YEAR
MATHS
Quest
MATHS C
FOR QUEENSLAND
D EDITION
SECON
TEACHER EDITION
11
YEAR
MATHS
Quest
MATHS C
FOR QUEENSLAND
D E
D T INO N
T II O
DEI D
N N
S ESCEOC O
TEAC HE R EDI TI ON
Nick Simpson
Catherine Smith
Peter Posetti
Sue Campbell
CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR
Robert Rowlan
Second edition published 2009 by
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
Illustrated by Paul Lennon, Liz Sawyer and the Wiley Art Studio
Printed in Singapore by
Craft Print International Ltd
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Contents
Introduction ix Investigation — Approximations for p 63
Investigation — Real numbers — application
About eBookPLUS xi
and modelling 64
Acknowledgements xii Summary 66
Chapter review 69
CHAPTER 1
Number systems: the Real CHAPTER 2
Number System 1 Number systems: complex
Introduction 2 numbers 75
The Real Number System 3 Introduction to complex numbers 76
Classification of numbers: rational and Exercise 2A 79
irrational 3 Investigation — Complex numbers in
Exercise 1A 9 quadratic equations 80
Recurring decimals 11 Basic operations using complex numbers 80
Exercise 1B 14 Investigation — Plotting complex
Investigation — Real number numbers 84
investigations 15 Exercise 2B 86
Investigation — Other number systems 16 Conjugates and division of complex
Surds 17 numbers 87
Exercise 1C 20 Exercise 2C 91
Simplifying surds 21 Radians and coterminal angles 95
Exercise 1D 22 Exercise 2D 96
Addition and subtraction of surds 24 Complex numbers in polar form 96
Exercise 1E 25 History of mathematics — Abraham de
Moivre 108
Multiplication of surds 27
Exercise 2E 109
Exercise 1F 30
Basic operations on complex numbers in
The Distributive Law 32
polar form 111
Exercise 1G 35
Investigation — Multiplication in polar
Division of surds 36 form 111
Exercise 1H 38 History of mathematics — William Rowan
Rationalising denominators 40 Hamilton 118
Exercise 1I 42 Exercise 2F 119
Rationalising denominators using conjugate Investigation — Complex numbers:
surds 44 applications 120
Exercise 1J 48 Summary 122
Further properties of real numbers — Chapter review 123
modulus 49
Exercise 1K 50
Solving equations using absolute
CHAPTER 3
values 51 Matrices 127
Exercise 1L 54 Introduction to matrices 128
Solving inequations 55 Operations with matrices 130
Exercise 1M 62 Exercise 3A 135
vi
Multiplying matrices 137 Investigation — Some applications of group
Exercise 3B 140 theory 197
History of mathematics — Olga Taussky History of mathematics —
Todd 142 Cryptography 199
Powers of a matrix 143 Summary 201
Investigation — Matrix powers 143 Chapter review 202
Exercise 3C 144
Investigation — Applications of matrices 145
Multiplicative inverse and solving matrix CHAPTER 5
equations 146 Matrices and their
Exercise 3D 152 applications 205
The transpose of a matrix 154 Inverse matrices and systems of linear
Exercise 3E 154 equations 206
Applications of matrices 155 Exercise 5A 208
Exercise 3F 160 Gaussian elimination 209
Investigation — Matrix multiplication using a Exercise 5B 215
graphics calculator 162 History of mathematics — Carl Friedrich
Dominance matrices 164 Gauss 216
Investigation — Dominance matrices — Investigation — Performing Gaussian
another application of matrices 165 elimination using a graphics
Exercise 3G 169 calculator 217
Summary 170 Introducing determinants 222
Chapter review 172 Exercise 5C 224
Properties of determinants 224
Exercise 5D 227
CHAPTER 4 Inverse of a 3 ¥ 3 matrix 228
An introduction to Exercise 5E 232
groups 177 Cramer’s Rule for solving linear
Introduction 178 equations 234
Investigation — Algebraic structures 178 Exercise 5F 237
Modulo arithmetic 179 Investigation — Solving simultaneous
equations 242
Exercise 4A 180
Investigation — Applications of
The terminology of groups 180
determinants 243
History of mathematics — Niels Henrik
Summary 244
Abel 183
Chapter review 246
Exercise 4B 184
Properties of groups 184
Exercise 4C 188
CHAPTER 6
Cyclic groups and subgroups 189
Exercise 4D 191
Transformations using
Investigation — Application of groups — matrices 249
permutations 191 Geometric transformations and matrix
Further examples of groups — algebra 250
transformations 192 Exercise 6A 258
History of mathematics — Arthur Cayley 194 Linear transformations 259
Exercise 4E 195 Exercise 6B 262
vii
Linear transformations and group History of mathematics — Sir Isaac
theory 263 Newton 363
Exercise 6C 269 Newton’s First Law of Motion 364
Rotations 270 Exercise 8B 371
Exercise 6D 275 Momentum 374
Reflections 276 Investigation — Conservation of momentum
Exercise 6E 283 using i and j notation 378
Dilations 284 ˜ 8C ˜ 379
Exercise
History of mathematics — Maurits Cornelius Investigation — Collision momentum 381
Escher 290 Relative velocity 382
Exercise 6F 291
Exercise 8D 384
Shears 291
Using vectors in geometry 385
Exercise 6G 295
Investigation — Threedimensional nonzero
Investigation — Transformations 295
vectors 387
Summary 296
Investigation — Vector geometry 388
Chapter review 297
Exercise 8E 388
Summary 390
CHAPTER 7 Chapter review 391
Introduction to vectors 299
Vectors and scalars 300
CHAPTER 9
Exercise 7A 305
Position vectors in two and three
Sequences and series 395
dimensions 308 Introduction 396
Exercise 7B 320 Arithmetic sequences 396
Multiplying two vectors — the dot Exercise 9A 404
product 324 Geometric sequences 406
Exercise 7C 329 Exercise 9B 414
History of mathematics — Charles Lutwidge Applications of geometric sequences 418
Dodgson 331
Exercise 9C 424
Resolving vectors — scalar and vector
resolutes 332 Finding the sum of an infinite geometric
sequence 427
Exercise 7D 337
Investigation — Vectors and matrices 337 Exercise 9D 431
Timevarying vectors 339 Contrasting arithmetic and geometric
Exercise 7E 344 sequences through graphs 432
Summary 346 Exercise 9E 438
Chapter review 348 Investigation — Reward time 440
Investigation — Changing shape 441
Fibonacci Sequence 442
CHAPTER 8 Investigation — Fibonacci numbers 445
Vector applications 353 The Mandelbrot Set 446
Introduction 354 Investigation — Draw the Mandelbrot
Force diagrams and the triangle of Set 449
forces 354 Summary 450
Exercise 8A 361 Chapter review 453
viii
CHAPTER 10 History of mathematics — Blaise
Pascal 506
Permutations and Summary 507
combinations 459 Chapter review 509
Introduction 460
The addition and multiplication
principles 460 CHAPTER 11
Exercise 10A 465 Dynamics 513
Factorials and permutations 467 Displacement, velocity and
Exercise 10B 474 acceleration 514
Arrangements involving restrictions and Exercise 11A 521
like objects 476 Projectile motion 524
Exercise 10C 480 Exercise 11B 536
Combinations 482 Motion under constant acceleration 540
Exercise 10D 488 Exercise 11C 544
Applications of permutations and Summary 547
combinations 490 Chapter review 548
Exercise 10E 495
Pascal’s triangle, the binomial theorem and Appendix 553
the pigeonhole principle 497
Investigation — Counting paths 498 Answers 591
Exercise 10F 504 Index 621
Introduction
Maths Quest Maths C Year 11 for Queensland 2nd edition is one of the
exciting Maths Quest resources specifically designed for the Queensland
senior Mathematics syllabuses beginning in 2009. It has been written and com
piled by practising Queensland Maths C teachers. It breaks new ground in
Mathematics textbook publishing.
This resource contains:
• a student textbook with accompanying student website (eBookPLUS)
• a teacher edition with accompanying teacher website (eGuidePLUS)
• a solutions manual containing fully worked solutions to all questions con
tained in the student textbook.
Student textbook
Full colour is used throughout to produce clearer graphs and headings, to pro
vide bright, stimulating photos and to make navigation through the text easier.
Clear, concise theory sections contain worked examples, graphics calculator
tips and highlighted important text and remember boxes.
Worked examples in a Think/Write format provide clear explanation of key
steps and suggest how solutions can be presented.
Exercises contain many carefully graded skills and application problems,
including multiplechoice questions. Crossreferences to relevant worked
examples appear beside the first ‘matching’ question throughout the exercises.
Investigations, often suggesting the use of technology, provide further dis
covery learning opportunities.
Each chapter concludes with a summary and chapter review exercise con
taining questions that help consolidate students’ learning of new concepts.
As part of the chapter review, there is also a Modelling and problem solving
section. This provides students with further opportunities to practise their
skills.
Technology is fully integrated within the resource. To support the use of
graphics calculators, instructions for two models of calculator are presented in
worked examples and graphics calculator tips throughout the text. The two
models of graphics calculator featured are the Casio fx9860G AU and the
TINspire CAS. (Note that the screen shots shown in this text for the TINspire
CAS calculator were produced using OS1.4. Screen displays may vary
depending on the operating system in use.)
For those students using the TI89 model of graphics calculator, an appendix
containing matching instructions has been included at the back of the book.
The Maths Quest for Queensland series also features the use of spreadsheets
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versions of several graphing packages and geometry software can also be
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The accompanying student website contains an electronic version of the entire
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Solutions manual
Maths Quest Maths C Year 11 for Queensland Solutions Manual contains the
fully worked solutions to every question and investigation in the Maths Quest
Maths C Year 11 for Queensland 2nd edition student textbook.
Fully worked solutions are available for all titles in the Maths Quest for
Queensland senior series.
Maths Quest is a rich collection of teaching and learning resources within one
package.
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5_61_08144_MQ11C2E_Prelim Page xiv Monday, November 10, 2008 1:51 PM
Number
systems: the
Real Number
System 1
syllabus reference
Core topic:
Real and complex number
systems
In this chapter
1A Classiﬁcation of numbers
1B Recurring decimals
1C Surds
1D Simplifying surds
1E Addition and subtraction of
surds
1F Multiplication of surds
1G The Distributive Law
1H Division of surds
1I Rationalising denominators
1J Rationalising denominators
using conjugate surds
1K Further properties of real
numbers — modulus
1L Solving equations using
absolute values
1M Solving inequations
2 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
• structure of the real number system including rational numbers and irrational numbers
• simple manipulation of surds
Introduction
The number systems used today evolved from a basic and practical need of primitive
people to count and measure magnitudes and quantities such as livestock, people,
possessions, time and so on.
Early cultures and societies used their body parts, such as
fingers and toes, as a basis for their numeration systems. As
the need for larger numbers grew, symbols were developed to
represent them. Ancient Egyptians, for example, used the
symbol of the lotus flower to represent the number 1000, and
Romans used the letter M to represent 1000. Roman numerals
can be seen today on some clock and watch faces. At the end
of movie credits Roman numerals are often used to indicate
the year in which the movie was made. For example,
MCMXCIX represents the year 1999 and MMIX represents
the year 2009.
As societies grew and architecture and engineering
developed, number systems became more sophisti
cated. Number use developed from solely whole
numbers to fractions, decimals and irrational
numbers.
We shall explore these different types of
numbers and classify them into their specific
groups.
Consider solutions to equations such as:
2x = 10, 3x = 15, 20x = 100
What do they have in common? Each of
the statements is true for a wholenumber
value of x.
This type of equation represents many
reallife situations; for example, how
many people will I need to collect $2
from to cover the cost of hiring a $10
game?
The first types of numbers to
evolve were the whole numbers. As
you work through this chapter on
the Real Number System and
Chapter 2 you will be introduced
to types of numbers that
evolved to fill other, more
sophisticated needs.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 3
The Real Number System
The Real Number System contains the set of rational and irrational numbers. It is denoted
by the symbol R.
Real numbers R
The set of real numbers contains a number of subsets which can be classified as shown
in the chart above.
Rational numbers are defined in set notation as: Q = set of rational numbers
a
{ }
Q =  , a, b ∈ Z, b ≠ 0, g.c.d (a, b) = 1 where ∈ means ‘an element of’ and
b
g.c.d. (a, b) = 1 means greatest common divisor of (a, b) = 1.
Rational numbers may be represented on the number line (as illustrated on page 3)
and include whole numbers, fractions, and terminating and recurring decimals.
Whole numbers form a set of integers (which is a subset of the set of rational
numbers).
Integers (Z)
The set of integers consists of positive and negative whole numbers, and 0 (which is
neither positive nor negative). They are denoted by the letter Z and can be further
divided into subsets. That is:
Z = {. . . −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}
Z + = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}
Z − = {−1, −2, −3, −4, −5, −6 . . .}
Positive integers are also known as natural numbers (or counting numbers) and are
denoted by the letter N. That is:
N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}
Integers may be represented on the number line as illustrated below.
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 N Z – –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
The set of integers The set of positive integers The set of negative integers
or natural numbers
Note: Integers on the number line are marked with a solid dot to indicate that they are
the only points in which we are interested.
–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Irrational numbers in surd form can also be represented on the number line exactly,
as follows.
Consider an isosceles rightangled triangle of side length 1 unit.
By Pythagoras’ Theorem, (OB)2 = (OA)2 + (AB)2;
therefore the length of the hypotenuse is 2 units. B
By using a compass, we can transfer the length of the
2 units
hypotenuse OB to the number line (labelled C). This distance 1 unit
can now be measured using a ruler. Although this distance
O A C
will be inaccurate due to the equipment used, there is an exact 0 1 unit 1 2 2 R
point on the number line for each irrational number.
This geometric model can be extended to any irrational number in surd form.
π (pi)
The symbol π (pi) is used for a particular number; that is, the circumference of a circle
whose diameter length is 1 unit. It can be approximated as a decimal which is non
terminating and nonrecurring. Therefore, π is classified as an irrational number. (It is
also called a transcendental number and cannot be expressed as a surd.)
In decimal form, π = 3.141 592 653 589 793 23 . . . It has been calculated to trillions
of decimal places with the aid of a supercomputer.
Rational (Q) and irrational (I) numbers belong to the set of real numbers denoted by
the symbol R. They can be positive, negative or 0. The real numbers can be represented
on a number line as shown (irrational numbers above the line and rational numbers
below the line).
2
–π
–1– 3e
3 —
– 12 2 4 9 2
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
WORKED Example 1
Specify whether the following numbers are rational or irrational.
3 3
a 1

