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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

FRESHWATER GENERATOR

Submitted by,

ARAVIND SOMAN(GME 25/1 1252)

ARJUN KOLASSERY KARTHIKEYAN (GME 25/1 1253)

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

INTRODUCTION
Fresh water generator, one of the important machinery on board a ship, is
something that cannot be done without. Fresh water produced from fresh water
generator is used for drinking, cooking, washing and even running other important
machinery which use fresh water as a cooling medium.

Fresh water is generally produced on board using the evaporation method. There
are two things that are available in plenty on ship to produce fresh water –Seawater
and heat. Thus fresh water is produced by evaporating sea water using heat from
any of the heat source. The evaporated sea water is then again cooled by the sea
water and the cycle repeats.

Generally the heat source available is taken from the main engine jacket water,
which is used for cooling the main engine components such as cylinder head, liner
etc. The temperature available from this jacket water is about 70 deg. centigrade.
But at this temperature the evaporation of water is not possible as we all know that
the evaporation of water takes place at 100 deg centigrade under atmospheric
pressure.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

WORKING PRINCIPLE

For heating and evaporation of the sea water in the freshwater generator, the
waste heat in the jacket cooling water of the Diesel engine is used. The heat
exchanger in the freshwater generator is connected to the jacket cooling water
system of the Diesel engine, and is thus working as an extra cooler. The jacket
cooling water, which may reach a temperature between 60 and 90° C, is passed
outside the tubes of the heat exchanger. During this passage the temperature will
drop between 4 and 13° C depending on the amount of jacket cooling water
used. The controlled amount of sea feed water is led to the interior of the heat
exchanger tubes, where it is heated under vacuum and evaporated by rising film
evaporation, meaning that optimum conditions are achieved and scale
formations minimized. The vacuum required is obtained by means of a water
ejector which automatically ensures correct conditions. The generated vapours
pass through the separator, in which the sea water drops are separated to the
brine and discharged by means of a water ejector. The saturated vapour rises to
the sea water cooled condenses, and on the outside of the tubes it will condense
into fresh water which is collected in a shell and discharged by the freshwater
pump. - The salinity of the fresh water produced is automatically controlled by
the salinometer. The temperature of the cooling water led through the
condenser tubes will rise between 6 and 16° C depending on the flow chosen.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

COMPONENTS

1 .Ejector Pump

A pump that feeds driving water to the water ejector of freshwater generator.

2.Heater

Heat exchanger that heats feed water to generate vapour.

3.Hot Water

Heating medium that heats and evaporates seawater in the heater.

4.Feed water

Sea water which is the source of distillate.

5.Feed water preheater

A heat exchanger that further heats a portion of cooling water delivered from the
condenser.

6.Deflector

A plate that separates seawater particles being transported together with the
vapour generated in the evaporator.

7.Driving water

Water necessary for driving the water ejector.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

8.Evaporator

Being composed of the Evaporation chamber,deflector and mesh separator. It


evaporates seawater.

9.Distillate

Water generated by condensation of vapour generated in the evaporator.

10.Distillate pump

A pump that transfers the distillate produced in the freshwater generator to the
freshwater tank.

11.Steam injector

A system that adds vapour to freshwater to generate hot water.

12.Vent air.

A gas such as non condensable gas and leaking air that is extracted to maintain the
degree of vacuum needed for evaporation.

13. Water Ejector

A device that evacuates the evaporator BV and discharges cooling seawater and
brine overboard.

14.Condenser

A heat exchanger that condenses vapour into distillate.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

15.Corossion bar

A sacrificial anode material that protects the pipe and other corrosive parts of the
freshwater generator by utilising the electric potential difference.

16.Brine

Concentrated seawater remaining after evaporation of water.

17.Mesh separator

Wire mesh that separates the brine mist that is being transferred together with the
vapour generated in the evaporator.

18.Chemical injection unit

A unit for injecting a scale inhibitor that prevents seawater derived scale from
occurring on the inside wall of the piping of heater.

19.Cooling water

A cooling medium that cools down the vapour in the condenser.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

TYPES OF FRESHWATER GENERATOR

1.Shell and tube type

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

2.Plate type

1.Sea water feed. 7.Evaporated Steam.


