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Elastic Impression Materials : Hydrocolloids
Elastic Impression Materials :
Hydrocolloids
What are colloids ?
What are colloids ?
What are colloids ?  Dissolving solid (solute) into Liquids (solvent) could result in 1 of

Dissolving solid (solute) into Liquids

(solvent) could result in 1 of 3 states

1.

Solution

2.

Suspension

3.

Colloid

could result in 1 of 3 states 1. Solution 2. Suspension 3. Colloid  If the

If the solvent of such colloid is the

water,

the

hydrocolloid

Suspension 3. Colloid  If the solvent of such colloid is the water , the hydrocolloid

material

is

named

Hydrocolloids
Hydrocolloids

Hydrocolloids are usually exist either in

Sol (Viscous liquid) or Gel (Jelly-like) form.

The sol can change into gel through:

1. Physical (Reversible) reaction

change into gel through: 1. Physical ( Reversible ) reaction gel 2. Chemical ( Irreversible )

gel

2. Chemical (Irreversible) reaction

gel

Sol

change into gel through: 1. Physical ( Reversible ) reaction gel 2. Chemical ( Irreversible )
change into gel through: 1. Physical ( Reversible ) reaction gel 2. Chemical ( Irreversible )

Sol

change into gel through: 1. Physical ( Reversible ) reaction gel 2. Chemical ( Irreversible )
change into gel through: 1. Physical ( Reversible ) reaction gel 2. Chemical ( Irreversible )

Hydrocolloid impression materials
Hydrocolloid impression
materials

2 types of hydrocolloid can be used for making impressions:

1. Agar (reversible hydrocolloid)

2. Alginate (irreversible hydrocolloid)

hydrocolloid) 2. Alginate (irreversible hydrocolloid)  To make materials, an impression using hydrocolloid The

To

make

materials,

Alginate (irreversible hydrocolloid)  To make materials, an impression using hydrocolloid The material should be

an

impression

using

hydrocolloid

The material should be introduced into patient’s

mouth in their sol state (To give sufficient flow and

register the details) and left inside to reach the gel state (Setting) before removal.

( To give sufficient flow and register the details ) and left inside to reach the
1. Agar Hydrocolloid impression material
1. Agar Hydrocolloid
impression material

The material is elastic and usually used in special type of stock trays to make 2ry impressions for

fixed restoration (inlay, onlay, crown and bridge).

used in special type of stock trays to make 2ry impressions for fixed restoration ( inlay,
used in special type of stock trays to make 2ry impressions for fixed restoration ( inlay,
Dental applications of agar hydrocolloid
Dental applications of agar
hydrocolloid
Dental applications of agar hydrocolloid 1. Making 2ry impression for inlay, only crown and bridge work

1. Making 2ry impression for inlay, only crown and bridge work

2. Making agar-alginate impression (Laminate impression technique)

agar-alginate impression (Laminate impression technique) 3. Laboratory duplication of stone casts 4. Help in
agar-alginate impression (Laminate impression technique) 3. Laboratory duplication of stone casts 4. Help in

3. Laboratory duplication of stone casts

4. Help in making acrylic dentures using the

fluid resin technique

3. Laboratory duplication of stone casts 4. Help in making acrylic dentures using the fluid resin
Presentation forms
Presentation forms
Presentation forms
Composition
Composition
Composition 1. Agar…. 12-15% 2. Water…. 85% 3. Borax…. (strengthening agent) 4. K 2 So 4

1. Agar…. 12-15%

2. Water…. 85% 3. Borax…. (strengthening agent)

4. K 2 So 4 …. (to overcome the retarding effect of borax on gypsum cast material)

5. Thymol…. (Antifungal) 6. Coloring agent

material) 5. Thymol…. (Antifungal) 6. Coloring agent Usually the consistency of the tray material is higher
material) 5. Thymol…. (Antifungal) 6. Coloring agent Usually the consistency of the tray material is higher