4
b 16 c 11 d 2π e 0.28 f 64 g 22 h 3 1

8
THINK WRITE
1 1
a is already in rational form. a  is rational.
4 4
b 1 Evaluate 16 . b 16 = 4
3 3
f 1 Evaluate 64 . f 64 = 4
3
2 The answer is a whole number, so 64 is rational.
3
classify 64 .
3 3
g 1 Evaluate 22 . g 22 = 2.802 039 330 66 . . .
3 1 3 1
h 1 Evaluate  . h  = 1

8 8 2
WORKED Example 2
12 p
13
{
Classify each of the following elements of the set 5,  , −3.9, −  , 23 ,  into the
2 2 5 }
smallest subset in which it belongs, using Q, I, Z, Z + and Z −.
THINK WRITE
1 The number 5 is a positive whole number; 5 ∈ Z+
classify it accordingly.
13
2 (a) Change  into a decimal.
13
 = 6.5
2 2
(b) The fraction 13
can be expressed as a
 13
 ∈Q
2 2
terminating decimal; therefore it can be
classified as a rational number. The fraction
a
is in the form  , b ≠ 0, so it is rational.
b
3 The number −3.9 is a terminating decimal, −3.9 ∈ Q
so classify it accordingly.
4 (a) Simplify − 12 . − 12
 = −6
2 2
−
(b) The result is a negative whole number, − 12
 ∈ Z
2
so classify − 12
 accordingly.
2
5 (a) Use your calculator to find the value of 23 . 23 = 4.795 831 523 31 . . .
(b) The result is a nonterminating and 23 ∈ I
nonrecurring decimal, so 23 can
be classified as an irrational number.
6 (a) Change π into a decimal. π = 0.628 318 530 718 . . .
5 5
(b) The resulting decimal is neither π
 ∈ I
terminating nor recurring, 5
so π
 is an irrational number.
5
remember
remember
1. The real number system (R) contains the set of rational numbers (Q) and the set
of irrational numbers (I).
2. Rational numbers are those that can be written as a ratio of two whole numbers
a
in the form  where b ≠ 0. Rational numbers include whole numbers,
b
fractions, and terminating and recurring decimals.
3. The set of rational numbers includes the set of integers (Z).
4. The set of integers consists of positive whole numbers (Z +), negative whole
numbers (Z −) and 0. Positive whole numbers (Z +) are also called natural
numbers (N).
5. Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as a ratio of two whole numbers in the
a
form  where b ≠ 0. Irrational numbers include surds, nonterminating and
b
nonrecurring decimals, and numbers such as π and e.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 9
1A Classiﬁcation of numbers
WORKED 1 Specify whether the following numbers are rational (Q) or irrational (I).
Example
4 7
1 a 4 Q b  Q c  Q d 2 I e 7 I
5 9
f 0.04 Q g 2 1 Q h 5 I i 9
 Q j 0.15 Q
2 4
k −2.4 Q l 100 Q m 14.4 I n 1.44 Q o π I
p 25
 Q q 7.32 Q r – 21 I s 1000 I t 7.216 349 157 . .I .
9
3 3
u – 81 Q v 3π I w 62 I x 1
 Q y 0.0001 I
16
2 Specify whether the following numbers are rational (Q), irrational (I) or neither.
a 1
 Q b 625 Q c 11
 Q d 0
 Q e −6 1 Q
8 4 8 7
3
f 81 I g – 11 I h 1.44
 Q i π I j 8

0
Undefined
4
3 π 3 1
k 21 I l  I m ( –5 )2 I n − 
3
Q o  Q
7 11 100
64 3
6
2 1
p  Q q  I r I s 27 Q t  Q
16 25 2 4
( 2)
4
22 π 3
u  I v – 1.728 Q w 6 4 Q x Q y 4 6 I
7
3 multiple choice
Which of the following best represents a rational number?
3
A π B 4
 C 9
 D 3 E none of these
9 12
4 multiple choice
Which of the following best represents an irrational number?
A − 81 B 6 C 3 343 D 0.0676 E 22
5
5 multiple choice
Which of the following statements regarding the numbers −0.69, 7 , π , 49 is correct?
3
A π is the only rational number.
3
B 7 and 49 are both irrational numbers.
C −0.69 and 49 are the only rational numbers.
D 7 , π and 49 are all irrational numbers.
3
E −0.69 is the only rational number.
6 multiple choice
3
Which of the following statements regarding the numbers 2 1 , − 
11
, 624 , 99 is
2 3
correct?
A − 11
 and 624 are both irrational numbers.
3
3
B 624 is an irrational number and 99 is a rational number.
C 2 1 is the only rational number.
2
D 624 and 3 99 are both irrational numbers.
E 2 1 is a rational number and − 
11
is an irrational number.
2 3
10 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED 7 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which it belongs, using Q,
Example
Z + and Z −.
2 .
a 5 Z+ b 0.621 Q c 1
 Q d 0.26 Q e 3 + 16 Z +
81
Q
f 0.515 151 . . . g 3
8 Z +
h 42
 Z + i 7 4 Z+ j − 27
 Z−
6 3
2 2
Z− k 9 – 144 l 0
 Q m –( – 4 ) Z − n 9
 Z+ o − 3 Q
4 3 2
. . 2
p 0.4 21 Q q 8 Z+ r 5
– 32 Z− s (– 6) Z+ t − 6 Q
2 5
6
Z− u – 8× 2 v 4
 Q w ( 2) Z+ x 100
 Z + y 3
– 343 Z −
3 2
8 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which it belongs using Q, I,
Z + and Z −.
a 6 Z+ b 0.3415 . .I . c 7 I 9 Q
d  e – 2 25 Z −
16
− Q
f 6× 2 I g – 49 Z h 21 × 5 I i 0.612 612 . . . j 0.25 Q
k 144
 Z+ l 3
– 64 Z − m
−
11
 Q n 9
 Q o 50
 Z+
9 Z 19 144 2
3
p 5π I q 16 × 3 – 27 r ( 3) I s 7× 5 I t – 6 × 3 16 Z −
u − 16
 I v 8 × 12.5 w − 1 Q x (π)2 I y – 3 – 125 Z+
8 5
Z+
9 multiple choice
The smallest subset in which 7 + 2 3 1 belongs is:
8
A Q B I C Z+ D Z E Z−
10 multiple choice
The smallest subset in which 144
 × 3 512
 belongs is:
9 8
+
A Q B I C Z D Z E Z−
11 multiple choice
Which of the following statements regarding numbers 16, −3 2 , 0, π, { 8

2 } is correct?
A 16 and 0 are the only rational numbers.
B 16, 0 and 8 may be expressed as rational numbers.

2
C 16 and 0 are positive integers.
D −3 2 is the only irrational number.
E π is the only irrational number.
12 multiple choice
Which of the following statements regarding the given set of numbers
{ 2 + 9 , 11 , 16 2 , 32 , 81 } is correct?
A All of the above numbers in the set are irrational.
B 2 + 9 and 11 are the only irrational numbers of the set.
C 2 + 9 is a rational number of the set.
D 81 is the only rational number of the set.
E 11 and 32 are the only irrational numbers of the set.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 11
Recurring decimals
A rational number may be converted to a decimal by dividing the numerator by the
denominator. The resulting decimal may be a terminating decimal containing a specific
number of digits, that is:
7
 = 1.4 or 1
 = 0.125
5 8
For convenience, recurring decimals are represented by placing a dot over the
repeating digit, for example:
.
1. 0.777 777 7 . . . can be written as 0.7.
.
2. 0.26666 . . . can be written as 0.26.
If two or more digits repeat the same pattern, then dots or the overscore ( ) are
used as shown:
..
1. 0.454 545 . . . can be written as 0.4 5 or alternatively 0.45 .
. .
2. 0.752 137 521 3 . . . can be written as 0.7 5213 or alternatively 0.75213 .
Note: When using the overscore, place it over the whole pattern. The dots, however, are
placed over the first and the last digits only of the repeating pattern.
WORKED Example 3
State which of the following rational numbers can be expressed as recurring decimals.
2 5
a 
27
b 
8
THINK WRITE
2
a 1 To convert  to a decimal, divide 2 a 2
 = 0.074 074 074 . . .
27 27
by 27.
5
b 1 Convert to a decimal (divide 5 b 5
 = 0.625
8 8
by 8).
5
2 The resulting decimal terminates, so cannot be written as a recurring

8
state your conclusion. decimal.
12 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Whole numbers and terminating decimals such as 3, 0.25 and 6.731 can easily be
expressed as rational numbers. For example:
3
1. we may write 3 as 
1
2. we may write 0.25 as 25
 = 1

100 4
731 6731
3. we may write 6.731 as 6  or  .
1000 1000
a
In each of these cases, the whole number and decimals are expressed in the form  .
b
Recurring decimals are rational numbers. Therefore they can be converted to the
a
form  .
b
WORKED Example 4
Express the following recurring decimals as rational numbers in their simplest form.
. ..
a 0.4 b 0.2 1 c 1.285
THINK WRITE
a 1 Let x represent the recurring a x = 0.444 444 . . . [1]
decimal. This is equation [1].
2 We need to multiply both sides of the 10x = 4.444 444 . . . [2]
equation by a power of 10. The
number of zeros in the power of 10
should be equal to the number of
repeated digits. Since 1 digit is
repeated, multiply both sides of
equation [1] by 10. Label the new
equation [2].
3 Subtract equation [1] from equation [2] − [1]:
[2]. This removes all the repeating 10x − x = 4.444 444 . . . − 0.444 444 . . .
digits after the decimal point.
9x = 4
9x 4
4 Divide both sides of the equation  = 
by 9. 9 9
4
x = 
9
5 Verify the answer using a calculator
and you will
. obtain the original
value, 0.4.
remember
remember
1. Rational numbers can be converted to decimals by dividing the numerator by
the denominator. The resulting decimal can be either terminating or recurring.
2. Terminating decimals contain a specific number of digits.
3. Recurring decimals contain a repeating digit or a repeating pattern of digits.
4. Recurring decimals are represented by placing dots over the first and the last
digits of the repeating pattern. Alternatively, an overscore can be placed over
the whole pattern that repeats.
5. Recurring decimals are rational numbers and may be expressed as a ratio of
two integers.
14 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1B Recurring decimals
WORKED 1 State which of the following rational numbers can be expressed as recurring decimals.
Example
3 a 1 b 1 c 1 6
d  1
e 
8 2 3 19 17
4 5 7 9 5
f  g  h  i  j 
1 c f g j k l n 11 9 16 25 7
2 1 3 3 5
oq r t w x y k  l  m  n  o 
3 6 4 13 21
2 2 41 5 17
p  q  r  s  t 
31 9 333 8 18
8 7 7 3 7
u  v  w  x  y 
17 23 15 22 33
WORKED 2 Express the following recurring decimals as rational numbers in their simplest form.
Example . 2 . . 8 . 5 .
4 a 0.2 9 b 0.7 79 c 0.8 9 d 0.5 9 e 0.4 49
. . 17 . 19 . 31 . 32
f 0.16 16 g 0.37  
45 h 0.42 
45
 i 0.68 
45 j 0.71  
45
. 28 . . 53 .. 4 . . 34 . . 367
k 2.62 2  45

l 0.53  
99 m 0.1 2 
33
 n 1.3 4 1 
99

o 3.74 1 3 
495
. . 361 . . 427 . . 868 . . 323 . . 152
p 0.3 61 999 
 q 0.4 27 999 
r 0.52 13 1665 s 0.3 23 999
 
 t 3.4 56 333 3 
. . 157 . . 1237 . 5611 . . 2
u 0.72 13 
18 v 0.523 
300 w 0.624 7  x
1980 0.6234  y
9000 0.1 53846  
13
3 multiple choice
..
The recurring decimal 0.7 8 can be expressed as:
A 71
 B 78
 C 77
 D 71
 E 78