2.Heating medium in. 8.Demister.
3.Heating medium out. 9.Condenser.
4.Seawater cooling in. 10.Evaporator.
5.Seawatet cooling out. 11.Brine out
6.Freshwater out.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

STARTING THE FRESH WATER GENERATOR

1. Before starting the fresh water generator we have to check that the ship
is not in congested water, canals and is 20 nautical miles away from the
shore. This is done because near the shore the effluents from factories and
sewage are discharged into the sea can get into the fresh water generator.
2. Check whether engine is running on a full sea speed , the reason for this
is that at low rpm the temperature of jacket water which is around 60
degrees and not sufficient for evaporation of water.
3. Check the drain valve present at the bottom of the generator is in close
position.
4. Now open suction and discharge valves of the sea water pump which will
provide water for evaporation, cooling and to the eductor for creating
vacuum.
5. Open the sea water discharge valve from where the water is sent back to
the sea after circulating inside the fresh water generator.
6. Close the vacuum valve situated on top of the generator.
7. Now start the sea water pump and check the pressure of the pump. The
pressure is generally 3-4 bars.

8. Wait for the vacuum to build up. Vacuum should be at least 90% which
can be seen on the gauge present on the generator. Generally the time
taken for the generation of vacuum is about 10 minutes.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

9. When vacuum is achieved open the valve for feed water treatment, this is
to prevent scale formation inside the plates.
10.Now open hot water (jacket water) inlet and outlet valves slowly to about
half. Always open the outlet valve first and then inlet valve. Slowly start to
increase the opening of the valves to full open.
11.Now we can see that the boiling temperature starts increasing and the
vacuum starts dropping.
12.The vacuum drop to about 85% which is an indication that evaporation is
started.
13.Open the valve from fresh water pump to drain.
14.Switch on the salinometer if it has to be started manually. Generally it is
on auto start.
15.Now start fresh water pump and taste the water coming out of the drain.
16.When fresh water starts producing it is seen that the boiling temperature
drops again slightly and vacuum comes back to the normal value.
17.Check the water coming out of the salinometer is not salty and also check
the reading of the salinometer. This is done to see if the salinometer is
working properly or not and to prevent the whole fresh water from getting
contaminated with salt water. The value of salinometer is kept below
10ppm.
18.After checking the taste of the water coming out of the salinometer, open
valve for tank from the pump and close drain valve.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

STOPPING THE FRESH WATER GENERATOR

1. Close the jacket water inlet valves. Generally inlet is closed first and then
the outlet valve.
2. Close the valve for feed water treatment.
3. Stop fresh water pump and close valves.
4. Switch off the salinometer.
5. Stop sea water pump (ejector pump) after about 5 minutes.
6. Open vacuum valve.
7. Close sea water suction valve and overboard valve. This is generally not
required as they are non- return valves. However, in case of valve leaking
or damage, these valves are to be closed without fail.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

TROUBLESHOOTING

PROBLEM CAUSES SOLUTIONS

1.Inside heating tube is Clean the heater piping.


fouled up.
2.Inside the condenser Clean the condenser
piping is fouled up. piping.
Distillate generation rate 3.Hot water flow rate is Increase the hot water
malfunctioned has too low. flow rate.
stopped. 4.Cooling water flow rate Increase the cooling
is too low. water flow rate.
5.Vacuum in the See the relevant
evaporator has dropped. instructions.
1.Hot water temperature Increase the temperature
Evaporation temperature is low. to the required level.
has dropped.

1.Air is leaking. Repair the leakage area


Vacuum in the and do pressure test.
evaporator has dropped 2.Water ejector has See the relevant
malfunctioned. instructions
1.Nozzle is clogged. Clean the nozzle.
Water ejector has 2.Diffuser has been Replace with a new one.
malfunctioned. corroded and worn out.
3.Nozzle has been worn Replace with a new one.
out.
1.Distillate pump has Repair.
failed.
Sight glass is filled with 2.Distillate pump outlet Open.
distillate. valve is closed.
3.Outlet piping is Clean the pipe.
clogged.

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FRESH WATER GENERATOR

4.Distillate pump is
drawing air. Replace mechanical seal.

1.Distillate generation Decrease hot water flow


rate is too high. rate.
Salinity of distillate is too 2.Evaporating Close the vacuum
high temperature is too low. adjusting valve.
3.Feed water is dirty. Stop running FWG.
4.Condenser piping has Plug a failed pipe.
been damaged.
1.Opening of feed water Adjust the opening.
adjustment valve is
insufficient.
Feed water flow rate is 2.Feed water orifice is Open and clean orifice.
less than specified level. chocked.
3.Internal pressure on Close the condenser
the condenser piping is cooling water outlet
insufficient. valve.
1.Opening of feed water Close the opening of
adjustment valve is valve.
LFeed water flow rate is excessively large.
more than specified level. 2.Feed water orifice has Replace the orifice.
been worn.

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