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Chapter 1

Introduction
Introduction
Ergonomics

In the past few years, there has been a trend for organizations and businesses to reconfigure the space of
their offices in new ways. In addition, the shift towards more exciting and flexible workplace environment
and the need to meet the varied and growing potential and needs of different employees has led to the rise of
debates about how and where creative work is consummate.

It focuses on how offices are designed and laid out; furniture and equipment are set up in the workplace. In
addition, ergonomics consider the impact of other workplace elements such as air quality, noise levels,
colour pattern, room temperature, lighting, flexibility on employee performance. Generally, from the
corporate point of view, the performance of an employee is often taken largely by the yield that employee,
given the good workplace environment, tools, technology, skill set among others e

Office ergonomics has been optional by many studies as one of the key guides to equip employees at the
workplace to help give most excellent performance. It is the value of the employee’s workplace
environment that most impacts on the level of employee’s motivation and consequent performance. How
well they fit into place with the organization, particularly with their instant environment, influences to a
great extent their mistake rate, level of modernism and teamwork with other employees, absenteeism and,
ultimately, how long they stay in the job

Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and
other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in
order to optimize human well-being and overall performance. Office Ergonomics and defines it as the
branch of ergonomics dealing specifically with the office environment. This field of ergonomics considers
how key workplace elements such as workstations, computers, chairs, lighting, noise level, room
temperature etc. could be fit and enhance employee health, safety and performance. From the definition, the
goal of office ergonomics is to set up office work space that fits and adequately supports the needs of the
employee in his quest to execute a task.

It focuses on how offices are planned; furniture and equipment are set up in the workplace. In addition,
ergonomics consider the impact of other workplace essentials such as air quality, noise levels, colour
schemes, room temperature, lighting, general flexibility on employee performance. Generally, from the
corporate viewpoint, the performance of an employee is often Calculated largely by the output that
employee produces, given the necessary workplace environment, tools, technology, skill set among others
etc
KEY ELEMENTS IN THE OFFICE ENVIRONMENT

Figure 1.1 : Office Design and Productivity

Figure 1.2: Workplace factors affecting employee performance


Figure 1.3 – Computer Workstation Variables

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE


 organization determined factors and;
 Factors that arise from location, offices or factory design.
 organization determined Factors
Benefits from Ergonomics on performance
 It increases turnover of the organisation
 It enhances performance and motivation
 It improves quality work
 Improves employee engagement
 It creates a better safety culture
 It helps ensure physical safety in the work place
 It reduces work related musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs like injuries)
 It help in employees satisfaction
 It has a positive effect on recruiting and retention
Chapter 2
Research methodology
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Employee capability and improved productivity is supposed to be the result of improved


workplace. better workplace friendly with the necessary tools, technology, policies and
strategies go a long way to boosts employees performance and in the end improve their
productivity.

NEED OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to identify the ergonomics factors that force on the
performance level of the employees.

Hence to create a conducive work environment for the employees it is imperative for the
managers to understand the force of office ergonomics on the performance level of
employees.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To examine the various facilities provided to the employees;

2. To understand employees satisfaction towards the facilities;

3. To study the impact of office ergonomics on the performance level of employees

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

For this study exploratory research at general level will be carried out by using primary and
secondary data. This research primarily focuses on the impact of ergonomics on employee output
in IT sector .In this research results and findings of related studies are analysed.

The simple random sampling for the study will be carried out at various IT companies located
around Bangalore .

SAMPLING METHOD

The sampling procedure will be a convenient form by using a questionnaire. A total of 103
respondents was interviewed during the survey, the inputs from these respondents which was
collected in Bangalore as primary data for the study.
DATA COLLECTION

communication with respondents will be in the form of face to face interviews with help
of questionnaires. The questionnaire consist set of questions, asked to the respondents
for their reply. The data collection order will be done in programmed order and the
object of the research will be exposed to the respondent.

PRIMARY DATA

The primary data will be generated through wide use of a all set questionnaire, which
will be close ended questions. The data collected will be utilize for the purpose of
examination and explanation

SECONDARY DATA

The second data will be collected from the following sources;

Magazines, Books, Websites and Journals.