90 90 99 99 99
4 multiple choice
..
The recurring decimal 0.53 2 can be expressed as:
266 479 532 527 532
A  B  C  D  E 
495 900 999 990 990
5 multiple choice
Which statement regarding the fractions 1 , 3 , 11 1 4
 ,  ,  is correct?
2 7 13 3 5
1
 , 3 and 11  are the only fractions which represent terminating decimals.
A
2 7 13
3
 and 1  are the only fractions which represent terminating decimals.
B
7 3
3
 , 11
 and 1  are fractions which represent recurring decimals.
C
7 13 3
11
 and 1  are the only fractions which represent recurring decimals.
D
13 3
1 4
 and  are fractions which represent recurring decimals.
E
2 5
6 multiple choice
. .
The recurring decimal 0.369 can be expressed in its simplest form as the following fraction:
407
A 369
 B 3663
 C 123
 D 
 41
E 
999 9900 1100
333 111
7 Irene and Bella are arguing about the correct way of writing the recurring decimal
0.020 20 . . . . Irene says it should be written as 0.020, while Bella thinks it is 0.020.
Which of the girls is right? Irene. It can also be written as 0.02.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 15
Real number investigations
A real number can be defined as a number that can be plotted on a number line.
Even if the position of the number on the line is only an approximate value, as long
as a number can be represented by one point on a line it can be regarded as real.
This is not so with the numbers you will deal with in Chapter 2.
The following steps will enable you to plot irrational numbers such as surds (for
example 2 and 5 ) on a number line.
Materials needed: ruler, a set of compasses, set square.
Step 1 Draw a number line approximately 10 cm long, with unit
divisions of 2 cm. How can we draw a line segment
√2 1
exactly 2 units long? Using Pythagoras’ Theorem we
can obtain the triangle shown at right which shows us
that 2 = 1 + 1 . 1
√2 1
–1 0 1 2 3
Step 3 Use a set of compasses to transfer the length of the hypotenuse to the
number line.
√2
1
–1 0 1 √2 2 3
Step 4 If a second rightangled triangle (of height 1 cm) were constructed on this
hypotenuse, what would be the length of its hypotenuse?
√3
√2
1
–1 0 1 √2 √3 2 3
Step 5 Continue constructing in this way to plot 7 on the original number line.
Use your number line to give an approximate value for 7 .
16 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modular arithmetic
Modular arithmetic involves
‘clock’ arithmetic where, instead of
saying that the time is 14 o’clock,
we say it is 2 o’clock. This is called
modular (mod 12) arithmetic. Any
integer can be converted to modular
(mod 12) arithmetic by subtracting
12 or any multiple of 12 from the
integer. The remainder is called the
residue.
For example:
32 = 2 × 12 + 8 68 = 5 × 13 + 3 29 = 4 × 6 + 5
≡ 8 (mod 12) ≡ 3 (mod 13) ≡ 5 (mod 6)
Surds
A surd is an irrational number which can only be represented exactly using a root
3 4
sign or radical, for example: , ,
3 4
Examples of surds include: 7, 5, 11 , 15
Numbers that are not surds can be simplified to rational numbers, that is:
3 4
9 = 3, 16 = 4 , 125 = 5 , 81 = 3
18 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 5
Which of the following numbers are surds?
1 3 4 3
a 25 b 10 c  d 11 e 59 f 343
4
THINK WRITE
a 1 Evaluate 25 . a 25 = 5
2 The answer is rational (since it is a 25 is not a surd.
whole number), so state your
conclusion.
c 1 Evaluate 1
 .
4
c 1
 = 1

4 2
d 1 Evaluate 3 11 . d 3
11 = 2.223 980 090 57 . ..
3
2 The answer is irrational (a non 11 is a surd.
terminating and nonrecurring
decimal), so state your conclusion.
e 1 Evaluate 4 59 . e 4
59 = 2.771 488 002 48 . . .
4
2 The answer is irrational, so classify 59 is a surd.
4
59 accordingly.
f 1 Evaluate 3 343 . f 3
343 = 7
3
2 The answer is rational; state your 343 is not a surd.
conclusion.
So b, d and e are surds.
WORKED Example 6
Prove that 2 is irrational.
THINK WRITE
a
1 Assume that 2 is rational; that is, it 2 =  where b ≠ 0
b
a
can be written as  in simplest form.
b
We need to show that a and b have no
common factors.
2
a
2 Square both sides of the equation. 2 = 
2
b
3 Rearrange the equation to make a2 the a2 = 2b2 [1]
subject of the formula.
4 If x is an even number then x = 2n. ∴ a2 is an even number and a must also
be even; that is, a has a factor of 2.
5 Since a is even it can be written as ∴ a = 2r
a = 2r.
6 Square both sides. a2 = 4r2 [2]
But a2 = 2b2 from [1]
7 Equating [1] and [2] ∴ 2b2 = 4r2
2
4r
b2 = 
2
= 2r2
∴ b is an even number and b must also be
2
The ‘dialogue’ included in the worked example should be present in all proofs and is an
essential part of the communication that is needed in all your solutions.
Note: An irrational number written in surd form gives an exact value of the number;
whereas the same number written in decimal form (for example, to 4 decimal places)
gives an approximate value.
remember
remember
A number is a surd if:
1. it is an irrational number (equals a nonterminating, nonrecurring decimal)
2. it can be written exactly only by using a radical (or root sign).
20 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1C Surds
WORKED 1 Which of the numbers below are surds?
Example
5 a 81 b 48 c 16 d 1.6 e 0.16
3 3 3
1 b d f g h i l f 11 g  h  i 1000 j 1.44
4 27
m o q s t w 3 3
k 4 100 l 2 + 10 m 32 n 361 o 100
3 3
p 125 q 6+ 6 r 2π s 169 t 7

8
4 2 3 5
u 16 v ( 7) w 33 x 0.0001 y 32
2 multiple choice
The correct statement regarding the set of numbers
3
{ 6
 ,
9
20 , 54 , 3
27 , }
9 is:
A 27 and 9 are the only rational numbers of the set.
6
B  is the only surd of the set.
9
6
C  and 20 are the only surds of the set.
9
D 20 and 54 are the only surds of the set.
E All of the numbers of the set are surds.
WORKED 3 Prove that the following numbers are irrational, using a proof by contradiction:
Example
6 a 3 b 5 c 7
4 multiple choice
Which of the numbers of the set { 1 1
 , 3 
4 27
, 1
 ,
8
21 , 3
}
8 are surds?
3 1 1 1 3 1
A  B 21 only C  only D  and 8 E  and 21 only
27 8 8 8
5 multiple choice
Which statement regarding the set of numbers π, { 1

49
, 12 , 16 , 3 + 1 is not true?}
A 12 is a surd. B 12 and 16 are surds.
C π is irrational but not a surd. D 12 and 3 + 1 are not rational.
E 1
 when simplified is a rational number.
49
6 multiple choice
Which statement regarding the set of numbers 6 7 , { 144
 ,
16
7 6, 9 2, 18 , }
25 is
not true?
144 144
A  when simplified is an integer. B  and 25 are not surds.
16 16
C 7 6 is smaller than 9 2 . D 9 2 is smaller than 6 7 .
E 6 7 , 7 6 , 9 2 and 18 are surds.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 21
6
7 If a is a multiple of 4, find the smallest, nonzero rational value of a . 2 (when a = 64)
3
8 Find the smallest value of m, where m is a positive integer, so that 16m is not a surd. m = 4
Simplifying surds
To simplify a surd means to make a number (or an expression) under the radical ( )
as small as possible. To simplify a surd (if it is possible), it should be rewritten as a
product of two factors, one of which is a perfect square, that is, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64,
81, 100 and so on.
We must always aim to obtain the largest perfect square when simplifying surds so
that there are fewer steps involved in obtaining the answer. For example, 32 could be
written as 4 × 8 = 2 8 ; however, 8 can be further simplified to 2 2 , so
32 = 2 × 2 2 ; that is 32 = 4 2 . If, however, the largest perfect square had been
selected and 32 had been written as 16 × 2 = 16 × 2 = 4 2 , the same answer
would be obtained in fewer steps.
WORKED Example 7
Simplify the following surds. Assume that x and y are positive real numbers.
a 384 b 3 405 c − 1 175 d 5 180 x 3 y 5
8
THINK WRITE
THINK WRITE
remember
remember
1. To simplify a surd means to make a number (or an expression) under the radical
as small as possible. For example, 2 5 is equal to, but simpler than, 20 .
2. To simplify a surd, write it as a product of two factors, one of which is the
largest possible perfect square.
1D Simplifying surds
WORKED 1 Simplify the following surds.
Example
7a a 12 2 3 b 18 3 2 c 24 2 6 d 56 2 14 e 27 3 3
eBook plus
f 75 5 3 g 125 5 5 h 99 3 11 i 54 3 6 j 60 2 15
10 17 f 5 68 g 7 54 21 6 h 10 32 40 2 i – 6 75 j 3 252 18 7
1 1
– 28 5 k – 7 80 l 9 120 m 16 48 64 3 n  90 10 o  392 2 2
3 7
18 30 1 1 2 1 1
p  625 5 q  162 2 r  54 2 6 s  192 2 3 t  288 2 2
5 9 3 4 6
1
3
15 u 1
 135 v 5
 320 w 3
 175 3 7 x 7
 176 7 11 y − 4 108 −8 3
9 2 10 2 8 2 3
20 5
WORKED 3 Simplify the following surds. Assume that a, b, c, d, e, f, x and y are positive real numbers.
Example
7d a 16a 2 4a b 81a 2 b 2 9ab c 72a 2 6a 2
d 54a 2 b 2 3ab 6 e 90a 2 b 3a 10b f 48a 3 b 4a 3ab
g 338a 4 13a 2 2 h 150a 4 b 2 5a 2 b 6 i 338a 3 b 3 13ab 2ab
3 5
j 12a 5 b 7 2a 2 b 3 3ab k 68a b 2ab 2 17ab l 80x 6 y 4x 3 5y
1 1 3
v  120e 4 f 6 2
 2
3
e f 3 30 w  392e 11 f 11 7e 5 f 5 2ef x  175e 12 f 5 3 6
e f2 7f
4
3 2 20
1 1
xy 4 6xy 1
y  54x 3 y 9 
9 z  108x 10 y 12 1 5 6
x y
3
3
27 18
4 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, 45 is equal to:
A 3 15 B 5 9 C 5 3 D 9 5 E 3 5
5 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, 3 128 is equal to:
A 6 32 B 12 8 C 24 2 D 16 2 E 32 3
6 multiple choice
1
When expressed in its simplest form,  539 is equal to:
7
A 49 11 B 7 11 C 77 D 11 E 11
7 multiple choice
1
 325x 4 y 3 when expressed in its
Assuming that x and y are positive real numbers, – 
15
simplest form is equal to:
A – 1 xy 13x 2 y 1 2
B – 
 x y 13y C – 1 x 2 y 13y
3 15 3
WORKED Example 8
Simplify each of the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are
positive real numbers.
a 3 6 + 17 6 – 2 6
b 5 3 + 2 12 – 5 2 + 3 8
1
c 
2
100a 3 b 2 + ab 36a – 5 4a 2 b
THINK WRITE
a All 3 terms are alike, since they a 3 6 + 17 6 – 2 6 = ( 3 + 17 – 2 ) 6
contain the same surd ( 6 ) , so
group like terms together and = 18 6
simplify.
1
c 1 Simplify surds where c  100a 3 b 2 + ab 36a – 5 4a 2 b
2
possible.
1
=  × 10 a 2 × a × b 2 + ab × 6 a – 5 × 2 × a b
2
1
=  × 10 × a × b a + ab × 6 a – 5 × 2 × a b
2
THINK WRITE
1 Write down the rule for the P = 2l + 2w
perimeter of a rectangle where l is
the length and w is the width.
remember
remember
1. Only like surds may be added and subtracted.
Examples of like surds: 7 , 3 7 and −5 7 .
Examples of unlike surds: 3 , 5 and 2 13 .
2. Surds may need to be simplified before adding and subtracting.
a 3 5+4 5 7 5 b 6 2 + 11 2 17 2
c 2 3+5 3+ 3 8 3 d 6 7 + 8 7 + 5 7 19 7
e 8 5 + 3 3 + 7 5 + 2 3 15 5 + 5 3 f 2 6 + 9 2 + 6 2 + 5 6 15 2 + 7 6
26 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
g 6 11 – 2 11 4 11 h 12 13 – 5 13 – 2 13 5 13
i 7 2 + 9 2 – 3 2 13 2 j 3 7 – 2 5 + 7 7 – 9 5 10 7 – 11 5
k 9 6 + 12 6 – 17 6 – 7 6 –3 6 l 5 2 – 12 2 – 3 6 + 8 6 –7 2 + 5 6
17 3 – 18 7 m 12 3 – 8 7 + 5 3 – 10 7 n xy + 7 xy – 3 xy 5 xy
x – 5 y + 7 xy
o 2 x+5 y+6 x–2 y 8 x+3 y p 3 x + 4 y + 7 xy – 2 x – 9 y
WORKED 2 Simplify the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are positive
Example
8b real numbers.
a 200 – 300 10 ( 2 – 3 ) b 18 + 50 – 72 2 2
e 27 – 3 + 75 7 3 f 8 + 18 + 50 10 2
g 2 20 – 3 5 + 45 4 5 h 45 + 20 5 5
14 3 + 3 2 i 6 12 + 3 27 – 7 3 + 18 j 44 – 99 + 121 – 3 11 11 – 4 11
15 10 − 10 15 + 10 m 3 90 – 5 60 + 3 40 + 100 n 2 99 – 44 – 176 0
– 8 11 + 22 o 5 11 + 7 44 – 9 99 + 2 121 p 5 3 + 8 27 – 4 3 + 2 147 39 3
u 1
 98 + 1
 48 + 1
 12
7

2
2+2 3 v 1
 512 – 5
 128 + 1
 72 –3 2
2 3 3 16 8 6
1
w  32 – 7 18 + 3 72 15 2 x 1

