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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

According to Jennifer (2009), a lot of students these days expect information to be


presented in a flashy, entertaining way, so videos can help draw them in. It comes to
our knowledge that every student have different information acquisition styles. Thus,
teacher should adopt a variety of teaching methods, for example, for visual learners,
video is really appropriate to assist them in their learning. Video actually can help the
students to retain more information, understand the concept rapidly and more
enthusiastic about what they are learning because the video can illustrate the
abstract concepts through animated cartoons or scenes. Hence, the teachers are
encouraged to integrate this fun element in the classroom so that the students will
take part in the learning process more actively.

2.0 ADDIE MODEL

ANALYSIS

EVALUATION DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

Figure 1: ADDIE Model

Instructional design is the systematic approach to the Analysis, Design, Development,


Implementation, and Evaluation of learning materials and activities. Instructional
design aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered
approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This means that
every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have
been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners’ needs. These phases
sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible
guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.

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2.1 ANALYSIS

CONTENT
ANALYSIS

TARGET
MEDIA
ANALYSIS GROUP
ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS

OBECTIVES
ANALYSIS

Figure 2: Sub-tasks in Analysis Phase

2.1.1 CONTENT ANALYSIS

According to Yap (2016), the conduct of education in this 21st century has been
witnessed with a paradigm shift from face-to-face teaching environment to a more
technology-based learning environment. As a teacher, we should analyse and divide
the topic which should be delivered online and face-to-face interaction. For instance,
the topic of ‘countable and uncountable nouns’ should be delivered during face-to-
face interaction as the abstract concepts of the ‘uncountable nouns’ will be difficult to
be just explored and understood by the students on internet. Thus, the video created
can illustrate the examples of the concepts and is suitable to be displayed during the
lesson.

2.1.2 TARGET GROUP ANALYSIS

As a teacher, we should define and develop as clear of an understanding of the


students’ needs, learning constraints, interest, and existing knowledge and also what
knowledge or skill they need to have to achieve learning objectives. For instance, the
teacher can use self-assessment inventory which asks about the questions related to
the subject. Teacher can also ask students orally.

2.1.3 OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS

The analysis phase also includes determining the objectives for the topic chosen.
The first objective of the video is to enable the students distinguish the countable and
uncountable nouns accurately while the second objective is to enable the students to
understand the abstract ideas of uncountable nouns well.

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2.1.4 MEDIA ANALYSIS

We also can select multimedia components which enable suitable delivery of the
content (Jana, 2009). Often the multimedia components are more effective than a
presentation of mere text. For instance, the topic of ‘countable and uncountable
nouns’ are suitable to be presented using video as it enables the students to illustrate
the concept well. Hence, language subject should integrate the use of multimedia
components as many as possible.

2.2 DESIGN

This phase is like creating a blueprint of the building before actual construction
begins. The learning design is finalised and approved before the actual course
construction begins. This phase includes writing objectives and tasks, instructional
strategy to follow, choosing appropriate media and delivery methods.

Firstly, the objectives that are finalised now is to enable the students to distinguish
the countable and uncountable nouns accurately and to enable the students to
illustrate the uncountable nouns concept well. Then, determine which methods
(lecture demonstration, group work), materials (handouts, lab equipment, CD ROM’s)
and media (computer multimedia, flip charts, video) will be incorporated in the course.
So, the video created will be displayed and the students need to answer the
questions given as a class work. In other words, the method used is discussion. After
determining the methods, decide on what types of worksheets will be used.

2.3 DEVELOPMENT

During this phase one will develop the instruction, all media that will be used in the
instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g.,
simulation equipment) and computer-based software (Instructional Design, n.d.).
There are two sub tasks in this stage which are content creation and testing.

For content creation, one will shoot the video from different angle shot and
incorporate the using of cartoon animation software like ‘powtoon’ to create the video.
After shooting, the video is edited using ‘Wondershare Filmora’ to add in final
graphics, multimedia, colours, fonts and effects to make the video looked polished
and professional.

