All task were done with outstanding quality; work exceeds expectations

All or nearly all tasks were done with high quality.

 

Nearly all tasks were done with acceptable quality.

Fewer than half of tasks were done, or most

 

3

 

2

objectives were met but need improvement

 

4

   
   

1

Analysis of the Learning Episode

All questions/episodes were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories. Exemplary grammar and spelling

Analysis questions were answered completely.

 

Analysis questions were not answered completely.

Analysis questions were not answered.

Clear connection with theories

Vaguely related to the theories

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory.

 

4

Grammar and spelling are superior

Grammar and spelling acceptable

   

3

 

2

     

1

Reflections/Insights

Reflection statements are profound and clear; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are clear, but not clearly supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

Reflection statements are shallow; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are unclear and shallow and are not supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

Learning Portfolio

Portfolio is complete, clear, well- organized and all supporting; documentations are located in sections clearly designated

Portfolio is complete, clear,

well-organized; most supporting documentations are available and logical and

 

Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentations are organized but are lacking

Analysis questions were not answered

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory

 

4

clearly marked locations

 
   

3

 
   

2

 

1

Submission of Learning Episode

Submitted before the deadline

Submitted on the deadline

 

Submitted a day after the deadline

Submitted two days or more after the deadline

 

4

 

3

   

1

     

2

 

COMMENT/S

Over-all score

 

Rating:

 
(Based on transmutation)  

(Based on

transmutation)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING

   

Score

20

19-18

17

16

15

14

13-12

11

10

9-8

7-below

Grade

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.5

5.00

 

99

96

93

90

87

84

81

78

75

72

71-Below

Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

6 ON PORTFOLIOS

Date

My Learning Episode Overview

A portfolio of student’s work is a direct evidence of learning. But it is a mere collection of student’s work or output. Therefore, a student’s reflection must accompany each output or work.

The student’s work is either a product or a performance.

My Intended Learning Outcome

After this Episode, I should able describe the various types of learner’s portfolios and their functions.

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

a. quality of my observations and documentation,

b. completeness and depth of my analysis

c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections,

d. completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and

e. time of submission of my portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

A learning portfolio is a purposeful collection of students work that exhibits a student’s effort, progress, achievements and competencies gained in a given area of course.

There are 3 types of portfolio, namely: 1) growth / developing portfolio, 2) showcase/base work/ display portfolio and 3) assessment/ evaluation portfolio.

Display / showcase / best work portfolio is to demonstrate the highest level of achievement attained by the student.

The main purpose of an assessment / evaluation portfolio is to document student learning on specific curriculum outcomes.

Growth / Process / Development Portfolio

Purposes

Some Possible Inclusions

To show growth or change over time

Early and later pieces of work

 

Early and later test scores

 

Rough drafts and final drafts

 

Reflections on progress toward goals

To identify strengths / weaknesses

Reflections on strengths and weaknesses

 

Reflections on progress toward goals

Showcase / Best Work Portfolio

Purposes

Some Possible Inclusions

To showcase end-of-year / term accomplishments

Samples of best work

 

Final tests otr scores

 

Awards or other recognition

 

Teacher or peer comments

To showcase student’s perceptions of favorite best work or most important

Samples of student’s favorite best work

 

Reflection on why it is favorite, best or most important.

Evaluation /Assessment Portfolio

Purposes

Some Possible Inclusions

To document achievement for grading

Samples of work documenting level of achievement on course / grade level/ objectives/ standards

 

Test/Scores

 

Self-reflection on how well samples indicate attainment of course

 

Identification of strengths and weaknesses

To document progress towards standards

List of Applicable Goods and Standards

 

Self-reflection how well samples indicate attainment of course

 

Analysis of evidence of progress made toward standards over course of semester

 

Representative Samples of Current Work

To place students appropriately

Representative samples of earlier work to indicate rate of progress

 

Classroom tests / scores

 

Self-reflection on current aptitudes

 

Teacher / parent reflection on student’s

aptitudes

aptitudes

My Map

1. Read My Learning Essentials.

2. Talk with at least 2 Resource Teacher and ask permission to go over available learner’s

portfolios.