PLAN OF ANALYSIS

Collected data will be analysed and tabulated, the data analysed will be presented in the form
of tables and graphs in the report, which will give appropriate conclusion for this project.

AREA COVERED

Bangalore City

Limitations

 The study is restricted only to IT industry.


 Collection of data was not easy, as the questionnaire contained personal
details of employee(income), hence it was against many organisation’s
policies.
 This is generalised research.
 Employees were hesitant to reveal the problems of organisation.
Chapter 3
Profile of respondents
Profile of respondents
Gender of respondents

Table 3.1 Gender

Gender Total Percent


Male 75 73%

Female 28 27%

Graph 3.1 Gender

Gender

FEMALE
27%

MALE
73%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we can see that, out of 103 respondents about 73%
respondents are male and about 27% of respondents are female.

Majority of respondent 73% are male


Age of Respondents

Table 3.2 Age of Respondents

Age Total Percent


<30 80 78%
31 to 40 20 19%
41 to 50 2 2%
>50 1 1%

Graph 3.2 Age of Respondents

Age
<30 31 to 40 41 to 50 >50
2% 1%

19%

78%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents, 78% respondents
belong to the group <30 years age group, 19% belong to 31 to 40 age group and 1% is >50 years
of age group.

Majority of respondent 78% belong to age group <30 years

Work level of respondents


Table 3.3 Work level of respondents

Level of work Total Percent


Junior level 41 40%
Middle level 49 47%
Senior Management level 13 13%

Graph 3.3 Work level of respondents

Level of work
Junior Level Middle Level Senior Management Level

13%

40%

47%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 40% respondents
are Junior level and about 47% of respondents are middle level and 13% is senior management
level employees.

Majority of respondent 47% works as middle level management.


Income of respondents

Table 3.4 Income of respondents

Income Total Percent


<20000 14 14%
20000 to 40000 57 55%
40000 to 50000 8 8%
>50000 24 23%

Graph 3.4 Income of respondents

Income
<20000 20000 to 40000 40000 to 50000 >50000

14%
23%

8%

55%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 14% respondents
income is <20000, about 55% of respondents income is between 20000 to 40000,8% respondents
income is between 40000 to 50000 and 23% respondents income is > 50000.

Majority of respondent 55% belong to the income group 20000 to 40000


Experience of respondents
Table 3.5 Experience of respondents

Experience Total Percent


Below 5 years 70 68%
6 to 10 years 23 22%
11 to 15 years 8 8%
above15 years 2 2%

Graph 3.5 Experience of respondents

Experience
<5 years 6 to 10 years 11 to 15 years >15 years

2%

8%

22%

68%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 68% respondents
experience is <5 years , about 22% of respondents experience is between 6 - 10 years,8%
respondents experience is between 11 - 15 years and 2% respondents experience is > 15 years.

Majority of employees 68% have work experience less than 5 years.


Chapter 4
DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS

The data collected from the respondents has been analyzed. The analyzed data is represented in
the form of table and graphs. As given below.

Satisfaction of respondents on General Design and Office Décor


Table 4.1 Satisfaction of respondents on General Design and Office Décor

Design and Office Décor Total Percent


Very Satisfied 27 26%
Satisfied 70 68%
Undecided 1 1%
Very dissatisfied 3 3%
Dissatisfied 2 2%

Graph 4.1 Satisfaction of respondents on General Design and Office Décor

Design and Decor


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

2% 3% 2%

26%

67%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 26% respondents are
very much satisfied with design and décor, 68% respondents are satisfied with design and décor,
2% respondents are dissatisfied with design and décor, 3% respondents are very dissatisfied with
design and décor, and 1% respondents are undecided with design and décor.