After creating the content, one needs to test it. Things that need to be tested and
reviewed include spelling, grammar, learning objectives, navigation, and flow. Testing
is typically done during the development process instead of after, so that as testers
identify problem areas, the developer can make changes to the final video product.

2.4 IMPLEMENTATION

The implementation stage reflects the continuous modification of the program to


make sure maximum efficiency and positive results are obtained (Ed, Forest, n.d.).
Once the video is fully developed and thoroughly tested, you’re ready to share it with
students. Typically, during the Implementation phase, the video is shared during the

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lesson. Thus, this phase must promote the students' understanding of material,
support the students' mastery of objectives, and ensure the students' transfer of
knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.

2.5 EVALUATION

Following the implementation of the video, a system of feedback is necessary to


ensure that the video has met the needs of the organization, the students, and has
been presented as effectively and with all the necessary tools and aids. Summative
evaluation is used to measure the effectiveness of the video. An online survey, for
example, google form can be used to elicit this feedback online from students and
from management levels. This is particularly important to ensure that the materials
are relevant to the students: both in terms of the content and the timeliness of the
delivery of content of video.

3.0 FINDINGS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF VIDEO 1 Strongly Disagree


2 Disagree
3 Not sure
4 Agree
5 Strongly Agree
No. Questionaire Ratings
1 2 3 4 5
1 The video clip is suitable to be used as teaching 0 0 0 6 24
and learning materials inside and outside the
classroom.
2 The content of video clip is consistent with the 0 0 0 6 24
learning standard and learning objectives.
3 Audio (background music, narration) is clear and 0 0 2 10 18
loud enough to be heard.
4 The duration of the video clip is adequate for the 0 0 0 12 18
teaching and learning process.
5 The video clip encourages the constructivist 0 0 0 9 21
learning environment in the classroom.
6 The transitions between the scenes of the video 0 0 0 9 21
clip are used effectively.
7 Images and text are clear enough to be read and 0 0 0 6 24
easy to understand.
8 The video content is systematically organized and 0 0 0 7 23
presented.
9 The video clip uses multiple medias such as 0 0 0 7 23
animations, visual images, audio and text.
10 Overall, how do you rate the video? 0 0 0 3 27

Table 1: Number of respondent given the ratings to the questionaires

From the findings, we can see that the audio of the video become the major concern
to the respondents in which 18 respondents rate five while 10 respondents rate four
and there are two respondents who are not sure of the audio. There are also some
respondents comment that the background music is a bit loud and he voice over is
soft and also the narration cannot be heard and not clear. Hence, we can conclude
that the background music is louder than the voice over.

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The second problem that can be found in video is that the video duration
seems too long to the respondents. Only 18 respondents rate 5 and 12 respondents
rate 4. It seems that there are some respondents who do not totally agree with the
duration of the video which is 5.14 minutes.

In a nutshell, the overall ratings given by the respondents are good and
suitable to be shown to the Year 4 students to enable them to understand the
uncountable and countable nouns well. The video can be used as a medium to teach
the nouns in the classroom which can assist their learning in the classroom as they
are known as digital natives who are highly connected to technology in lives.

From table 1, we can summarize that the video is an effective tool to be used
inside and outside the classroom. The most crucial aspect is that the video’s content
is systematically organized and presented based on the objectives and learning
standards.

4.0 CONCLUSION

Video can be an effective teaching kit for the teacher in the classroom. An effective
video need to be targeted on learning goals and make sure that the video feels like it
is for the students in the class. In order to increase the effectiveness of the video,
one can integrate questions into the video. An effective video is not just examined
from the active learning but also from the aspects of content, multimedia elements,
audio, and duration. Thus, one should need to plan systematically to create a video
with all the aspects so that the students nowadays can learn through fun learning
activities instead of just sitting in a brick and wall classroom listening to the teacher
which is only one way interaction.