3. Classify the portfolio.

4. Examine the elements and content of each portfolio.

5. Analyze my observations.

6. Reflect on my experience.

My Learning Activities

Checklist

Classify the portfolios examine. Use the checklist below:

Type of Portfolio

Tally (How many did you see?)

Frequency

Development / Process Portfolio / Growth-Portfolio

   

Display Showcase / Best Work Portfolio / Showcase Portfolio

   

Evaluation / Assessment Portfolio

   

Observation Checklist

Select three (#) best portfolios from what you examined. Which element/s present in each? Please check.

 

Elements of Portfolio

Put you (

  Elements of Portfolio Put you ( ) here.

) here.

1.

Cover Letter- “About the Author” and

 

“What My Portfolio Shows About My Progress

as a Learner”

2. Table of Contents with numbered pages

 

3. Entries-both core (requires items) and

 

optional items (chosen by students)

4.

Dates on all entries to facilitate proof of

growth over time.

 

5.

Drafts of aural/oral and written products and

 

revised revisions, i.e. (first drafts and

corrected/revised versions.)

6.

Reflections

My Analysis

1. Did I see samples of the three different types of portfolio?

2. What did I observe to be the most commonly used portfolio?

3. As I examined three selected portfolios, did I see all the elements of a portfolio?

4. Is it necessary for a teacher to use varied types of portfolio? Why?

5. If one element or two elements of a portfolio are missing will this have any impact on the

assessment process? Explain your answer.

My Reflections

1. Have portfolios made the learning assessment process inconvenient? Is the effort exerted on

portfolio assessment commensurate to the improvement of learning that results from the use of

portfolio?

2. Can showcase portfolios be assessment portfolio as well?

3. Can development or growth portfolios be assessment portfolios?

Integrating Theory and Practice

1. Teacher Parah asked her pupils to display their penmanship work in the beginning, middle and

near the end of the school year. Which type of portfolio is displayed?

A.

Development portfolio

C. Showcase portfolio

B.

Evaluation portfolio

D. Assessment portfolio

2.

You are applying for a teaching job. Which type of portfolio should accompany your

application letter?

A.

Development portfolio

C. Showcase portfolio

B.

Evaluation portfolio

D. Assessment portfolio

3.

I have to check if my students were able to produce the expected output as stated in my

intended learning outcome. Which types of portfolio am I interested to use?

A.

Development portfolio

C. Showcase portfolio

B.

Evaluation portfolio

D. Assessment portfolio

4.

Teacher Alex wants his pupils to display their favorite poem among the poems each one

composed. What type of portfolio is Teacher Alex expecting to see?

A.

Development portfolio

C. Showcase portfolio

B.

Evaluation portfolio

D. Assessment portfolio

5.

Which portfolios enable you to determine if you realize your intended learning outcome?

A.

Development portfolio

C. Showcase portfolio

B.

Evaluation portfolio

D. Assessment portfolio

My Learning Portfolio

Present what you learned on types, functions and elements of a portfolio by means of 3 separate graphic organizers.

Types of Portfolio

Functions of Portfolio

Elements of Portfolio

My Learning Rubric

Field Study 5, Episode 6 –On Portfolio

Focused on:

Describing the various types of learner’s portfolios and their functions

Name of FS Student:

Date Submitted:

Year and section:

Course:

 

Learning Episodes

Exemplary

Superior

Satisfactory

 

Needs Improvement

4

3

2

1

Learning Activities

All task were done with

outstanding quality; work exceeds expectations

All or nearly all tasks were done with high quality.

 

Nearly all tasks were done with acceptable quality.

Fewer than half of tasks were done, or most

 

3

 

2

objectives were met but need improvement

 

4

   
   

1

Analysis of the Learning Episode

All questions/episodes were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories. Exemplary grammar and spelling

Analysis questions were answered completely.

 

Analysis questions were not answered completely.

Analysis questions were not answered.

Clear connection with theories

Vaguely related to the theories

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory.