Majority of respondent 67% are happy with design and décor of office environment
Satisfaction of respondents on Arrangement and furnishing

Table 4.2 Satisfaction of respondents on Arrangement and furnishing

Arrangement and Total Percent


furnishing
Very Satisfied 28 27%
Satisfied 64 62%
Undecided 2 2%
Very dissatisfied 1 1%
Dissatisfied 8 8%

Graph 4.2 Satisfaction of respondents on Arrangement and furnishing

Arrangement and furnishing


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

1%
2%
8%

27%

62%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 27% respondents are
very much satisfied with Arrangement and furnishing, 62% respondents are satisfied with
Arrangement and furnishing, 8% respondents are dissatisfied with Arrangement and furnishing,
1% respondents are very dissatisfied with Arrangement and furnishing, and 2% respondents
undecided with Arrangement and furnishing

Majority of respondent 62% are happy with arrangement and furnishing.


Satisfaction of respondents on Flexibility and Comfort

Table 4.3 Satisfaction of respondents on Flexibility and Comfort

Flexibility and Comfort Total Percent


Very Satisfied 20 19%
Satisfied 63 61%
Undecided 4 4%
Very dissatisfied 2 2%
Dissatisfied 14 14%

Graph 4.3 Satisfaction of respondents on Flexibility and Comfort

Flexibility and Comfort


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

2% 14%
19%
4%

61%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 19% respondents
are very much satisfied with Flexibility and comfort, 61% respondents are satisfied with
Flexibility and comfort, 14% respondents are dissatisfied with Flexibility and comfort, 2%
respondents are very dissatisfied with Flexibility and comfort, and 4% respondents are undecided
with Flexibility and comfort.

Majority of respondent 61% are Flexible and feel comfort about office environment
Space of workplace for respondents.

Table 4.4 Space of workplace for respondents.

Space for workplace Total Percent


Very Satisfied 38 37%
Satisfied 48 46%
Undecided 1 1%
Very dissatisfied 4 4%
Dissatisfied 12 12%

Graph 4.4 Space of workplace for respondents.

Space for workplace


Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

3% 11%

33%
11%

42%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 37% respondents
are very much satisfied with space for workplace, 46% respondents are satisfied with space for
workplace, 12% respondents are dissatisfied with space for workplace, 4% respondents are very
dissatisfied with space for workplace, and 1% respondents are undecided with space for
workplace.

Majority of respondent 46% are happy with space allocation of office


Communication and collaboration in office

Table 4.5 Communication and collaboration in office

Communication and Total Percent


collaboration
Very Satisfied 28 27%
Satisfied 64 62%
Undecided 1 1%
Very dissatisfied 2 2%
Dissatisfied 8 8%

Graph 4.5 Communication and collaboration in office

Communication and collaboration


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

2%
7%
7% 26%

58%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 27% respondents
are very much satisfied with communication and collaboration, 62% respondents are satisfied
with communication and collaboration, 8% respondents are dissatisfied with communication and
collaboration 2% respondents are very dissatisfied with communication and collaboration, and
1% respondents are undecided with communication and collaboration.

Majority of respondent 62% are satisfied with communication & collaboration


State and suitability

Table 4.6 State and suitability of furniture

Suitability of office Total Percent


furniture
Very Satisfied 26 25%
Satisfied 62 60%
Undecided 1 1%
Very dissatisfied 6 6%
Dissatisfied 8 8%

Graph 4.6 State and suitability of furniture

Suitability of office furniture


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

8%
1%
6%
25%

60%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 25% respondents
are very much satisfied with Office furniture, 60% respondents are satisfied with Office
furniture, 8% respondents are dissatisfied with Office furniture, 6% respondents are very
dissatisfied with Office furniture, and 1% respondents are undecided with Office furniture.

Majority of respondents 60% are satisfied with Office furniture


State of equipments in the office

Table 4.7 State of equipments in the office

Office equipment Total Percent


Very Satisfied 26 25%
Satisfied 59 57%
Dissatisfied 12 12%
Very dissatisfied 4 4%
Undecided 2 2%

Graph 4.7 State of equipments in the office

Office Equipment
Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Undecided

2%

4%
12% 25%

57%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 25% respondents
are very much satisfied with Office equipments, 57% respondents are satisfied with Office
equipments, 12% respondents are dissatisfied with Office equipments, 4% respondents very
dissatisfied with Office equipments, and 2% are respondents undecided with Office equipments.