7
27 +  5
 12 –  48 5
8
3
8 6 8 16 32
WORKED 3 Simplify the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are positive
Example
8c real numbers. 52 a – 29 3a
34 a – 6 2a a 7 a – 8a + 9 9a – 32a b 10 a – 15 27a + 8 12a + 14 9a
f 1
36a + 1 128a – 1 144a a + 2 2a
e 8a 3 + 72a 3 – 98a 3 a 2a 
2 4 6
4ab ab + 3a 2 b b i ab ab + 3ab a 2 b + 9a 3 b 3 j a 3 b + 5 ab – 2 ab + 5 a 3 b 3 ab ( 2a + 1 )
32a + 2 6a + 8a 2
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 27
4 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest surd form, 112 – 63 is equal to:
A 5 7 B 5 C 1 D 7 E none of these
5 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest surd form, 2 40a – 6 72ab 2 is equal to:
A – 32b 12a B – 32b 8a C 4 10a – 12b 18a
D – 4b 32a E 4 10a – 36b 2a
6 multiple choice
7
When expressed in its simplest surd form,  100a 2 – 2 25a 2 + 1 72b 2 is equal to:
10 5 6
A 5a + b 2 B 5 + 2b C 5a D 9a + 2b E 9a a + 2 b
7 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest surd form, 243a 3 b 6 – 27a is equal to:
A 6ab 3 3a B 3ab 3 3a C 6ab 3
D 3ab 3 E 3 3a ( 3ab 3 – 1 )
8 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest surd form, 150c 2 d 2 – cd 96 – c 54d 2 is equal to:
A 6cd 6 B – 2cd 6 C 4cd 6 D – 2cd E – 6cd 6
WORKED 9 Find the perimeter of the following shapes, giving answers in the simplest surd form.
Example
9
Specify the units.
9
a b 6 cm c 5 + 2 cm a 12 2 cm
eBook plus b ( 6 6 + 8 3 ) cm
18 cm 48 cm
c ( 18 – 2 3 + 2 5 ) cm
Digital docs:
SkillSHEET 1.2 27 + 54 cm d 3π 5 m
Substitution using 7 – 3 cm
surds 1 e ( 18 2 + 2 5 ) m
24 + 3 cm
WorkSHEET 1.1 f 21 11 m
d e 5 2– 5m f 3 44 – 99 m
2 44 m
45 m
5+2 2m 4 44 + 2 99 m
Multiplication of surds
To multiply surds, multiply together the expressions under the radicals. For example,
a × b = ab , where a and b are positive real numbers.
When multiplying surds it is best to first simplify them (if possible). Once this has
been done and a mixed surd has been obtained, the coefficients are multiplied with each
other and then the surds are multiplied together. For example,
m a ¥ n b = mn ab
28 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 10
Multiply the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form. Assume that x and
y are positive real numbers.
a 11 ¥ 7 b 5 3¥8 5 c 5 ¥ 10
3 1
d 6 12 ¥ 2 6 e 
5
70 ¥ 4 10 f 15 x 5 y 2 ¥ 12 x 2 y
THINK WRITE
a Multiply surds together, using a 11 × 7 = 11 × 7
a × b = ab (that is, multiply = 77
expressions under the roots).
Note: This expression cannot be simplified
any further.
d 1 Simplify 12 . d 6 12 × 2 6 = 6 4 × 3 × 2 6
= 6×2 3×2 6
= 12 3 × 2 6
2 Multiply the coefficients and multiply = 24 18
the surds.
3 Simplify the product surd. = 24 9 × 2
= 24 × 3 2
= 72 2
3
e 1 Multiply the coefficients and multiply e  70 × 1 10 = 3
 × 1 × 70 × 10
5 4 5 4
the surds.
3
=  700
20
3
2 Simplify the product surd. =  100 × 7
20
3
=  × 10 7
20
3 3 7
3 Simplify by dividing both 10 and 20 by =  7 or 
2 2
10 (crosscancel).
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 29
THINK WRITE
When working with surds, we sometimes need to multiply surds by themselves; that is,
square them. Consider the following examples:
( 2 )2 = 2× 2 ( 5 )2 = 5× 5
= 4 = 25
=2 =5
We observe that squaring a surd produces the number under the radical. This is not
surprising, since squaring and taking the square root are inverse operations and, when
applied together, leave the original unchanged.
When a surd is squared, the result is the number (or expression) under the
radical; that is, ( a )2 = a , where a is a positive real number.
WORKED Example 11
Evaluate the area of a square of length ( 12 28 xy ) m, expressing the answer in the
simplest form.
THINK WRITE
1 Write the rule for the area of a square. A = l2
( 12 28xy )
2
2 Substitute the value for l into the rule. A=
( a )2 ( 12 ) × ( 28xy)
2 2
3 Simplify, using = a. =
= 1
 × 28xy
4
= 7xy
4 Write the answer, including an A = 7xy m2
appropriate unit.
30 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
remember
remember
1. When multiplying surds, simplify the surd if possible, then apply the following
rules:
(a) a× b = ab
(b) m a × n b = mn ab , where a and b are positive real numbers.
2. When a surd is squared, the result is a number (or an expression) under the
radical: ( a )2 = a , where a is a positive real number.
1F Multiplication of surds
WORKED 1 Multiply the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form.
Example
10a–e
a 2× 7 14 b 5 × 11 55 c 6× 7 42
d 2 × 12 2 6 e 8× 6 4 3 f 12 × 6 6 2
g 10 × 10 10 h 5 × 75 5 15 i 21 × 3 3 7
j 2 8× 5 4 10 k 27 × 3 3 27 l 45 × 60 30 3
m 5 3 × 2 11 10 33 n 6 2 × 4 48 96 6 o 10 15 × 6 3 180 5
1
v  72 × 1 3 6 w 1
 48 × 2 3 2 23 x 2
 4 × 1 125 4
3
5
2 3 9 3 5
1
y  60 × 1 40 2

5
6 z 3
 30 × 2 10 3 3
10 5 4 5
WORKED 2 Simplify the following expressions with surds. Assume that a, b, x and y are positive
Example
10f
real numbers.
a xy × x 3 y 2 x2 y y b x3 y4 × x2 y2 x2 y3 x
e 12a 7 b × 6a 3 b 4 6a 5 b 2 2b f 18a 4 b 3 × 2a 2 b 5 6a 3 b 4
1 1
i  15a 3 b 3 × 3 3a 2 b 6 9

2
a 2 b 4 5ab j  12a 4 b 2 × 1 6a 3 b 3 1
2
a 3 b 2 2ab
2 3 4
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 31
WORKED 3 Find the area of the following shapes. Answers must be expressed in the simplest surd
Example
form and the appropriate units specified.
11
a b c
eBook plus 2 4m
7 2 cm 5 3 cm
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 1.3 5 11 m
Substitution using
surds 2
d e f
3 a 98 cm2
5 10 m
b 75π cm2 6 5m
3 3m 8 8m
c 20 11 m2
3 6m
d 6 6 m2 2 10 m
e ( 45 π + 96 10 ) m2 2 8m 3 6m
f 72 15 m2
4 multiple choice
The product of 3 30 × 5 6 expressed in its simplest form is:
A 15 36 B 90 C 15 180 D 45 20 E 90 5
5 multiple choice
The product of 8x 5 y 2 × 5x 6 y 3 expressed in its simplest form is:
6 multiple choice
3
The product of  x 7 y 2 × 1 x 4 y 3 expressed in its simplest form is:
8 2
3 3 3 3 3
A  x5 y7 B  x7 y5 C  x 3 y 2 xy D  x 5 y 2 xy E  x 2 y 3 xy
16 16 64 16 16
7 multiple choice
The area of the triangle expressed in its simplest form is:
5 3m
4 6m
A 30 2 m2 B 60 2 m2 C 24 12 m2 D 48 3 m2 E 20 18 m2
8 The height of a squarebased pyramid is 20 8 units and the length of the side of its
base is 12 8 units. Find the volume of the pyramid, expressing the answer in the
simplest surd form. (Volume = 1 area of base × height) 15 360 2
3
32 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
a ( b + c) = ab + ac
If there is a negative number outside the bracket, then every term inside the bracket
will undergo a sign change since it has been multiplied by the negative number.
WORKED Example 12
Expand and simplify the following where possible.
a 5 ( 6 + 11) b 7 ( 18 – 3) c – 2 3 ( 10 – 5 3)
THINK WRITE
4 Simplify. = 3 14 – 3 7
When expanding two binomial brackets the FOIL method is applied; that is, 4 pairs of
terms must be multiplied in the order First, Outer, Inner and Last.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 33
WORKED Example 13
Expand ( 5 + 3 6 )( 2 3 – 2 ) . Write your answer in its simplest form.
THINK WRITE
1 Write the expression. F L
( 5 + 3 6 ) (2 3 – 2 )
I
O
2 Apply FOIL.
Multiply the first terms of each bracket. = 5×2 3+ 5×– 2+3 6×2 3
Multiply the outer terms of each bracket.
+ 3 6×– 2
Multiply the inner terms of each bracket.
Multiply the last terms of each bracket.
3 Simplify. = 2 15 – 10 + 6 18 – 3 12
= 2 15 – 10 + 6 × 3 2 – 3 × 2 3
= 2 15 – 10 + 18 2 – 6 3
= a + 2 ab + b
( b) = ( a)2 – 2 a b + ( b)
2 2
a–
= a – 2 ab + b
WORKED Example 14
Expand ( 19 – 6 ) . Write your answer in its simplest form.
2
THINK WRITE
( 19 – 6)
2
1 Write the expression.
Note that the expansion of ( 19 – 6 ) in the previous example could also be done by
2
=ab
WORKED Example 15
Expand ( 5 y – 3 2 x )( 5 y + 3 2 x ) .
THINK WRITE
1 Write the expression. ( 5y – 3 2x )( 5y + 3 2x )
2 Use DOTS identity for expansion. = ( 5y ) – ( 3 2x )
2 2
3 Simplify. = 5y – 9 × 2x
= 5y – 18x
In the above example the binomial factors which were multiplied together are a conju
gate pair (that is, one bracket contains a sum and the other a difference of the same
terms). Although the terms of the factors are irrational, the answer is not a surd, but an
expression with rational terms.
The product of a conjugate pair of surds (irrational numbers) yields a rational
number.
Note that to find the product of a conjugate pair (as in Worked example 15), FOIL
could be used as an alternative to the DOTS identity. The latter, however, leads to the
answer much more quickly.
remember
remember
1. When expanding brackets, the Distributive Law is applied:
a ( b + c ) = ab + ac
2. When expanding binomial brackets, FOIL is applied:
( a + b )( c + d ) = ac + ad + bc + bd
3. Perfect square identities:
( a + b)2 = ( a) + 2 a b + ( b)
2 2
= a + 2 ab + b
( a – b) = ( a) – 2 a b + ( b)
2 2 2
= a – 2 ab + b
4. DOTS identity:
( a – b )( a + b ) = ( a ) – ( b )
2 2
=a−b
5. The product of a conjugate pair of surds is rational.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 35
g 2 2 ( 6 18 + 7 15 ) h – 5 12 ( 3 5 – 4 8 ) –2 3 ( 4 6 – 2 3 )
Algebraic
72 + 14 30 i expansion
– 30 15 + 80 6 126 2 – 14 3 – 24 2 + 12
WORKED 2 Expand and simplify where possible. 24 3 – 18 30 – 8 10 + 60
Example 10 21 – 4 6
13 a ( 18 – 5 ) ( 5 + 3 ) b ( 7 + 5 )( 2 5 – 3 7 ) – 35 – 11
3 10 + 9 2 – 5 5 – 15 c ( 4 8 + 2 6 )( 8 – 3 6 ) – 4 – 40 3 d ( 3 6 – 2 5 )( 4 2 – 3 20 )
e ( 7 8 + 6 3 )( 4 2 – 5 6 ) f ( 11 – 2 3 )( 2 5 – 8 ) 2 55 – 2 22 – 4 15 + 4 6
g (2 7 – 3 2(5 5 + 7 2) h ( 5 18 – 3 3 )( 2 18 – 6 )180 – 30 3 – 18 6 + 9 2
104 + 60 3 g (3 6 + 5 2) 2
h ( 5 – 3)
2
14 – 6 5 i ( 7 – 3 ) 2 10 – 2 21
j ( 2 8 – 5 ) 37 – 8 10
2
5 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, 15 ( 5 – 3 ) is equal to:
A 5 3–3 5 B 5 5–3 3 C 75 – 45
D 30 E 2 2
6 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, ( 5 8 + 2 7 )( 6 5 – 3 3 ) is equal to:
A 30 40 – 15 24 + 12 35 – 6 21
B 60 10 – 15 24 + 12 35 – 6 21
C 60 10 – 30 6 + 12 35 – 6 21
D 30 40 – 30 6 + 12 35 – 6 21
E 60 10 – 30 6 + 12 21
7 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, ( 7 5 – 2 3 ) is equal to:
2
A 49 25 – 4 9 B 245 C 257 + 28 15
D 269 E 257 – 28 15
8 multiple choice
When expressed in its simplest form, ( 15 x 2 y + 4 xy )( 15 x 2 y – 4 xy ) is equal to:
A 225x 2 y – 120 xy + 16xy
B 15x 2 y – 4xy
C 225 x 4 y 2 – 16 x 2 y 2
D 225x 2 y – 16xy
E 225x 2 y – 120xy x + 16xy
Division of surds
To divide surds, divide the expressions under the radicals;
a a
that is,  =  , where a and b are positive real numbers.
b b
When dividing surds it is best to simplify them (if possible) first. Once this has been
done, the coefficients are divided next and then the surds are divided.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 37
WORKED Example 16
Divide the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form. Assume that x and y
are positive real numbers.
55 48 9 88 36 xy
a  b  c  d 
5 3 6 99 25 x 9 y 11
THINK WRITE
a a 55 55
a 1 Rewrite the fraction, using  =  . a  = 
b b 5 5
2 Divide numerator by the denominator = 11
(that is, 55 by 5).
3 Check if the surd can be simplified any
further.
a a 48 48
b 1 Rewrite the fraction, using  =  . b  = 
b b 3 3
2 Divide 48 by 3. = 16
3 Evaluate 16 . =4
a a 9 88 9 88
c 1 Rewrite the surds, using  =  . c  =  
b b 6 99 6 99
9 8
2 Simplify the fraction under the radical =  
by dividing both numerator and 6 9
denominator by 11.
9×2 2
3 Simplify the surds. = 
6×3
18 2
4 Multiply the whole numbers in the = 
numerator together and those in the 18
denominator together.
5 Cancel the common factor of 18. = 2
36xy 6 xy
d 1 Simplify each surd. d  = 
25x 9 y 11 5 x 8 × x × y 10 × y
6 xy
= 
5x 4 y 5 xy
6
2 Cancel any common factors — in this = 
case xy . 5x 4 y 5
38 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 17
Find the perpendicular height of a triangle, given that its area is 27 15 cm2 and its base
length is 6 3 cm. The answer must be expressed in the simplest surd form and the
appropriate unit specified.
THINK WRITE
remember
remember
When dividing surds, simplify the surd if possible, then apply the following rule:
a a
a ÷
b =  = 
b b
where a and b are positive real numbers.
1H Division of surds
WORKED 1 Simplify the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form. Assume that x
Example
xample
16
and y are positive real numbers.
15 14 8 72
a  5 b  7 c  2 d  2 3
3 2 2 6
60 90 128 45 3
e  6 f  15 g  4 h  5
10 6 8 125
18 2 24 42 65 5 5 72
i  3 j  k   l  5 6
4 3 2
4 6 3 3 2 13 12
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 39
96 2 63 1 7 44 336
m  2 3 n  1 5 o  1 p  2 6
8 5 7 14 11 14
9 63 4 540 2040 12 99 2
q  1 5 r  3 3 s  2 17 t  2 5
15 7 20 30 15 11
x4 y3 x x 6 y 11 1 16xy 2 72x 4 y 3
u   v   w   x  6x xy
y x 3 y2 x3 y4
x2 y5 x 12 y 15 8x 7 y 9 2xy 2
2 Simplify the following. Assume that all pronumerals are positive real numbers.
xy 12x 8 y 12 6x 2 y 3 3x 7 y 2 2 2a 2 b 4 10a 9 b 3 4 a
2xy 3y a  ×  b  ×  c  ×  
3
x5 y7 x2 y3 27x 4 y 4 3xy 3 5a 3 b 6 3 a7b
3b 2 2b 3ab 5 6a 7 b 3 2mn 3 3m 4 n 6 5 3m 3 n 2m 5 n 8 15

 d  ×  e  ÷  f  ÷  
2a a 2a 5b 2
2m 2 n 2
2a b 6 2 2x 6m 5 n 2 8mn 3 2 6m 3 n 2 6 mn 5