 

4

Grammar and spelling are superior

Grammar and spelling acceptable

   

3

 

2

     

1

Reflections/Insights

Reflection statements are profound and clear; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are clear, but not clearly supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

Reflection statements are shallow; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are unclear and shallow and are not supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

Learning Portfolio

Portfolio is complete, clear, well- organized and all supporting; documentations are located in sections clearly designated

Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized; most supporting documentations are available and logical and

 

Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentations are organized but are lacking

Analysis questions were not answered

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory

 

4

clearly marked locations

 
   

3

 
   

2

 

1

Submission of Learning Episode

Submitted before the deadline

Submitted on the deadline

 

Submitted a day after the deadline

Submitted two days or

more after the deadline

   

4

 

3

   

1

     

2

 

COMMENT/S

Over-all score

 

Rating:

 
(Based on transmutation)  

(Based on

transmutation)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING

   

Score

20

19-18

17

16

15

14

13-12

11

10

9-8

7-below

Grade

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.5

5.00

 

99

96

93

90

87

84

81

78

75

72

71-Below

Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

 

Date

7 ON SCORING RUBRICS

My Learning Episode Overview

How do you score a product or a performance as evidence of learning? You will learn it form this Episode.

My Intended Learning Outcome

At the end of this Episode, I must be able to examine different types of rubrics used by my Resource Teachers and relate them to assessment of students learning.

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

a. quality of my observations and documentation,

b. completeness and depth of my analysis

c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections,

d. completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and

e. time of submission of my portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

A rubric is a coherent set of criteria for stuent’s work that includes descriptions of levels of performance quality on the criteria.

The main purpose of rubrics is to assess performances and products. For some performances, you observe the student in the process of doing like dribbling the ball. For others, you observe the product which results from the students work.

There are two types of rubrics- analytic and holistic. Analytic rubrics describe work on each criterion separately while a holistic rubric assesses a student work as a whole.

My Learning Essentials

Analytic rubrics identify and assess components of a finished product.

Holistic rubrics assess student work as a whole.

Below are examples of a holistic and an analytic rubric.

Fiction Writing Content Rubric – Holistic

5 – The plot, setting, and characters are developed fully and organized well. The who, what, where, when, and why are explained using interesting language and sufficient detail.

4 – Most parts of the story mentioned in a score of a 5 above are developed and organized well. A couple of aspects may need to be more fully or more interestingly developed.

3 – Some aspects of the story are developed and organized well, but not as much detail or organization is expressed as in a score of 4.

2 – A few parts of the story are developed somewhat. Organization and language usage need improvement.

1 – Parts of the story are addressed without intention to detail or organization.

Fiction-Writing Content Rubric-Analytic

Criteria

4

3

2

1

PLOT: “What”

Both plot parts are fully developed.

One of the plot part is fully developed and the less developed is at least addressed.

Both plot part are addressed but not fully developed.

Neither plot is fully developed.

and “Why”

SETTING:

Both setting parts

One of the setting parts is fully developed and the less developed part is at least addressed.

Both setting parts of the story are addressed but not fully developed.

Neither setting

“When” and

parts are

“Where”

are fully developed.

developed.

CHARACTERS:

The main characters are fully developed with much descriptive detail. The reader has a vivid image of the characters.

The main characters are developed with some descriptive detail. The reader has a vague idea of the characters.

The main characters are identified by name only.

None of the characters are developed or named.

“Who” described

by behaviour,

appearance,

personality and

   

character traits

Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu Source: hhtp://www4.wccnet.edu/deparmets/curriculum/assessment,php?levelone=rubric

The following are the steps in developing a scoring rubric.

1. Identify the characters of what you are assessing. In most cases, this will be specific

stated learning outcomes.

2. Describe the best work you could expect using this characteristics. This describes the

top range of your rubric.

3. Describe the worst acceptable product using these characteristics. This describes the

lowest acceptable range of your rubric.

4.

Describe an unacceptable product. This describes the lowest of your rubric.

5.

Develop descriptions of intermediate level products and assign then to intermediate

ranges.

My Map

1. Read My Learning Essentials.

2. Interview at least 2 Resource Teachers on their use of scoring rubrics in assessing learning.

3. Request my Resource Teachers for a copy (for to photocopy) of the scoring rubrics that he

school uses for group projects, student papers, cooperative learning activities.

4. If there are no scoring rubrics are available, I will research on samples of scoring rubrics for

student papers, cooperative learning activities, group projects, performances, and the like.

5. I will analyze information gathered from my interview and research.

6. I will reflect on all information gathered.

My Learning Activities

Interview

Interview of my Resource Teachers

I will ask the following questions:

1. Where do you use the scoring rubrics? (student outputs or products and student acticities)

2. What help have scoring rubrics given you? When there were no scoring rubrics yet, what did

you use?