Majority of respondents 57% are happy with current Office equipments


Room temperature and air quality

Table 4.8 temperature and air quality

temperature and air quality Total Percent


Very Satisfied 22 21%
Satisfied 59 57%
Undecided 2 2%
Very dissatisfied 4 4%
Dissatisfied 16 16%

Graph 4.8 Room temperature and air quality

Temperature and air Quality


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

16%
4% 21%

2%

57%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 21% respondents
are very much satisfied with temperature and air quality, 57% respondents satisfied are with
temperature and air quality, 16% respondents are dissatisfied with temperature and air quality,
4% respondents are very dissatisfied with temperature and air quality, and 2% respondents are
undecided with temperature and air quality.

Majority of respondents are happy with temperature and air quality.


Lighting set up in office

Table 4.9 Lighting set up in office

Lighting set up Total Percent


Very Satisfied 36 35%
Satisfied 55 53%
Undecided 2 2%
Very dissatisfied 4 4%
Dissatisfied 6 6%

Graph 4.9 Lighting set up in office

Lighting and Artificial lighting


Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

4%
2% 6%

35%

53%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents are about 35%
respondents very much satisfied with Lighting, 53% respondents are satisfied with Lighting, 6%
respondents are dissatisfied with Lighting, 4% respondents are very dissatisfied with Lighting,
and 2% respondents are undecided with Lighting.

Majority of respondents 53% are satisfied with Lighting.


Noise level in the office environment

Table 4.10 Noise level in the office environment

Noise level in the office Total Percent


environment
Very Satisfied 24 23%
Satisfied 59 57%
Undecided 2 2%
Very dissatisfied 6 6%
Dissatisfied 12 12%

Graph 4.10 Noise level in the office environment

Level of Noise
Very Satisfied Satisfied Undecided Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

12%
23%
2% 6%

57%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 23% respondents
are very much satisfied with Noise, 57% respondents are satisfied with Noise, 12% respondents
are dissatisfied with Noise, 6% respondents are very dissatisfied with Noise, and 2% respondents
are undecided with Noise.

Majority of respondents 57% are satisfied with Noise.


Safety and security

Table 4.11 Safety and security of respondents

Safety and security Total Percent


Yes 70 68%
No 33 32%

Graph 4.11 Safety and security of respondents

Safe and Secure


Yes No

32%

68%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we can see that, out of 103 respondents about 78%
respondents feel safe and secure and about 22% of respondents do not feel safe and secure.

Majority of respondents 78% feel safe and secured.


Stress of respondents

Table 4.12 Stress of respondents

Stress Total Percent


Yes 41 40%
No 62 60%

Graph 4.12 Stress of respondents

Stress
Yes No

40%

60%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we can see that, out of 103 respondents about 60%
respondents feel stressed and about 40% of respondents do not feel stress.

Majority of respondents do not feel stressed


Health issues of respondents due to office environment

Table 4.13 Health issues of respondents due to office environment

Health due to office Total Percent


environment
Yes 44 43%
No 59 57%

Graph 4.13 Health issues of respondents due to office environment

Health
Yes No

43%

57%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we can see that, out of 103 respondents about 43%
respondent’s health has been affected by office environment and about 57% respondent’s health
has not been affected by office environment.

Majority of respondents 57% feel that office environment has not affected their health.
Current office Environment of respondents

Table 4.14 Current office Environment of respondents

Current office Total Percent


Environment
Highly Impressive 8 8%
Impressive 69 67%
Not sure 18 17%
Unimpressive 4 4%
Highly unimpressive 4 4%
0

Graph 4.14 Current office environment of respondents

Current office environment


Highly impressive impressive Not Sure Unimpressive Highly unimpressive

4%
4% 8%

17%

67%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 53 respondents about 8% respondents are
highly impressed by office environment, 67% respondents are impressed by office environment ,
17% respondents are not sure about office environment, 4% respondents are unimpressed by
office environment and 7% respondents highly unimpressed by office environment.

Majority of respondents say that office environment is impressive.