3y 2 2

3m 3 n m
3 multiple choice
75
Expressed in its simplest form,  is:
5
5 3
A 70 B 15 C 13 D  E 17
5
4 multiple choice
9 18
Expressed in its simplest form,  is:
21 3
9 6 54 9 2 9 6 3 6
A  B  C  D  E 
21 7 7 3 7 7
5 multiple choice
10x 5 y 8
Expressed in its simplest form,  is:
20x 3 y 2
xy 3 2 xy 3 10 x3 y 2 x 2 y 4 10 x2 y6
A  B  C  D  E 

2 20 2 xy 20x 2
6 multiple choice
2x 4 y 6x 7 y 3
Expressed in its simplest form,  ×  is:
9xy 4x 3 y 5
y3 y x 12 x x 3 3x x7 2x 3 3x
A  B  C  D  E 
x 3 y 3 3y y 3 6y
40 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED 7 Find the length of the unknown side in each of the following. Answers must be
Example
expressed in the simplest surd form and the appropriate units specified.
17
a b c
7 a 4 13 m A = 28 39 m2 A = 12 30 cm2 A = 21 55 m2
b 4 6 cm
w 3 5 cm h
c 7 11 m
d 3 7m
7 3m b
e 5 13 cm
6 5m
15
f 
2
5 cm
d e f
V = 90 21 m3 V = 315π 13 cm3 V = 60π 75 cm3
h
h
h
3 6m 3 7 cm
5 2m Area of base = 24π 15 cm2
2E
8 Velocity v of the object can be found using the formula v =  , where E is the kinetic
m
energy of the object and m is the mass of the object. Express v as the simplest surd, if:
a E = 80 J, m = 2 kg 4 5
5
 b E = 250 J, m = 60 kg
3
c E = 480 J, m = 120 kg 2 2
2
9 A rectangular fish tank has a base 20 3 cm by 30 6 cm and the height h. When  of
3
the tank is filled, the volume of water is 84 L. Find:
a the height of the tank (give the answer as the simplest surd) 35 2 cm
b the full capacity of the tank in litres. 126 L
(Remember that 1 cubic centimetre holds 1 mL of water.)
Rationalising denominators
If the denominator of a fraction is a surd, it can be changed into a rational number.
In other words, it can be rationalised.
As we discussed earlier in this chapter, squaring a surd (that is, multiplying it by
itself) results in a rational number. This fact can be used to rationalise denominators as
follows.
a b ab b
 ¥  =  , (where  = 1)
b b b b
If both numerator and denominator of a fraction are multiplied by the surd contained
in the denominator, the denominator becomes a rational number. The fraction takes on
a different appearance, but its numerical value is unchanged, because multiplying the
numerator and denominator by the same number is equivalent to multiplying by 1.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 41
WORKED Example 18
Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
6 2 12 17 – 3 14
a  b  c 
13 3 54 7
THINK WRITE
6
a 1 Write the fraction. a 
13
2 Multiply both the numerator and denominator by
6 13
the surd contained in the denominator (in this =  × 
case 13 ). This has the same effect as multiplying 13 13
13 78
the fraction by 1, since  = 1 . = 
13 13
2 12
b 1 Write the fraction. b 
3 54
THINK WRITE
17 – 3 14
c 1 Write the fraction. c 
7
( 17 – 3 14 ) 7
2 Multiply both the numerator and denominator by 7 . =  × 
Use brackets so you realise the whole numerator must 7 7
be multiplied by 7 .
17 × 7 – 3 14 × 7
3 Apply the Distributive Law in the numerator. = 
a(b + c) = ab + ac 7× 7
119 – 3 98
= 
49
119 – 3 49 × 2
4 Simplify 98 . = 
7
119 – 3 × 7 2
= 
7
119 – 21 2
= 
7
remember
remember
To rationalise the surd denominator, multiply the numerator and denominator by
the surd contained in the denominator. This has the effect of multiplying the
fraction by 1 and thus the numerical value of the fraction remains unchanged,
while the denominator becomes rational:
a a b ab
 =  ×  = 
b b b b
1I Rationalising denominators
WORKED 1 Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
Example
18a, b 5 5 2 7 7 3 4 4 11 8 4 6 12 2 21
a   b  
3
 c  
11 d 
  e 
3  
2 7
2 3 11 6 7
15 10 2 3 2 15 3 7 3 35 5 2 5 6 4 3 4 15

f  
2
g   h   i   j
6
 15
5 5
6 5 5 2 3 3 5
5 14 5 7 16 3 8 3 8 21 8 60 2 35 10
k   l  m   n
49  o  
14 3
7 8 6 5 7 7 28 3 14
8 15 8 105
 
15 7
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 43
WORKED 2 Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
Example
18c 6 + 12 15 – 22 6 2 – 15 2 18 + 3 2 9 10
a  b  c  d  
5
2+2 3 6 10 12 5–5 6 5

10
3 10 + 6 14 3 5+6 7 4 2 + 3 8 56 3 11 – 4 5 2 7–2 5 21 – 15
 e  f  3 g  h  
4 3
8 2 3 18 12
14 – 5 2 7 12 – 5 6 6 2– 5 6 3–5 5 6 15 – 25

6 i  j  k  
3 22 – 4 10
70 
6 3 4 8 12 – 10 7 20 6
3 10 – 2 33 

6 16
3 multiple choice
12
When expressed in its simplest form,  is equal to:
3
4 3 C 48 12 3
A  B 4 3 D  E 6 3
3 3
4 multiple choice
8 5
When expressed in its simplest form,  is equal to:
9 12
40 16 15 4 5 4 15 320
A  B  C  D  E 
108 108 9 27 972
5 multiple choice
7 5–6 7
When expressed in its simplest form,  is equal to:
12
6 7 15 – 6 21
A  B 7 15 – 21 C 
6 6
7 60 – 6 84
D  E none of these
12
6 multiple choice
5 5–3 3
When expressed in its simplest form,  is equal to:
8 8
5 10 – 3 6 80 10 – 48 6
A  B 10 10 – 6 6 C 
32 64
40 40 – 24 24 10 10 – 6 6
D  E 
64 8
7 Solve for x, giving the answers as the simplest surds with rational denominators:
21 15 2 6
a x2 = 3
 ±  b 3x2 = 5 ±  c 6x2 − 4 = 12 ± 
7 7 3 3
44 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
a + b and a – b , 2 5 – 7 and 2 5 + 7 .)
This fact is used to rationalise denominators containing a sum or a difference of surds.
1 a+ b
2. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction  , multiply it by  .
a– b a+ b
A quick way to simplify the denominator is to use the DOTS identity:
( a – b )( a + b ) = ( a ) – ( b )
2 2
=a−b
WORKED Example 19
Rationalise the denominator and simplify the following.
1 6+3 2
a  b 
4– 3 3+ 3
THINK WRITE
1
a 1 Write the fraction. a 
4– 3
1 (4 + 3)
2 Multiply the numerator and denominator =  × 
by the conjugate of the denominator. (4 – 3) (4 + 3)
4 + 3
(Note that  = 1 .)
4 + 3
4+ 3
3 Apply the Distributive Law in the numerator = 
2
and the DOTS identity in the denominator. ( 4 )2 – ( 3 )
4+ 3
4 Simplify. = 
16 – 3
4+ 3
= 
13
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 45
THINK WRITE
6+3 2
b 1 Write the fraction. b 
3+ 3
( 6 + 3 2) (3 – 3)
2 Multiply the numerator and =  × 
denominator by the conjugate of (3 + 3) (3 – 3)
the denominator.
3 – 3
(Note that  = 1 .)
3 – 3
6×3+ 6×– 3+3 2×3+3 2×– 3
3 Apply FOIL in the numerator and = 
2
DOTS in the denominator. ( 3 )2 – ( 3 )
3 6 – 18 + 9 2 – 3 6
4 Simplify. = 
9–3
– 18 + 9 2
= 
6
– 9×2+9 2
= 
6
–3 2+9 2
= 
6
6 2
= 
6
= 2
You might wish to use a calculator to check if the final answer is correct. To do that,
evaluate the original fraction and the final one (the one with the rational denominator)
and check whether they both equal the same number.
WORKED Example 20
1 1
Rationalise the denominators and simplify the following.  + 
2 6– 3 3 6+2 3
THINK WRITE
1 We will rationalise the denominator of 1
each term and then add them. 
Write the first fraction. 2 6– 3
1 (2 6 + 3)
2 Multiply the numerator and denominator by =  × 
the conjugate of the denominator. (2 6 – 3) (2 6 + 3)
Continued over page
46 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
2 6+ 3
3 Apply the Distributive Law in the numerator = 
and DOTS in the denominator. (Note that ( 2 )2 × 6 – 3
when squaring 2 6 , we need to square both 2
and 6 .)
2 6+ 3
4 Simplify the denominator. = 
21
1
5 Write the second fraction. 
3 6+2 3
1 (3 6 – 2 3)
6 Multiply the numerator and denominator =  × 
by the conjugate of the denominator. (3 6 + 2 3) (3 6 – 2 3)
3 6–2 3
7 Apply the Distributive Law in the = 
numerator and DOTS in the denominator. 3 × 6 – 22 × 3
2
3 6–2 3
8 Simplify the denominator. = 
42
2 6+ 3 3 6–2 3
9 Add the two fractions together.  + 
Bring them to the lowest common 21 42
denominator first. 2 6+ 3 2 3 6–2 3
=  ×  + 
21 2 42
4 6+2 3 3 6–2 3
=  + 
42 42
7 6
10 Add the numerators. = 
42
6
11 Simplify where appropriate. = 
6
WORKED Example 21
1
Simplify  .
2+ 2– 3
THINK WRITE
1
1 Use a set of brackets to group the 
trinomial into a binomial. (2 + 2) – 3
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 47
THINK WRITE
1 [(2 + 2) + 3]
2 Multiply the numerator and denominator =  × 
by the conjugate of the denominator; that (2 + 2) – 3 (2 + 2) + 3
is, (2 + 2 ) + 3 . Use brackets around
both factors so that you will recognise
that all terms need to be multiplied.
(2 + 2) + 3
3 Use FOIL to expand the denominator. = 
2
(2 + 2) – 3
(2 + 2) + 3
4 Expand the squared terms of the = 
denominator. 4+4 2+2–3
2+ 2+ 3
5 Group and simplify the denominator. = 
3+4 2
(2 + 2 + 3) (3 – 4 2)
6 Rationalise the denominator as shown =  × 
previously. Use brackets as in step 2. (3 + 4 2) (3 – 4 2)
6–8 2+3 2–4 4+3 3–4 6
7 Expand the numerator, making sure that = 
every term in the first set of brackets is 9 – 16 × 2
multiplied by every term in the second set.
6–8–8 2+3 2+3 3–4 6
8 Group like terms and simplify. = 
9 – 32
–2 – 5 2 + 3 3 – 4 6
= 
–23
2+5 2–3 3+4 6
9 Multiply numerator and denominator = 
by –1 to eliminate the negative 23
denominator.
remember
remember
1. To rationalise the denominator containing a sum or a difference of surds,
multiply both the numerator and denominator of the fraction by the conjugate
of the denominator. This eliminates the middle terms and leaves a rational
number.
2. To simplify the denominator quickly, use the DOTS identity:
( a – b )( a + b ) = ( a)2 – ( b)2
= a–b
1 a– b
3. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction  , multiply it by  .
a+ b a– b
1 a+ b
4. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction  , multiply it by  .
a– b a+ b
5 14 + 2 10 – 25 7 – 10 5
48 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1 i 
155
– ( 10 3 + 15 6 + 9 2 + 27 )

1 p 
– 20 2 + 9 10 + 4 30 – 9 6
m 
2
Rationalising denominators
1J
42
16 210 – 12 14 3 7 4 8 2 3 4 6+ 3
 c  ×  d  ×  6–7 2
77
3 5– 3 5+3 3 6–2 3 2 6+3 3
3 5 7–2 2 2 2+ 3 2 2+ 3 66 + 24 6
e  ÷  f  ÷  
5
7+ 2 5+ 2 2 2 – 3 12 2 + 6 3
– ( 45 + 15 14 + 9 10 + 6 35 )