3. What difficulties have you met in the use of scoring rubrics?

4. Do you make sure of holistic and analytic rubrics? How do they differ?

5. Which is easier to use-analytic or holistic?

6. Were you involve in the making of the scoring rubrics? How do you make one? Which is

easier to construct – analytic or holistic?

Research

I will research on more examples of holistic, and analytic rubrics.

My Analysis

1. What benefits have scoring rubrics brought to the teaching-learning process?

2. How are scoring rubrics related to portfolio assessment?

3. To get the most from scoring rubrics, what should be observed in the making and use of

scoring rubrics?

My Reflections

Can rubrics help make students to become self-directed or independent learners? Do rubrics contribute to assessment AS learning (self-assessment?) What if there were no rubrics in assessment?

Integrating Theory and Practice

1.

For diagnostic purposes which type of rubric is more appropriate?

A.

Analytic rubric

C. Holistic

B.

General rubric

D. Developmental rubric

2.

Which rubric CANNOT provide specific feedback for improvement?

A.

Analytic rubric

C. Holistic

B.

General rubric

D. Developmental rubric

3.

Which advantage does a holistic rubric over that of an analytic rubric?

A.

Takes less time to create

C. More direct

B.

Shorter in content

D. More detailed

4.

Because of its nature, which can be of greater help for self-directed learning?

A.

Analytic rubric

C. Holistic

B.

Developmental

D. Combination of holistic and analytic

My Learning Portfolio

Go over the K to 12 Curriculum Guide and look for at least one competency that needs to be assessed by the use of rubrics. Make a scoring rubric – one analytic and the other holistic. Remember to focus on assessing the intended outcome.

My Learning Rubric

Field Study 5, Episode 7 –On Scoring Rubrics

Focused on:

Examining different types of rubrics used by my Resource Teacher and relating them to assessment.

Name of FS Student:

Date Submitted:

Year and section:

Course:

 

Learning Episodes

Exemplary

Superior

Satisfactory

 

Needs Improvement

4

3

2

1

Learning Activities

All task were done with

outstanding quality; work exceeds expectations

All or nearly all tasks were done with high quality.

 

Nearly all tasks were done with acceptable quality.

Fewer than half of tasks were done, or most

 

3

 

2

objectives were met but need improvement

 

4

   
   

1

Analysis of the Learning Episode

All questions/episodes were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories. Exemplary grammar and spelling

Analysis questions were answered completely.

 

Analysis questions were not answered completely.

Analysis questions were not answered.

Clear connection with theories

Vaguely related to the theories

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory.

 

4

Grammar and spelling are superior

Grammar and spelling acceptable

   

3

 

2

     

1

Reflections/Insights

Reflection statements are profound and clear; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are clear, but not clearly supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

Reflection statements are shallow; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are unclear and shallow and are not supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

Learning Portfolio

Portfolio is complete, clear, well- organized and all supporting; documentations are located in sections clearly designated

Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized; most supporting documentations are available and logical and

 

Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentations are organized but are lacking

Analysis questions were not answered

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory

 

4

clearly marked locations

 
   

3

 
   

2

 

1

Submission of Learning Episode

Submitted before the deadline

Submitted on the deadline

 

Submitted a day after the deadline

Submitted two days or

more after the deadline

   

4

 

3

   

1

     

2

 

COMMENT/S

Over-all score

 

Rating:

 
(Based on transmutation)  

(Based on

transmutation)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING

   

Score

20

19-18

17

16

15

14

13-12

11

10

9-8

7-below

Grade

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.5

5.00

 

99

96

93

90

87

84

81

78

75

72

71-Below

Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

 

Date

8 THE K to 12 GRADING SYSTEM

My Learning Episode Overview

With the implementation of the Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum of 2013, more popularly known as K to 12, is a new grading system that is aligned to the new assessment policy of the Department of Education based on DepEd Memo 8, s. 2015 In this Episode, you will be made to observe how this is implemented in schools.

My Intended Learning Outcome

At the end of this Episode, I will able to:

compute students’ grade based on DepEd’s grading policy

give the descriptor of a numerical grade

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following

a. quality of my observations and documentation,

b. completeness and depth of my analysis

c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections,

d. completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and

e. time of submission of my portfolio.