Usually the consistency of the tray material is

higher than that of the syringe material as a result of higher agar content

the consistency of the tray material is higher than that of the syringe material as a
Setting reaction
Setting reaction

The material changes from Sol to Gel via physical reaction (Reversible hydrocolloid ) Heating at 70-100 o C

Sol

( Reversible hydrocolloid ) Heating at 70-100 o C Sol Gel Cooling at 37-45 o C

Gel

Cooling at 37-45 o C

Heating at 70-100 o C Sol Gel Cooling at 37-45 o C  Factors affecting the

at 70-100 o C Sol Gel Cooling at 37-45 o C  Factors affecting the gelation

Factors affecting the gelation time:

1.

Sol Temperature

2. Cooling temperature

3.

Agar content

4. Thickness of the material

Mode of material’s setting
Mode of material’s setting

Tray

Mode of material’s setting Tray Tissue Circulating water 13-18 o C Oral tissues Water cooling system

Tissue

Circulating water 13-18 o C Oral tissues
Circulating water
13-18 o C
Oral tissues

Water cooling system tray

Agar impression material

Mode of agar setting

Circulating water 13-18 o C Oral tissues Water cooling system tray Agar impression material Mode of
Material’s Conditioning Boiling room (100 o C) Storage room (60-65 o C) Tempering room (45
Material’s Conditioning
Boiling room
(100 o C)
Storage room
(60-65 o C)
Tempering room
(45 o C)
Tray material is
Syringe and
tray materials
left for 10-15
Syringe and
tray materials
only tempered for
2 min .
stored up to 24
hrs.
min.
Properties
Properties

1. Biological properties

Proper tempering of the agar tray material is recommended to avoid burning of the

tray material is recommended to avoid burning of the oral soft tissue  Reusing of the

oral soft tissue

is recommended to avoid burning of the oral soft tissue  Reusing of the agar impression

Reusing of the agar impression material is

not advisable because of the possibility of

cross-infection

soft tissue  Reusing of the agar impression material is not advisable because of the possibility
Properties
Properties

2. Interfacial properties

The material is is hydrophilic, easily flow over wet

tissues registering fine details.

No separating medium is required at the time of

.  No separating medium is required at the time of impression pouring  Setting of

impression pouring

medium is required at the time of impression pouring  Setting of polymeric die material is

Setting of polymeric die material is affected by the water content of the agar

Gypsum model material should be mixed with hardening solution; otherwise a cast with chalky

material should be mixed with hardening solution ; otherwise a cast with chalky easily abraded surface

easily abraded surface will result.

Properties
Properties

3. Mechanical properties

Agar has low tear strength as a result of the higher water content , however jerk (Rapid) removal of the set impression will help in

jerk (Rapid) removal of the set impression will help in overcoming this drawback  Agar material

overcoming this drawback

Agar

material

shows

a

lower

degree

of

permanent

deformation

than

that

of

alginate due to the absence of filler particles within the composition

permanent deformation than that of alginate due to the absence of filler particles within the composition
Properties
Properties

4. Chemical properties

Agar material sets via physical reaction can be reused

material sets via physical reaction  can be reused  A degree of shrinkage is expected

A degree of shrinkage is expected on materials gelation (due to cooling)

is expected on material ’ s gelation ( due to cooling )  3 other reasons

3 other reasons are responsible for impressionsdimensional changes

material ’ s gelation ( due to cooling )  3 other reasons are responsible for

1.