5
7+ 8 2 8–2 7 3 7+2 5 7–2
g  +  5 – 4 14 h  + 
3 7–3 8 3 8+3 7 2 7 – 11 7 + 2 11
3 + 7 65 – 16 11 13 + 5 11 + 2 5+ 6 2 6–2 5 – ( 41 + 6 30 )
 i  –  j  –  
28 12
13 – 5 11 – 2 4 5–4 6 3 6–3 5
959 + 281 77 + 182 7 + 6 11

629
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 49
WORKED 3 Rationalise the denominator and simplify.
Example
21 2+ 3– 5 5– 3– 2 –6 + 2 15 + 3 10 – 5 6
a  b  
6
3+2 3+2 5 5+ 3+ 2
230 + 257 3 – 137 5 – 80 15
4 multiple choice 
431

1
If x = 7 + 11 , then x +  when simplified with a rational denominator is equal to:
x
3 7 + 5 11 5 7 + 3 11 5 7 + 3 11
A  B  C 
4 4 –4
3 7 + 5 11 3 7 + 3 11
D  E 
–4 4
7–3 5
5 Given that x =  find each of the following, giving the answer in surd form
7+3 5
with a rational denominator:
1 1 2 1
a x +  −2 
14
19
b x –  6
35
 c x –  – 312 35

x x 19 x2 361
6 Given that x = 5 2 – 3 find each of the following, giving the answer in surd form
with a rational denominator:
1 1 1
a x +  210 2 – 120
 b x –  200 2 – 126
 c x 2 +  99 238 – 50 400 2

x 41 x 41 x2 1681
99 120 – 50 460 2 1
 d x 2 –  e x 2 + 6x + 3 44 f x 2 – 12x + 8 103 – 90 2
1681 x2
x 2 + 3x x 2 – 3x 295 2 – 382
g  7 2 + 4 h  
x–2 x+2 49
WORKED Example 22
Evaluate the following where a, b, c, d ≥ 0.
– 4cd ¥ – – 6cd
a – 50 b –6 ¥ – 3 c – 6a 2 b ¥ – 2a 3 b d 
– 12
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the expression. a – 50
2 The modulus sign indicates that we want only the = 50
magnitude of a number and not the sign of it. So the
negative in front of the number should be omitted.
b 1 Write the expression. b –6 × – 3
2 Evaluate each modulus separately and then simplify. = 6 × −3
= −18
c 1 Write the expression. c 6a 2 b × – 2a 3 b
2 Evaluate each modulus separately, then simplify. = 6a 2 b × 2a 3 b
= 12a 5 b 2
– 4cd × – – 6cd
d 1 Write the expression. d 
– 12
4cd × – 6cd
2 Evaluate each modulus separately, then simplify. = 
– 12
– 24c 2 d 2
= 
– 12
= 2c 2 d 2
remember
remember
1. The modulus (or absolute value) of a number is the magnitude of that number.
It tells us how far the number is from zero, and is always positive.
2. The modulus of x is denoted by x.
v – 24 ÷ – 3 −8 w – 6 – 3 – 20 −11 x 9 × 10 ÷ – 3 30
−3a y – 2a × – 6b ÷ – 4 – b z 4cd × 3cd ÷ – 2 cd −6cd
2 multiple choice
When simplified, – 2 × 3 becomes:
A –6 B −6 C 6 D –1 E −5
3 multiple choice
When simplified, – ab 2 × a 3 b ÷ – a 2 b 4 becomes:
a2 a4b3 a a a2
A  B –  C –  D  E – 
b 2
a b 4 b 2 b2 b
4 multiple choice
When simplified, – – 8 × – 2 + 5 – 3 becomes:
A −8 B 14 C −18 D −14 E 8
5 multiple choice
When simplified, – 6 2 × 2 – 5 ÷ – 8 becomes:
A 15
 B 9
 C − 15
 D − 9 E − 9
8 2 8 2 8
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
y –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8
y 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
b Use the table to plot (on the same set of axes) the graph of y = 2x − 4 and
b y = 2x – 4
y y = 2x – 4 y = 2x – 4 .
4 c State the range of each of the two functions. R and y ≥ 0
d Compare the ranges of the two functions and their graphs. Explain the difference.
x
2
–4
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
52 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 23
Solve: a  4x  = 16 b  4  3x  = 3.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the equation. a  4x  = 16
2 Remove the absolute value symbols Case 1: Case 2:
and write the positive (+ve) and 4x = 16 or −4x = 16
negative (−ve) cases to be −4x = −16
considered.
3 Work the two cases side by side. x=4 x = −4
4 Verify your solution by substituting Check:
into the original expression. Start Using x = 4 Using x = −4
with the lefthand side (LHS) and LHS =  4 × 4 LHS =  4 × −4
ensure that it equals the righthand =  16 =  −16
side (RHS). = 16 = 16
= RHS = RHS
Solutions are correct for both cases.
5 State the solution. x can equal either The solution is x = ±4.
4 or −4, written ±4.
WORKED Example 25
Solve  x – 1  =  2x + 3 .
THINK WRITE
1 Write the equation.  x – 1  =  2x + 3 
2 Remove all absolute value symbols Case 1: Case 2:
and write the +ve and –ve cases. x − 1 = 2x + 3 or x − 1 = −(2x + 3)
Reassure yourself that there are only
two possible cases.
−(x – 1) = −(2x + 3) is the same as
(x – 1) = (2x + 3) and
(x – 1) = −(2x + 3) is the same as
−(x – 1) = (2x + 3) Continued over page
54 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
3 Solve for x for both cases. −1 − 3 = 2x − x x − 1 = −2x − 3
−4 = x x + 2x = −3 + 1
x = −4 3x = −2
2
x = − 
4 Verify the solutions with respect to Check: 3
the original equation. Using x = −4
LHS =  −4 −1  RHS =  2(−4) + 3 
=  −5  =  −8 + 3 
=5 =  −5 
=5
(Correct solution since LHS = RHS)
2
Using x = − 
3
2 2
LHS = –  – 1 RHS = 2 × –  + 3
3 3
=  −1  
2
=  −1  + 3 
1
3 3
= 1 2 =  1 2 
3 3
= 1 2
3
(Correct solution since LHS = RHS)
2
5 State the solution. Therefore x = −4 and x = −  are both suitable
solutions. 3
remember
remember
To solve equations with absolute values:
1. remove the absolute value symbols and state the equation as positive and
negative cases
2. verify your solutions by substituting your answer into the original equation.
x= 2
 or x = −2
3 Solving equations
WORKED 2 Solve for x. 3
Example
xample
24
a  x + 1  = 2x − 1 x = 2 b  3x + 5  = x − 3 No solutions
c  2x + 3  = x − 5 No solutions d  x − 2  = 2x − 7 x = 5
WORKED 3 Solve the following for x.
Example
xample
a  2x − 5  =  x + 1  x = 6 or x = 1 3 b  3x − 6  =  2x + 4  x = 10 or x = 25
1
25
c  3x − 1  =  2x + 2  x = 3 or x = − 15 d  x − 5  =  3x − 8  x = 1 12 or x = 3 14
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 55
Solving inequations
You have graphed inequations on a number line in your junior mathematics studies.
These examples require more care and you will notice that the verification step is
essential to test the values you obtain.
WORKED Example 26
Solve and graph (x  1)(x + 2) > 0.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Write the inequation. (x − 1)(x + 2) > 0
2 If a × b > 0 then either a and b Case 1:
are both positive (+ve) or a If a and b > 0
and b are both negative (−ve). (x − 1) > 0 and (x + 2) > 0
This gives rise to 2 cases.
Rewrite the terms of the
inequation.
Note: > 0 means +ve, and
Note: < 0 means −ve x>1 x > −2
Solve each inequation.
3 Graph both these inequations
and decide which part of the –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
graph satisfies both
inequations.
Note that the region graphed in
the last graph (x > 1) satisfies –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
both parts of case 1.
4 Repeat steps 2 and 3 for case Case 2:
2. If a and b < 0
Graph both these inequations (x − 1) < 0 and (x + 2) < 0
and decide which part of the x<1 x < −2
graph satisfies both
inequations. –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
Note that the region graphed
in the last graph (x < −2) –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
satisfies both parts of case 2.
5 Either case 1 is true or case 2
is true at the one time but not –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
both, as they are contradictory.
Combine both cases on one Either x > 1 or x < −2
number line so that either x > 1
(from case 1) or x < −2 (from
case 2). –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
Graphed Not graphed Graphed
THINK WRITE
Use a tabular form to verify
this solution. x < −2 −2 < x < 1 x>1
Note how the number line is (let x = −3) (let x = 0) (let x = 2)
divided into 3 regions. x−1 − − +
When completing this table x+2 − + +
choose a number that falls in (x − 1)(x + 2) + − +
each region and work out the graphed not graphed
sign only of each expression. OK graphed OK
Because the original product OK
was greater than 0 (or positive)
the table has veriﬁed the results
The solution is either x > 1 or x < −2.
on the graph. We do not want to
include those values between −2
and 1.
WORKED Example 27
Solve and graph:
3 x–2
a  < 6 where x ≠ 0 b  < 0 where x ≠ −1.
x x+1
THINK WRITE/DRAW
3
a 1 Write the inequation. a  < 6
x
2 x can be either +ve or −ve. When x is Case 1: Case 2:
−ve and multiplied across the 3 3
inequality sign, the sign must be If x > 0,  < 6 If x < 0,  < 6
x x
reversed. 3 < 6x 3 > 6x
1 1
 <x  >x
2 2
1 1
or x >  or x < 
2 2
THINK WRITE/DRAW
x–2
b 1 Write the inequation. b  < 0
x+1
a
2 Remember that < 0 means −ve. If  < 0 Case 1:
b If x − 2 < 0 and x+1>0
then either a < 0 or b < 0, but not both at
x<2 x > −1
the one time.
3 Graph both these inequalities.
0 1 2 –2 –1 0
WORKED Example 28
Solve and graph  2x − 3  < 2.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
THINK WRITE/DRAW
5 Graph this combined solution and state
1– 1
the solution. –2 –1 0 2 1 2 2 –2 3
The solution is 1
 < x < 2 1 .
2 2
6 Verify the 3 regions of this solution. Check:
For x < 1 (let x = 0)
2
 2 × 0 − 3  < 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
For 1 < x < 2 1 (let x = 2)
2 2
2 × 2 − 3 < 2
 1  < 2 (Valid and graphed)
For x > 2 1 (let x = 3)
2
2 × 3 − 3 < 2
 3  < 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
WORKED Example 29
1
Solve and graph  < 2.
x–3
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1
1 Write the inequality.  < 2
x–3
2 As with Worked example 28, state the Case 1: Case 2:
two cases that are possible. 1 1
Solve for case 1.  < 2 or  < 2
x–3 –( x – 3 )
For case 1
if x − 3 > 0 (x > 3)
1 < 2(x − 3)
1 < 2x − 6
7 < 2x
 < x
7
2
x > 3 1
2
Since x > 3 (initial condition) x > 3 1
2
satisfies this condition.
1
Draw the graph for this solution. 0 1 2 3 3 –2 4 5
WORKED Example 30
x–2
Solve and graph  < 2 where x ≠ −3.
x+3
THINK WRITE/DRAW
x–2
1 Write the inequality.  < 2
x+3 Continued over page
60 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE/DRAW
2 Remember x has the same value in the Case 1: Case 2:
numerator and denominator at any one x–2 x–2
time. Separate the solution into the  < 2 or –  < 2
x+3 x + 3
+ve and −ve cases for the absolute
x–2
value.  > −2
x+3
3 If the denominator is –ve, then the sign Case 1 (+ve): If x + 3 > 0 (that is, x > −3)
must be reversed when it is multiplied x − 2 < 2(x + 3)
across. Therefore, we will have to make
x − 2 < 2x + 6
2 subcases for each of case 1 and
case 2. −8 < x
x > −8
But the initial condition is that x > −3, therefore
x > −3 is a valid solution.
Reverse the sign due to the –ve Case 1 (−ve): If x + 3 < 0 (that is, x < −3)
denominator. x–2
 < 2
x+3
x − 2 > 2(x + 3)
x − 2 > 2x + 6
−8 > x
x < −8
But the initial condition is that x < −3, therefore
x < −8 is a valid solution.
x–2
4 Determine case 2 as for case 1.  > −2
x+3
Case 2 (+ve): If x + 3 > 0 (that is, x > −3)
x − 2 > −2(x + 3)
x − 2 > −2x − 6
3x > −6 + 2
–4
x > 
3
But x > −3 from initial condition so x > −1 1 .
3
5 Since the denominator must be either Combining case 1 (+ve) and case 2 (+ve) gives:
positive or negative at any one time it is
case 1 (+ve) and case 2 (+ve) that we –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1
need to combine as well as case 1 (−ve) Combining case 1 (−ve) and case 2 (−ve) gives:
and case 2 (−ve) to produce the final
graph. –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5
This type of problem demonstrates higher level reasoning for this study of numbers. All
possibilities need to be carefully considered and examined in a thoughtful, methodical
manner.
62 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
remember
remember
1. When solving inequations reverse the inequality sign when you multiply or
divide by a negative expression.
0 1 2 3 4
b x > 2 or x < −2
1M
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
Solving inequations c 1 12 < x < 2
1
–1 0 1 1–2 2 3 4
WORKED 1 Solve and graph the following inequations. d 2<x<3
Example
xample
26 a (x − 1)(x − 2) < 0 b (x − 2)(x + 2) > 0 0 1 2 3 4
2 a x < 0 or x > 2
d x > 2 21 or x < 2
b x < 1 or x >
WORKED 2 Solve and graph the following inequations.
Example
xample
27 4 1
a  < 2 (where x ≠ 0)) b  < 3 (where x ≠ 1)
x x–1
1 31
SLE 2: Solve simple inequality
statements such as z  a  > b in 3 x–1
the real system, and be able to c  < 2 (where x ≠ 3) d  < 3 (where x ≠ 2)
–1
give a verbal description of the x–3 x–2 1
0
0
meaning of the mathematical
−5 < x < −3
0
symbolism.
2
1
2
4 42– 5
3
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x < −1 13 or x > − 23
1
x–1
 2x − 5  < 1 2 < x < 3 d  < 2
4
c
4
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 5
–11–3 – 2–3 0 1 2 3 4 5 −9 < x < 11
WORKED 4 Solve and graph the following. –10 –5 0 5 10
x < −3 or x > − 31
Example
xample
–4 –3 –2 –1 _ 1– 0
x < 1 41 or x > 1 43
29, 30
0
1 1
a  < 3 (where x ≠ −1) b  < 2 (where x ≠ 1 1 )
x+1 2x – 3 2
eBook plus
1 1–1
4
1 x–1
c  < 1
(where x ≠ 6) d  < 2 (where x ≠ −1)
3
14–3 2
x+1 x
2
x–3 x–4
x < 3 or x > 9 3 15 < x < 5 13 , x ≠ 4
1 23 < x < 7, x ≠ 3 3 31–5 4 5 51–3 6 7
0 112– 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 63
Approximations for p
SLE 9: Investigate some of Research the following historical approximations for π and present your findings in
the approximations to p
which have been used. concise form.
1 3000 BC Egypt: The pyramids are built. The sides and heights of the pyramids
of Cheops and Sneferu at Giza are constructed in the ratio of 11:7. Hence the
ratio of one perimeter to 2 heights is 22:7. The value of π is approximately 
22
.
7
2 2000 BC Egypt: The Rhind Papyrus, the oldest mathematical text in existence,
gives the following rule for constructing a square having the same area as a
given circle:
Cut oneninth off the circle’s diameter and construct a square on the
remainder. Using this method, π is found to equal ( 16 2
 ) .
9
2 2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ 2
 =  ×  ×  .
π 2 2 2
In this and the next two series, examine how the approximation improves as the
number of terms is increased.
9 AD 1650 England: John Wallis uses a complicated and difficult method to
4 3 × 3 × 5 × 5 × 7 × 7 × 9 × 9…
obtain π from  = 
π 2 × 4 × 4 × 6 × 6 × 8 × 8…
2
a– b (a – b) a – b
2 Rationalise the denominator for  . 
2
a+ b a –b
2x – 5
3 Solve the inequation  > 0. x ∈ R, x ≠ −3 12 , x ≠ 2 12
2x + 7
12 + 2 35 = 7 + 5 + 2 7 × 5 , determine 12 + 2 35 .
Hence, determine 17 + 6 8 .
1
4
, m = 3, k = 4 5 If the integer points, n, and the points midway between them, n + 1 , are
2
mapped on a number line, how far away from the nearest of these points can
any point on the number line be?
Find an integer m such that  2 – 1 m  < 1 and an integer k such that
2 4
 5 – 1 k  < 1 .
2 4
Explain the significance of these results with respect to the topic of
approximation of irrationals to rationals. (Your response should not rely on
calculator computations.)
6 The most common way students learn to find the greatest common divisor of
1
7 +  g.c.d. = 225 two integers is to factorise both numbers into their prime factors and take the
1
1 +   common prime factors. For example, to find the greatest common divisor of
1 
3 +  45 024 and 5712 we can write:
1
1 + 
2 +  1
 45 024 = 25 × 3 × 7 × 67
5712 = 24 × 3 × 7 × 17
13
summary
The Real Number System
• The set of real numbers (R) is divided into two main sets: rational and irrational
numbers. These sets may be further divided into smaller subsets as illustrated on
the chart and Venn diagram below.
Real numbers R
Set notation
• Set notation is used when defining the Real Number System.
• The following symbols are useful when working with sets:
{ }‘set’
∈ ‘is an element of’
∉ ‘is not an element of’
⊂ ‘is a subset of’
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 67
Working with surds
• To simplify a surd, it should be written as a product of two factors, one of which is
the largest perfect square.
• Like surds may be added and subtracted; surds may need to be simplified before
adding and subtracting.
• Surds may be multiplied according to the rules:
a× b = ab
m a × n b = mn ab
• When a surd is multiplied by itself (squared), the result is the number under the
radical:
( a)2 = a
• Multiplication involving brackets:
1. The Distributive Law: a( b + c) = ab + ac
2. FOIL: ( a + b )( c + d ) = ac + ad + bc + bd
a
a ÷ b = 
b
a
= 
b
• Rationalising denominators:
1. If the denominator contains a surd, multiply both numerator and denominator by
the surd part of the denominator:
a a b
 =  × 
b b b
ab
= 
b
2. If the denominator is a sum or difference of surds, multiply both the numerator
and the denominator by the conjugate of the denominator:
1 1 a+ b
 =  × 
a– b a– b a+ b
a+ b
= 
a–b
68 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modulus
• The modulus (or absolute value) of a number is the magnitude of that number and
is always positive.
• The modulus of x is denoted by  x .
•  x  = −x if x < 0
= 0 if x = 0
= x if x > 0
Solving inequations
• Remember that if x > 0 then x is positive, and if x < 0 then x is negative.
• If a product of two factors is greater than 0 then both factors must be either positive
or negative.
• Likewise, if a product of two factors is less than 0 then only one of the factors must
be positive and the other must be negative,
• Organise your solution into two cases that will develop arguments for all possible
values.
• The two values that result for each case are values that should occur at the one time.
The graph you draw must be a combination of these two solutions for each case.
• Verify your solutions by choosing values that fall in each of the regions of your
graph.
• When you multiply or divide by a negative factor across an inequality sign,
remember to reverse the sign.
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 69
2 a Irrational, since equal to nonrecurring
and nonterminating decimal
E 5
2 For each of the following, state whether the number is rational or irrational and give the
reason for your answer: 1A
.
a 12 b 121 c 2 d 0.6 e 3 0.08
9
3 multiple choice
Which of the following statements is not correct?
1A
A 9
 ∉Q B 8
 ∉Q C 0
 ∉ Z+ D 3
– 125 ∈ Z − E (−5)2 ∈ Z +
81 4 4
4 multiple choice
Which. of the following statements regarding the given set of numbers,
1A
{5, 0.7, 64 , 21, 8 , 20 }, is correct?
A 5, 64 , 20 , ∈ Z +
B 8,
20 cannot be expressed as rational numbers.
.
C 5, 0.7 and 21 are the only rational numbers of the set.
D 64 , 8 and 20 cannot be expressed as rational numbers.
E None of the above.
5 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which they belong using Q, I, Z,
Z + and Z −. (Simplify first where possible.) 1A
3
1 4 15 15 8 2
a 4× –  – 0.2 Z − b  Z+ c –  ×  Q d  +  I
125 2 0.01 8 2 9 25
6 multiple choice
Which of the following fractions, 1 
 , 3 , 
5 1
,  , 2 , cannot be expressed as recurring
1B
17 13 12 5 3
decimals?
1 1 2 3 
A  , , B  , 5 , 2 C 3 
 , 5 D 1
 E 1 1
 3
,  , 
17 5 3 13 12 3 13 12 5 17 5 13
7 multiple choice
..
The recurring decimal 0.7 2 can be expressed as a fraction in its simplest form as:
1B
18 73 73 4 8
A  B  C  D  E 
25 100 99 5 11
70 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
9 multiple choice
1C Which of the following numbers of the given set,
{3 2 , 5 7 , 9 4 , 6 10 , 7 12 , 12 64 }, are surds?
A All of these
B 9 4 , 12 64
C 3 2 and 7 12 only
D 3 2 , 5 7 and 6 10 only
E 3 2 , 5 7 , 6 10 and 7 12
m 20 3 3
10 Which of 2m , 25m ,  ,  , m, 8m are surds
1C 16 m 10 a 2m ,
20
 ,
m
3 m, 3 8m
a if m = 4?
m 20
b if m = 8? b 25m ,  , 
16 m
11 multiple choice
1D
The expression 250 may be simplified to:
A 25 10 B 5 10 C 10 5 D 10 25 E 5 50
12 multiple choice
1D
The expression 392x 8 y 7 may be simplified to:
13 Simplify the following surds. Give the answers in the simplest form.
1D
a 4 648x 7 y 9 72x 3 y 4 2xy
2 25 – 14 x 2 y 5 xy
b –   x 5 y 11
5 64
14 multiple choice
1E
When expressed in its simplest form, 2 98 – 3 72 is equal to:
A –4 2 B –4 C –2 4 D 4 2 E None of these
1 1
b  64a 3 b 3 – 3 ab 16ab +  100a 5 b 5 3ab ab
2 4 5ab
Chapter 1 Number systems: the Real Number System 71
16 Determine the length of the unknown side, giving the answer in the simplest form and
specifying the appropriate unit. 1E
a b 16 a 5 m 1F
x b ( 17 – 4 6 ) cm
l c ( 26 – 4 2 ) m
10 cm d 22 cm
P = 44 – 8 6 cm
P = 80 m
c 6+2 3m d
c
y 11 3 cm
P = 64 + 4 3 – 8 2 m 11 cm
17 multiple choice
1F
When expressed in its simplest form, 9 12 × 3 5 is equal to:
A 27 60 B 15 54 C 18 5 D 54 15 E 6 15
b 10 24 × 6 12 720 2
19 multiple choice
1G
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, 12 ( 8 – 6 ) is equal to:
A 4 6–6 2 B 96 – 72 C 4 3–6 D 24 E 2 6–3 2
20 multiple choice
1G
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, ( 9 x 2 y – 7x ) ( 9 x 2 y + 7x ) is equal to:
A 9x 2 y – 7x 2 B 32y C 32x 2 y – 7x 2 D 81x 2 y – 49x 2 E 2x 2 y
21 multiple choice
1G
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, ( 2 8 – 7 ) is equal to:
2
A 39 – 16 14 B 39 – 8 14 C 25 – 8 14 D 39 E 25 – 16 14
22 multiple choice
8x 3 1H
When expressed in its simplest form,  is equal to:
32
x x x3 x3 x x x3
A  B  C  D  E 
2 4 2 4 4
72 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
23 multiple choice
1H When expressed in its simplest form,
6x 2 y 3 8xy
 ×  is equal to:
12x y 4 5 10x 2 y
10x 10 x x 10 x 10x
A  B  C  D  E 
25x 2 y 5x 2 y 5x 2 y 5xy 5x 2 y
24 Determine the length of the unknown side of a rectangle, given its area is 7 18 – 2 3 cm2
1H
and its width is 2 + 3 cm. ( 23 6 – 48) cm
25 multiple choice
1I When expressed in its simplest form with a rational denominator, 18
 is equal to:
63
2 2 14 7
A  B  C  D  E 2
7 7 14
7
26 Express the following with a rational denominator, giving the answer in the simplest form.
1I
7 56 – 3 126 5 7
 