My Learning essentials

In the K to 12 curriculum, a student’s grade is based on his/her written work, performance task and quarterly assessment.

The weights of the components (written work, performance task and quarterly assessment) vary among groups of subjects from grade 1 to Grade 10 and from Grade 11 and 12 See Tables below:

Weight of the Components for Grades 1-10

 

Components

Languages/AP/Es

Science/Math

MAPEH/EPP/TL

1 to 10

P

E

 

Written Work

30%

40%

20%

Performance

50%

40%

60%

Tasks

Quarterly

20%

20%

20%

Assessment

Weight of the Components for Grades 11-12

 

Code

Academic Track

Technical-Vocational and Livelihood (TVL) / Sports/ Arts and Design Track

Subjects

All other

Work

All other

Work

subjects

Immersion/

subjects

Immersion/

Research/

Research/

Business

Exhibit/

Enterprise

Performance

Simulation/

Exhibit/

Performance

Written

25%

25%

35%

20%

Work

Performanc

50%

45%

40%

60%

e Task

Quarterly

25%

30%

25%

20%

Assessment

Components of Summative Assessment

A. Written Work includes “long quizzes and unit or long tests. Other written work may include

essays, written reports, and other written output…” It is strongly recommended that items in long quizzes and tests be distributed across the cognitive process dimensions of Anderom and Krathwohl (2001)” – DepEd Order 8, s. 2015.

The written Work component “ensures that students are able to express skills and concepts in written form”

If you are looking for the application KPUP (knowledge, process, understanding and performance of DepO. 73, s. 2012) This is it. In assessment, teacher sees to it that written tests assess the cognitive processes of remembering, understanding, applying, analysing, evaluating and creating with emphasis on the higher dimensions.

B. “The Performance Task components allows learners to show what they know and are able to

do in diverse ways. They may create or innovate products or do performance-based tasks.

Performance-based tasks may include skills demonstration, group presentations , and work, multimedia presentations, and work, multimedia presentations and research projects.” (DepEd, Order 8, s. 2015).

Reporting Learner’s Program

DepEd Order 8, s. 2015 states:

The summary of learner progress is shown quarterly to parents and guardians through parent-teacher conference, in which the report card is discussed. The table below presents the grading scale with its corresponding descriptors and remarks.

Grading Scale

DESCRIPTOR

GRADING SCALE

REMARKS

Outstanding

90-100

Passed

Very Satisfactory

85-89

Passed

Satisfactory

80-84

Passed

Fairly Satisfactory

75-79

Passed

Did Not Meet Expectations

Below 79

Passed

My Map

1. I will interview one Resource Teacher and 5 students.

2. I will write answers of my informants, my Resource Teacher and the 5 students.

3. I will analyze and reflect on their responses and on my observations.

4. I will offer my help to my Resource Teacher for the computation of students’ grades.

5. Together with my learning partner, I will ask her/him and 5 students the interview questions.

6. Analyze my observations with the use of guide questions.

7. Reflect on my observations and analysis.

8. Answer the LET – like test items.

9. Come up with my portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1: Interview of Resource Teacher

Interview Guide Questions for Resource Teacher

Based on DepEd Order 8, s. 2015:

1. What are the bases for grading?

2. How do you compute grades per quarter for Grades 1 to 10 and Grades 11 to 12. Give an

example.

3. How do you compute grades at the end of the school year?

4. What descriptors and grading scale are used in reporting progress of learners?

5. What are the bases for leaners’ promotion and retention at the end of the school year?

6. What is the report on learners’ observed values?

Activity 2: Interview of 5 Students

Interview Guide Questions for 5 Students

1. What do you like in the new grading system?

2. Do you have problems with the new grading system. If there is, what?

3. Does the new grading system give you a better picture of your performance? Why or why not?

My Learning Activities

Activity 3: Grade Computation

Show sample computations of a grade in a subject of your choice either from Grade 1 to

10 or from Grades 11 to 12. Show the percentage contributions of written work, performance

tasks and quarterly assessment. Then give the descriptor. (Ask you Resource Teacher for his/her

help).