Properties
Properties

Imbibition:

Agar material can absorb (Gain) water if

present in wet conditions expansion

(Gain) water if present in wet conditions  expansion 2. Synersis: Agar material can exudates (Loss)

2. Synersis:

Agar material can exudates (Loss) water if present in humid conditionsshrinkage

3. Dehydration:

Agar material can evaporate (Loss) water if

 shrinkage 3. Dehydration: Agar material can evaporate (Loss) water if present in dry conditions 

present in dry conditionsShrinkage

Properties
Properties
Properties 5. Practicability   Making agar impression is complex and sensitive procedure A special equipments

5. Practicability

Making agar impression is complex and

sensitive procedure

A special equipments (conditioner & water-

procedure A special equipments (conditioner & water- cooling system trays) are required  Needs circulating

cooling system trays) are required

Needs circulating cold water (18 o C) to help the gelation

Properties
Properties

Lengthy setting time could reach 8 min

Jerk

removal

of

the

impression

and

immediate pouring are both recommended

the impression and immediate pouring are both recommended  Storage of impressions is risky and needs

Storage of impressions is risky and needs certain precautions

impression and immediate pouring are both recommended  Storage of impressions is risky and needs certain
2. Alginate Hydrocolloid impression material
2. Alginate Hydrocolloid
impression material

Alginate impression material is elastic and

usually used in stock trays to make primary impressions.

Other applications:

1. Final impression for complete denture

applications: 1. Final impression for complete denture 2. Agar-Alginate impression technique 3. As wash material
applications: 1. Final impression for complete denture 2. Agar-Alginate impression technique 3. As wash material

2. Agar-Alginate impression technique

3. As wash material over 1ry compound impression

impression for complete denture 2. Agar-Alginate impression technique 3. As wash material over 1ry compound impression
Presentation forms
Presentation forms

A. Powder to be mixed with water

- Regular & Fast set

- Dust free

- Chromatic

to be mixed with water - Regular & Fast set - Dust free - Chromatic B.
to be mixed with water - Regular & Fast set - Dust free - Chromatic B.

B. 2 paste system (Siliconized alginate)

to be mixed with water - Regular & Fast set - Dust free - Chromatic B.
Powder composition
Powder composition

1. Sodium or potassium alginate (The principal ingredient)

2. Calcium sulfate (Reactor)

3. Na-phosphate (Retarder)

4. Diatomaceous earth (Filler)

 (Retarder) 4. Diatomaceous earth  (Filler) 5. Potassium sulfate  (Provides proper setting of
 (Retarder) 4. Diatomaceous earth  (Filler) 5. Potassium sulfate  (Provides proper setting of

5. Potassium sulfate (Provides proper setting of gypsum poured against the alginate impression)

6. Color indicator in chromatic alginates

impression) 6. Color indicator  in chromatic alginates 7. Glycol  in dust-free alginate coating the

7. Glycol in dust-free alginate coating the powder particles

Setting reaction
Setting reaction

Chemical reaction named gelation Calcium sulfate Sodium phosphate Calcium phosphate + Sodium sulfate (1)

Calcium sulfate Sodium alginate Insoluble calcium alginate (2)

Sodium alginate  Insoluble calcium alginate  (2)  The speed of the reaction is affected

The speed of the reaction is affected by;

1.

L/P ratio

2. Temperature

3.

Mixing rate

4. powder particle size

5. Additives

reaction is affected by; 1. L/P ratio 2. Temperature 3. Mixing rate 4. powder particle size
Mode of material’s setting
Mode of material’s setting

Tissue

Mode of material’s setting Tissue Tray Oral tissues Stock tray Alginate impression material Mode of alginate

Tray

Oral tissues

Stock tray

Alginate impression material Mode of alginate setting
Alginate
impression material
Mode of
alginate setting
of material’s setting Tissue Tray Oral tissues Stock tray Alginate impression material Mode of alginate setting
Making the material ready
Making the material ready
Properties
Properties

1. Biological properties

Alginate is biologically safe (Has no bad effect on the patient health)

biologically safe (Has no bad effect on the patient health)  Inhalation of dust at the

Inhalation of dust at the time of manipulation could precipitate bronchial

at the time of manipulation could precipitate bronchial asthma in allergic patients. Accordingly, dust-free

asthma in allergic patients. Accordingly,

dust-free alginate is advisable.

of manipulation could precipitate bronchial asthma in allergic patients. Accordingly, dust-free alginate is advisable.
Properties
Properties