4
32
27 Express the following with a rational denominator, giving answers in the simplest form.
1I Assume that a, b, x and y are positive real numbers.
5x 3 y x 5y 20x 5 y 3 9a 2 b
a   b  x2 y 2 c  3a
2
2 x 10xy b
28 multiple choice
1J 1
When expressed in its simplest form with a rational denominator,  is equal to:
3 8+ 5
3 8– 5 6 2– 5 3 8– 5 3 3 6 2– 5
A  B  C  D  E 
77 77 67 67 67
29 multiple choice
1J
If x = 11 – 3 then x 2 + 8x + 5 is equal to:
A 1 – 6 11 B 2 11 + 22 C 2 11 + 1 D 22 – 5 11 E 23
2323 – 594 14
30 Given that x = 2 7 – 3 2 find: 30 a 
1J 1 1 2277 – 606 14
50
35 multiple choice
1L
Which of the given values of x solve the equation  3 − 2x = 2?
A x= 1
B x= 5
 C x = 1 , 5
 D x = 2, 2
 E x=2
2 2 2 2 5
36 multiple choice
1L
Which of the given values of x solve the equation  x + 3  = 2x + 7?
A x = −4, −3 1 B x = −4, 1 1 C x = −3 1 D x = −1, −4 E x = −2
3 3 3
37 multiple choice
1L
Which of the following values of x solve the equation  x − 3  =  2x − 1 ?
A x = −2, 2
B x = −2, −1 C x = −2, 1 1 D x = 2 , 1 1 E x= 1