Subject:

Grade:

Steps

1. Get the total score for each component.

 

Learner’s Raw Score

Highest Possible Score

Written Work

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

Learner’s Raw Score

Highest Possible Score

Performance Task 1

 

2

 

3

 

4

Quarterly Assessment (Test)

Learner’s Raw Score

Highest Possible Score

2. Obtain the Percentage Score for each of the component by dividing the total raw score by the

highest possible score then multiply the quotient by 100%.

Percentage Score of Written Work

Percentage Score of Performance Task

Percentage Score of Quarterly Assessment

3. Convert Percentage Score to weighted scores by multiplying the percentage score by the

weight of the component. Refer to Tables on weights of Components per subject for Grades 1 to

10 and for Grades 11 to 12 on pp. 91-92.

The Weighted Score of Written Work

The Weighted Score of Performance Task

The Weighted Score of Quarterly Assessment

4. Add the weighted Scores of each component. This will give you the initial grade.

5. Transmute the Initial Grade using the Transmutation Table in Appendix G.

6. Give the descriptor of the computed final grade of the subject. Refer to Table of Descriptors on

p. 92.

My Analysis

Analyze data and information gathered from the interview.

1. Do teachers/students like the new grading system? Why or Why not?

2. What are the good points of the new grading system?

3. What are teachers challenged to do by this new grading system?

4. Do you favour the distribution of percentages of written work, performance tasks and

quarterly assessment?

5. Do Anderson’s and Krathwohl’s cognitive process dimensions include Kendall’s and

Marzano’s (retrieval, understanding, analysis and knowledge utilization)?

6. Did you like the experience of computing grades? Why or why not?

My Reflections

In an era where the emphasis is self-directed learning, demonstration of knowledge, skills and values learned (outcomes-based education) do grades really matter?

What are your thoughts about the reflection of core values of the Filipino child in the Report Card?

2. Points for improvement

Integrating Theory and Practice

1. Which is the percentage contribution of quarterly assessment to the grade of the student from

Grade 1 to 10?

A.

15%

C. 25%

B.

20%

D. 30%

2.

Does quarterly assessment have the same percentage weights for all the subject, for all the

tracks in Grade 11-12?

A.

Yes

C. Yes, only for the academic track

B.

No

D. It depends on schools.

3.

Which is the percentage contribution of written work to the grade of the Grade 1-10?

A.

50%

C. 40%

B.

20%

D. 30%

4.

In MAPEH and TLE, which contribute/s heaviest to the student grade?

A.

Performance tasks

C. Quarterly assessment

B.

Written work

D. Quarterly assessment and performance tasks

5.

Based on percentage contribution to the grade, what can be inferred from the DepEd’s

emphasis on learning and assessment?

A.

The emphasis depends on the grade level of the subjects.

B.

All components are being emphasized.

C.

The emphasis for all Grade 1-10 subjects is on performance tasks.

D.

The emphasis is on quarterly assessment.

6.

A student gets a numerical grade of 80. What is his descriptor for his level of proficiency?

A.

Satisfactory

C. Very Satisfactory

B.

Fairly Satisfactory

D. Dis not meet expectations

7.

I get a grade of 90. What is its descriptor?

A.

Satisfactory

C. Very Satisfactory

B.

Fairly Satisfactory

D. Did not meet expectations

8.

Which is described as “did not meet expectations”?

A.

Below 75%

C. Below 74%

B.

Below 76%

D. Below 72%

9.

If a student failed to meet standards, which descriptor applies?

A.

Developing

C. Poor

B.

Beginning

D. Did not meet expectations

10.

How is the final grade per subject for Grade 11 to 12 obtained?

A.

Get the average of the grades for the 2 quarters

B.

Get the average of the grades for the 4 quarters

C.

Get the average of the grades of all subjects for the 2 semesters.

D.

Get the average of the grades of all subjects for the 4 semesters.

11.

Which is/are TRUE of MAPEH when it comes to grade computation?

I. The quarterly grade is the average of the quarterly grades in the four areas – Music Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH)

II. Individual grades are given to each area (MAPEH)

III. There is one grade for Music and Arts, PE and Health because they are related.

A.

I only

C. I and II

B.

I and II

D. II only

12.

Which is TRUE of Kindergarten grades?

A.

Grades are computed like the grades in Grade 1.

B.

There are numerical grades with descriptions

D.

Remarks like Passed and Failed are used.