Current office Environment for motivation of employees

Table 4.15 Current office Environment for motivation of employees

Current office Total Percent


Environment for
motivation
Highly Motivating 10 10%
Motivating 47 45%
Can’t tell 36 35%
Not Motivating 4 4%
Least Motivating 6 6%

Graph 4.15 Current office Environment for motivation employees

Motivation
Highly Motivating Motivating Can't tell Not Motivating Least Motivating

4%
6% 10%

35%

45%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 10% respondents
are highly motivated by office environment, 45% respondents are motivated by office
environment, 35% respondents can’t tell about office environment, 4% respondents are not
motivated by office environment, and 6% respondents are least motivated by office environment.

Majority of respondents 45% say that office environment is motivating.


Flexibility of office Environment

Table 4.16 Flexibility of office Environment

Flexibility office Total


Environment
Highly Flexible 14 14%
Flexible 59 57%
Can’t tell 22 21%
Not Flexible 6 6%
Least Flexible 2 2%

Graph 4.16 Flexibility of office Environment

Flexibility
Highly Flexible Flexible Can't tell Not Flexible Least Flexible

2%

6% 14%

21%

57%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 14% respondents
are of opinion that office environment is highly flexible, 57% respondents are of opinion that
office environment is flexible, 21% respondents are undecided about office environment, 6%
respondents are of opinion that office environment not flexible, and 2% respondents are of
opinion that office environment least flexible. Majority of respondents 57% are of opinion that
office environment is flexible
Current office Environment for productive work

Table 4.17 Current office Environment for productive work

Productive work Total Percent


Always 24 23%
Mostly 41 40%
Often 22 21%
To some Extent 10 10%
Not at all 6 6%

Graph 4.17 Current office environment for productive work

Productive
Always Mostly Often To some Extent Not at all

6%
10% 23%

21%

40%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we infer that, out of 103 respondents about 23% of the
respondents are of the opinion that current office environment is always enough for productive
work, 40% say mostly,21say often, 10% feel to some extent and 6% say it is not at enough for
productive work.

Majority of respondents 40% mostly feel productive about office environment.


Improvements required in current office environment

Table 4.18 Improvements required in current office environment

Current office Total Percent


Environment need any
improvements
Yes 45 44%
No 58 56%

Graph 4.18 Improvements required in current office environment

Improvement
Yes No

44%

56%

INTERPRETATION AND INFERENCE

From the above table and graph we can see that, out of 103 respondents about 44%
respondents feel that improvement is required in office and about 56% of respondents feel that
improvement is not required in office.

Majority of respondents 56% feel that improvement is not required in office.


Chapter 5
FINDINGS, SUGGESTION
AND CONCLUSION
FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

FINDINGS
1. It is observed that majority of respondents 73% are male

2. It is observed that majority of respondents are <30 years of age group

3. It is observed that majority of respondent works as middle level.

4. From the study we observe that many respondents 55% income is between 20000 to
40000

5. From the study, majority of respondents 68% are satisfied with design and décor of
current office environment

6. From the study, majority of respondents 62% are happy with Arrangement and
furnishing of current office environment

7. It is observed that, majority of employees 61% feel motivated by current office


environment.

8. From the study we can say that majority of employees 56% does not feel there should be
any improvements in office environment.

9. It is observed that, majority of respondents 53% are happy with current office Lighting
facilities,

10. From the study we can say that, majority of respondents 68% feel safe and secured.

11. It is observed that, majority of respondents 45% say that office environment is
motivating.
12. From the study, majority of respondents 56%feel that improvement is not required in
office.
Suggestions
1) Creating stress free environment by conducting extra activities and team outing
frequently as stress busters, because 40% of employees feel that work place is stressful.
2) Creating a comfortable work place by changing the current equipments, because 43% of
employees feel that work environment is affecting their health.
3) Creating productive atmosphere by proper leadership and providing good compensation
plans, because 31% feel that work place is not helpful for productive work.
4) Improvements in work environment by changing overall set up of office environment,
because as 44% employees feel that there need to be improvement in the organisation.
5) Improvement in security and safety of employees by providing more precautionary
measure like escorts, fire alarms, because 32% feel that work place is not safe and secure.
6) Improvement is air condition and temperature by changing the set up of air conditions,
because 20% are unhappy with air condition and temperature of work place.
7) Giving more importance in recruitment of women employees as per the survey 73% are
male employees and only 27% are female employees.