2. Interfacial properties

Alginate impression material is hydrophilic

The material is able to register the complete denture foundation. But, not used to make final crown and bridge impressions

But, not used to make final crown and bridge impressions  No separating medium is required

No separating medium is required at the time of impression pouring

used to make final crown and bridge impressions  No separating medium is required at the
Properties
Properties

Setting of polymeric die material is affected

by the water content of the alginate

Gypsum model material should be mixed with hardening solution, otherwise a cast with chalky easily abraded surface will result.

material should be mixed with hardening solution , otherwise a cast with chalky easily abraded surface
material should be mixed with hardening solution , otherwise a cast with chalky easily abraded surface
Properties
Properties

3. Mechanical properties

Alginate has higher tear strength than that of agar as a result of its filler content

Jerk removal of the set impression is

filler content  Jerk removal of the set impression is recommended to minimize the rate of

recommended to minimize the rate of both

impression tearing and permanent

deformation

removal of the set impression is recommended to minimize the rate of both impression tearing and
Properties
Properties

4. Chemical properties

Aliginate

material

sets

via

chemical

(gelation)single use only

reaction

Several factors such as temperature, liquid/powder

ratio, particle size, mixing rate and the amount of

ratio , particle size , mixing rate and the amount of retarder could affect the rate

retarder could affect the rate of the reaction and the setting time.

could affect the rate of the reaction and the setting time.  Imbibition, synersis, and dehydration

Imbibition, synersis, and dehydration are also

noticed with the material

of the reaction and the setting time.  Imbibition, synersis, and dehydration are also noticed with
Properties
Properties

5. Practicability

Making alginate impression is simple and less

sensitive procedure

The powder container should be shacked very well

before dispensing the powder ratio to help in

redistributing the ingredients.

the powder ratio to help in redistributing the ingredients.  The container should be hermetically sealed

The container should be hermetically sealed all the

time to avoid moisture contamination and

deterioration of materials powder

should be hermetically sealed all the time to avoid moisture contamination and deterioration of material ’
Properties
Properties

Regular perforated or rim-lock stock trays

are recommended for making alginate

impression.

Both the regular set and the fast set

alginates are available

the regular set and the fast set alginates are available  Jerk removal of the impression
the regular set and the fast set alginates are available  Jerk removal of the impression

Jerk removal of the impression and

immediate pouring are both required

Storage of impressions is risky and needs certain precautions

Agar-Alginate Impression (Laminate impression)
Agar-Alginate Impression
(Laminate impression)
Agar impression material Stock tray Alginate overall impression Oral tissues Prepared tooth
Agar impression material Stock tray Alginate overall impression Oral tissues Prepared tooth

Agar impression

material

Stock tray

Alginate overall

impression

Oral tissues

Prepared tooth

overall impression Oral tissues Prepared tooth  Purpose: to overcome the complexity and high cost of

Purpose: to overcome the complexity and high cost of making agar impressions.

How: register the fine details of the prepared teeth using syringe type agar hydrocolloid and record the adjacent teeth using alginate

The agar sets by the effect of alginate mixing water and both materials

 The agar sets by the effect of alginate mixing water and both materials cohere depending

cohere depending on their colloidal nature

A.

Care and handling of hydrocolloid impressions
Care and handling of
hydrocolloid impressions

Dimensional stability:

Due to the ability of hydrocolloids to gain or loss

water (imbibitions, synersis and dehydration). A

considerable degree of Dim. Changes is expected unless;

1.

A considerable degree of Dim. Changes is expected unless; 1. Immediate pouring of the impression in

Immediate pouring of the impression in stone

unless; 1. Immediate pouring of the impression in stone 2. Storage of impressions in 2% potassium

2. Storage of impressions in 2% potassium sulfate or 100% humidity

100% humidity could be achieved by wrapping the impression with wet paper towel and both are stored in sealed plastic bag.

Thank you

Thank you