13.

At the end of the school year, which is/are TRUE of grades?

I. The General Average is computed by dividing the sum of all final grades by the total number of learning areas.

II. Each learning area has equal weight in computing for the General Average.

III. The Final Grade per learning area and the General Average are reported as whole numbers.

A.

I and II

C. I and III

B.

II and III

D. I, II and III

14.

Who is retained in the same grade level for Grades 1 to 10? Any students who did not meet

expectations

A.

in three or more learning areas

B.

in 2 learning areas

C.

in four learning areas

D.

as shown in the general average

15.

What happens when a student in Grade 1 to 10 did not meet expectations in two learning

areas?

A. Retained in the same level

B. Promoted to the next grade level after passing remedial classes for learning areas with failing

mark

C. Promoted in the next grade level but has back subjects in the lower grade level

D. Is not accepted for enrolment in the school

My Learning Portfolio

Show sample computations of a grade and a subject of your choice different from what you gave in Activity 3. Show the percentage contribution of written work, performance task and quarterly assessment.

My Learning Rubric

Field Study 5, Episode 8 –Thee K to 12 Grading System

Focused on:

Compute students’ grade based on DepEd’s grading policy

Give the descriptor of a numerical grade

Name of FS Student:

Date Submitted:

Year and section:

Course:

 

Learning Episodes

Exemplary

Superior

Satisfactory

 

Needs Improvement

4

3

2

1

Learning Activities

All task were done with

outstanding quality; work exceeds expectations

All or nearly all tasks were done with high quality.

 

Nearly all tasks were done with acceptable quality.

Fewer than half of tasks were done, or most

 

3

 

2

objectives were met but need improvement

 

4

   
   

1

Analysis of the Learning Episode

All questions/episodes were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories. Exemplary grammar and spelling

Analysis questions were answered completely.

 

Analysis questions were not answered completely.

Analysis questions were not answered.

Clear connection with theories

Vaguely related to the theories

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory.

 

4

Grammar and spelling are superior

Grammar and spelling acceptable

   

3

 

2

     

1

Reflections/Insights

Reflection statements are profound and clear; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are clear, but not clearly supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

Reflection statements are shallow; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are unclear and shallow and are not supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

Learning Portfolio

Portfolio is complete, clear, well- organized and all supporting; documentations are located in sections clearly designated

Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized; most supporting documentations are available and logical and

 

Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentations are organized but are lacking

Analysis questions were not answered

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory

 

4

clearly marked locations

 
   

3

 
   

2

 

1

Submission of Learning Episode

Submitted before the deadline

Submitted on the deadline

 

Submitted a day after the deadline

Submitted two days or

more after the deadline

   

4

 

3

   

1

     

2

 

COMMENT/S

Over-all score

 

Rating:

 
(Based on transmutation)  

(Based on

transmutation)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING

   

Score

20

19-18

17

16

15

14

13-12

11

10

9-8

7-below

Grade

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.5

5.00

 

99

96

93

90

87

84

81

78

75

72

71-Below

Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

 

Date

9 REPORTING STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE

My Learning Episode Overview

If we have to work with parents for the education of children, we have to inform them about the children’s progress in school in the same way that we give the students feedback regarding their performance. School vary in their practice of reporting students’ performance This is what you will find out on this Episode.

My Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this Episode, I must be able to:

state the reason(s) why grades must be reported to parents

describe what must be done to make grade reporting meaningful

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following

a. quality of my observations and documentation,

b. completeness and depth of my analysis

c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections,

d. completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and

e. time of submission of my portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

1. Reporting students’ performance at least four times a year is a regular practice of schools. A

card-getting day is usually set for this purpose.

2. Reporting students’ performance is done usually by means of a Report Card.

3. Reporting students’ progress to parents is a must. This is a way to show parents their children’s

progress in relation to the standards. These standards are supposed to have been explained to

parents and students at the beginning of the school year.

My Map

1. I will read My Learning Essentials.

2. With my learning partner, I will interview at least two (2) Resource Teachers in different

schools on classroom and school practice in giving feedback to students and reporting chilfren’s

performance to parents

3. I will observe a Homeroom meeting.

4. I will research on best practices on the reporting of grades.

5. I will analyze and reflect on information gathered.

6. I will come up with my learning portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1 – Interview

Interview Questions:

1. How do you give feedback to your students regarding their performance? When do you give

feedback?

2. How do you report students’ performance to parents? Does the school have a regular way of

reporting grades to parents?

3. What problems on grade reporting did you encounter with parents? How do you address it/

them?

4. Was it east for you to report students’ performance to parents? What were challenges?

Activity 2 – Attendance in Homeroom Meeting

If it is possible, attend a Homeroom meeting on Card-Getting Day. Outline the parts of the meeting. Describe how the Resource Teachers communicated learners’ assessment results and grades to parents.

1. What are the parts of Homeroom meeting?

2. How did the Resource Teachers communicate learners’ assessment and grads to parents?

My Analysis

1. In the Homeroom meeting, did the teachers reporting and communicating of grades take place

smoothly? Or were there instances when discussions became heated because of the way reporting was handled? Describe your observations.

My Reflections

1. Grades are often a source of misunderstanding. How should I do reporting so that it will result to effective learning?

Integrating Theory and Practice

1.

Why must grades be reported to parents?

I.

Promote on-going formative feedback to students

II.

Ensure alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment

III.

Promote, to parents and students, credible and useful feedback

A.

I only

C. II only

B.

I and II

D. I, II, and III

2.

What must be done to make grade meaningful?

I.

The grading system must clear to all concerned.

II.

The standards and competencies are known and understood by all.

III.

The grading system must be numerical.

A.

I and II

C. I, II, and III

B.

II only

D. III only

3.

To make grade reporting meaningful, which must be done?

A.

Announce names of students who need to help.

B.

Rank the Report Cards from highest to lowest then distribute the same according to rank.

C.

Explain how the grades were computed.

D.

Console parents whose children are non-performing by telling them that nobody fails.

4.

What is an essential step in reporting grades to parents?

I. Explain that grades give a picture of students’ performance.

II. Explain that grads compare students’ performance against the established standards.

III. Explain that grades compare students’ performance against other students’

performance.

A.

I and II

C. I, II, and III

B.

II only

D. III only

My Learning Portfolio

Research on Best Practices of schools on effective learning, grading and reporting. Write your findings and reflections here.

My Learning Rubric

Field Study 5, Episode 9 – Reporting Students’ Performance

Focused on:

Stating the reason(s) why grades must be reported to parents

Describing what must be done to make grade reporting meaningful

Name of FS Student:

Date Submitted:

Year and section:

Course:

 

Learning Episodes

Exemplary

Superior

Satisfactory

 

Needs Improvement

4

3

2

1

Learning Activities

All task were done with

outstanding quality; work exceeds expectations

All or nearly all tasks were done with high quality.

 

Nearly all tasks were done with acceptable quality.

Fewer than half of tasks were done, or most

 

3

 

2

objectives were met but need improvement

 

4

   
   

1

Analysis of the Learning Episode

All questions/episodes were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories. Exemplary grammar and spelling

Analysis questions were answered completely.

 

Analysis questions were not answered completely.

Analysis questions were not answered.

Clear connection with theories

Vaguely related to the theories

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory.

 

4

Grammar and spelling are superior

Grammar and spelling acceptable

   

3

 

2

     

1

Reflections/Insights

Reflection statements are profound and clear; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are clear, but not clearly supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

Reflection statements are shallow; supported by experiences from the learning episodes

Reflection statements are unclear and shallow and are not supported by experiences from the learning episodes

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

Learning Portfolio

Portfolio is complete, clear, well- organized and all supporting; documentations are located in sections clearly designated

Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized; most supporting documentations are available and logical and

 

Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentations are organized but are lacking

Analysis questions were not answered

Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory

 

4

clearly marked locations

 
   

3

 
   

2

 

1

Submission of Learning Episode

Submitted before the deadline

Submitted on the deadline

 

Submitted a day after the deadline

Submitted two days or

more after the deadline

   

4

 

3

   

1

     

2

 

COMMENT/S

Over-all score

 

Rating:

 
(Based on transmutation)  

(Based on

transmutation)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING

   

Score

20

19-18

17

16

15

14

13-12

11

10

9-8

7-below

Grade

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.5

5.00

 

99

96

93

90

87

84

81

78

75

72

71-Below

Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

 

Date