3 3 3 3 3
38 multiple choice
1M
Which values of x are a solution for the equation (x + 1)(x − 2) < 0?
A −1 < x < 2 B x < −1 or x > 2 C −1 < x < 0 D −1 < x < 1 E x>2
39 multiple choice
2 1M
Which values of x are a solution for  < 4?
x
A 0 < x < 1 B 0 < x < 1 C x < 0 or x > 3 D x < 0 or x > 1
 E x>1
4 2 2
40 multiple choice
x+1
1M
Which of the following values of x are a solution for  < 3?
x–1
A 1 <x<2 B x< 1 or x > 2 C 1 < x < 2 1 D x < 1, x > 2 1 E x>1
2 2 2 2
74 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2 An icecream cone with measurements as shown is completely filled with icecream, and has
a hemisphere of icecream on top.
27 cm
175 cm
In this chapter
2A Introduction to complex
numbers
2B Basic operations using
complex numbers
2C Conjugates and division
of complex numbers
2D Radians and coterminal
angles
2E Complex numbers in polar
form
2F Basic operations on complex
numbers in polar form
76 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 1
Using the imaginary number i, write a simplified expression for:
a – 16 b –5 .
THINK WRITE
a 1 Express the square root of −16 as the product of a – 16 = 16 × – 1
the square root of 16 and the square root of −1.
2
2 Substitute i 2 for −1. = 16 × i
3 Take the square root of 16 and i2. = 4i
b 1 Express the square root of −5 as the product of b –5 = 5 × –1
the square root of 5 and the square root of −1.
2
2 Substitute i2 for −1. = 5 × i
3 Simplify. =i 5
WORKED Example 2
Write down the real and imaginary parts of the following complex numbers, z.
a z = −3 + 2i b z = − 12 i
THINK WRITE
WORKED Example 3
Write i 8 + i 5 in the form x + yi where x and y are real numbers.
THINK WRITE
WORKED Example 4
Simplify z = i 4 − 2i 2 + 1 and w = i 6 − 3i 4 + 3i 2 − 1 and show that z + w = −4.
THINK WRITE
1 Replace terms with the lowest possible i 4 − 2i 2 + 1 = (i 2)2 − 2 × −1 + 1
powers of i (remember i 2 = −1). = (−1)2 + 2 + 1
=4
i − 3i + 3i 2 − 1 = (i 2)3 − 3(i 2)2 + 3 × −1 − 1
6 4
= (−1)3 − 3(−1)2 − 3 − 1
= −1 − 3 − 3 − 1
= −8
2 Add the two answers. z + w = i 4 − 2i 2 + 1 + i 6 − 3i 4 + 3i 2 − 1
z+w=4−8
z + w = −4
WORKED Example 5
Evaluate each of the following.
d Im 
1 – 3i – i 2 – i 3
a Re (7 + 6i) b Im (10) c Re (2 + i − 3i 3)
2
THINK WRITE
a The real part of the complex number a Re (7 + 6i) = 7
7 + 6i is 7.
c 1 Simplify 2 + i − 3i 3. c Re (2 + i − 3i 3) = Re (2 + i − 3i × i 2)
= Re (2 + i + 3i)
= Re (2 + 4i)
2 The real part is 2. =2
1 – 3i + 1 + i
d Im  = Im 
d Simplify the numerator of 1 – 3i – i 2 – i 3
1
2 2
1
– 3i – i 2 – i 3
.
2 = Im 
2 – 2i
2
2 Simplify by dividing the numerator by 2. 2(1 – i)
= Im 
2
= Im (1 − i)
3 The imaginary part is −1. = −1
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 79
remember
remember
1. The ‘imaginary number’ i has the property that i 2 = −1.
2. A complex number z is of the form z = x + yi where x, y ∈R.
3. The real part of z is x and is written as Re (z).
4. The imaginary part of z is y and is written as Im (z).
Introduction to
2A complex numbers
WORKED 1 Using the imaginary number i, write down expressions for:
Example
1 a – 9 3i b – 25 5i c – 49 7i d –3 3i
WORKED
5 Evaluate each of the following.
Example a Re (−5 + 4i) −5 b Re (15 − 8i) 15 c Re (12i) 0
5 d Im (1 − 6i) −6 e Im (3 + 2i) 2 f Im (8) 0
g Re (i 5 − 3i 4 + 6i 6) −9 h Im 4i 
9 – 5i 14 – 2i 7
 2
3
i3 – i + 2
 in the form x + yi, where x and y are real numbers. 4 − i
6 Write 3 – 
i2 – i4
7 multiple choice
a The value of Re (i + i 3 + i 5) is:
A 2 B −1 C 3 D 1 E 0
b The value of Im [i(2i 4 − 3i 2 + 5i)] is:
A 0 B −5 C 5 D 10 E 4
c The expression i + i − i + i − i + i simplifies to:
2 3 4 5 6
A i B 0 C i−1 D i+2 E −i
1+i+ +…+ i2 i 11
d If f ( i ) =  which one of the statements below is true?
4
A f(i) = 2 + i B Re [f(i)] = 5 C Im [f(i)] = − 1
4
D f(i) = 1 − i E f(i) = 0
n

8 If n is an even natural number show that ( – 1 ) 2 = i n . Check with your teacher.
80 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Complex numbers in
SLE 1: Solve quadratic
equations whose discriminant
is negative.
quadratic equations
In your junior mathematics studies you graphed quadratics and found the real roots
Equation A: y = x2 − 2x −3 of the expressions using the formula for the solution of a general quadratic
1 Roots are −1 and 3, hence
equation of the form ax2 + bx + c. Sometimes the values for a, b and c meant that
there are two xintercepts
at x = −1 and x = 3. The
the value under the radical sign was negative; that is, it had a negative discriminant
discriminant is positive (for example, – 16 ). You might have been told that this meant there were ‘no real
(b2 − 4ac = 16). roots’ for this quadratic. That was correct, but only half the answer. Follow the
2 (1, −4) steps below and you will hopefully develop a better understanding of the results
3 y you obtain.
2
y = x − 2x − 3
The following formulas are included for your assistance:
2
–b ± b – 4ac –b
−1 0 1 3
x =  , turning point occurs where x = 
2a 2a
−3 Step 1 Use the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation to find the roots
(1, −4)
of:
y = x2 − 2x − 3 ....................(A)
Equation B: y = x2 − 2x + 1 Interpret this result.
1 Root is 1, hence there is
one xintercept at x = 1. Step 2 Use the formula for the xcoordinate of the turning point and substitute
Discriminant is 0 this into the original quadratic to find the ycoordinate of this turning
(b2 − 4ac = 0). point.
2 (1, 0)
3
Step 3 Graph this quadratic equation using the information from steps 1 and 2.
y y = x2 − 2x + 1
Repeat steps 1–3 with the following quadratic equations. Note the effect of the
negative discriminant in equation (C).
y = x2 − 2x + 1 ..................................(B)
1 y = x2 − 2x + 2 ..................................(C)
0 1 x Graphically, we can see that there are no real values of x that satisfy the equation
x2 − 2x + 2 = 0.
Geometric representation
If z1 = x1 + y1i and z2 = x2 + y2i then z2 + z1 = (x2 + x1) + (y2 + y1)i. If a directed line
segment connects the origin (0 + 0i) to each of the points z1, z2 and z1 + z2, then the
addition of two complex numbers can be associated with standard methods of addition
of the directed line segments. Im (z)
The figure at right illustrates the situation for z2 + z1,
with, say, positive values for x1, x2, y1, y2 and x1 < x2 and
(y1 + y2) z1 + z 2
y1 < y2.
y2 z1
y1 z2
Note: The origin, z1, z2 and z2 + z1 form a parallelogram.
You will use this concept later in this course when you Re (z)
study vector addition. 0 x1 x2 (x1 + x2)
Geometric representation
Im (z)
If z1 = x1 + y1i and z2 = x2 + y2i then z2 − z1 = (x2 − x1)
+ (y2 − y1)i. If a directed line segment connects the
origin (0 + 0i) to each of the points z1, z2 and z2 − z1 y2 z2
then the subtraction of two complex numbers can also
be associated with standard methods of the addition of (y2 – y1) z1 z2 – z 1
directed line segments. The figure at right illustrates y1
the situation for z2 − z1, again with positive values for Re (z)
x1, x2, y1, y2 and x1 < x2 and y1 < y2. 0 x1 (x2 – x1) x2
82 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 6
For z = 8 + 7i, w = −12 + 5i and u = 1 + 2i, calculate:
a z+w b w−z c u − w + z.
THINK WRITE
a Use the addition rule for complex numbers. a z + w = (8 + 7i) + (−12 + 5i)
= (8 − 12) + (7 + 5)i
= −4 + 12i
b Use the subtraction rule for complex b w − z = (−12 + 5i) − (8 + 7i)
numbers. = (−12 − 8) + (5 − 7)i
= −20 − 2i
c Use both the addition rule and the c u − w + z = (1 + 2i) − (−12 + 5i) + (8 + 7i)
subtraction rule. = (1 + 12 + 8) + (2 − 5 + 7)i
= 21 + 4i
WORKED Example 7
If z = 3 + 5i, w = 4 − 2i and v = 6 + 10i, evaluate:
a 3z + w b 2z − v c 4z − 3w + 2v.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Calculate 3z + w by substituting values a 3z + w = 3(3 + 5i) + (4 − 2i)
for z and w. = (9 + 15i) + (4 − 2i)
2 Use the rule for adding complex numbers. = (9 + 4) + (15 − 2)i
= 13 + 13i
b 1 Calculate 2z − v by substituting values for b 2z − v = 2(3 + 5i) − (6 + 10i)
z and v.
2 Use the rule for subtraction of complex numbers. = 6 + 10i − 6 − 10i
= 0 + 0i
=0
c 1 Calculate 4z − 3w + 2v by substituting c 4z − 3w + 2v
values for z, w and v. = 4(3 + 5i) − 3(4 − 2i) + 2(6 + 10i)
2 Use the addition rule and the subtraction = 12 + 20i − 12 + 6i + 12 + 20i
rule to simplify. = 12 + 46i
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 83
Multiplication of two complex numbers
So far we have shown that complex numbers can be plotted on an Argand diagram;
adding and subtracting them is geometrically equivalent to adding and subtracting
directed line segments and multiplication by a positive constant is equivalent to
extending or shrinking the directed line segment without altering the direction.
What geometrical interpretation, if any, can be given to multiplication of two (or
more) complex numbers?
The multiplication of two complex numbers also results in a complex number.
If z = a + bi and w = c + di
then z × w = (a + bi)(c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi 2
= (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i (since i 2 = −1)
WORKED Example 8
If z = 6 − 2i and w = 3 + 4i express zw in standard form.
THINK WRITE
1 Expand the brackets. zw = (6 − 2i)(3 + 4i)
= 18 + 24i − 6i − 8i 2
2 Express in the form x + yi by substituting −1 for i 2 = 18 + 24i − 6i + 8
and simplifying the expression using the addition = 26 + 18i
and subtraction rules.
WORKED Example 9
Simplify (2 − 3i)(2 + 3i).
THINK WRITE
1 Expand the brackets. (2 − 3i)(2 + 3i) = 4 + 6i − 6i − 9i 2
2 Substitute −1 for i and simplify the expression. = 4 − 9 × −1
2
= 13
WORKED Example 10
Determine Re (z2w) + Im (zw2) for z = 4 + i and w = 3 − i.
THINK WRITE
1 Express z w in the form x + yi. z2w = (4 + i)2(3 − i)
2
= (16 + 8i + i 2)(3 − i)
= (16 + 8i − 1)(3 − i)
= (15 + 8i)(3 − i)
= 45 − 15i + 24i − 8i 2
= 53 + 9i
2 The real part, Re (z2w) is 53. Re (z2w) = 53
Continued over page
84 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
3 Express zw in the form x + yi.
2
zw2 = (4 + i)(3 − i)2
= (4 + i)(9 − 6i + i 2)
= (4 + i)(8 − 6i)
= 32 − 24i + 8i − 6i 2
= 38 − 16i
4 The imaginary part, Im (zw2), is −16. Im (zw 2) = − 16
5 Calculate the value of Re (z2w) + Im (zw 2) = 53 − 16
Re (z2w) + Im (zw2). = 37
4 Try this with some other complex numbers. Plot your original complex
numbers accurately and plot the product. Test your original hypothesis.
WORKED Example 11
Find the values of x and y that satisfy (3 + 4i)(x + yi) = 29 + 22i.
THINK WRITE
1 Write the lefthand side of the equation. LHS = (3 + 4i)(x + yi)
2 Expand the lefthand side of the equation. LHS = 3x + 3yi + 4xi + 4yi 2
3 Express the lefthand side in the form a + bi. LHS = (3x − 4y) + (4x + 3y)i
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 85
THINK WRITE
4 Equate the real parts and imaginary parts to 3x − 4y = 29 [1]
create a pair of simultaneous equations. 4x + 3y = 22 [2]
6 Add the two new equations and solve for x. Adding equations [3] and [4]:
25x = 175
x=7
7 Substitute x = 7 into equation [1] and solve Substituting x = 7 into equation [1]:
for y. 3(7) − 4y = 29
21 − 4y = 29
−4y = 8
y = −2
Multiplication by i
Let us examine the effect on z = x + yi after Im (z)
multiplication by i, i 2, i 3 and i 4.
z = x + yi iz x
iz = i(x + yi) = −y + xi z or i 4z
i 2z = −1z = −x − yi = −z
i 3z = i(i 2z) = y − xi = −iz –x –y –y x Re (z)
i 4z = i(i 3z) = x + yi = z
i 2z
The five points are shown on the complex plane
at right. i 3z
It is observed that multiplying z by i n, n ∈ N
produces an anticlockwise rotation of 90n degrees.
remember
remember
If z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c, d∈R then:
1. z + w = (a + c) + (b + d)i
2. z − w = (a − c) + (b − d)i
3. kz = ka + kbi, for k∈R
4. z × w = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i
5. z = w if and only if a = c and b = d.
(Note: ‘If and only if’ can be written as iff.)
86 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
f Im (z)
WORKED 4 Using z, w, u and v from question 2 express each of the following in the form x + yi.
Example
xample
a zw 7 − 23i b uv 4 + 45i c wu −50 − 13i
8
d zu 63 − 37i e u 2 −85 − 132i f u(wv) 176 − 61i
WORKED 5 Simplify the following. 111 + 33i
Example
xample
a (10 + 7i)(9 − 3i) b (3 − 4i)(5 + 4i) 31 − 8i c (8 − 2i)(4 − 5i) 22 − 48i
9
d (5 + 6i)(5 − 6i) 61 e (2i − 7)(2i + 7) −53 f (9 − 7i)2 32 − 126i
6 For z = −1 − 3i and w = 2 − 5i calculate z 2w. 14 + 52i
WORKED 7 Determine Re (z 2) − Im (zw) for z = 1 + i and w = 4 − i. −3
Example
xample
10 8 For z = 3 + 5i, w = 2 − 3i and u = 1 − 4i determine:
a Im (u 2) −8 b Re (w 2) −5
c Re (uw) + Im (zw) −9 d Re (zu) − Im (w 2) 35
e Re (z 2) − Re (zw) − Im (uz) −30 f Re (u2w) + Im (zw 2) −115
WORKED 9 Find the values of x and y that satisfy each of the following. 21 ,
Example
xample
 y = – 16
a (2 + 3i)(x + yi) = 16 + 11i x = 5, y = −2 b (5 − 4i)(x + yi) = 1 − 4i x =  
11 41 41
c (3i − 8)(x + yi) = −23 − 37i x = 1, y = 5 d (7 + 6i)(x + yi) = 4 − 33i
x = −2, y = −3
10 multiple choice
If z = 8 − 7i and w = 3 + 4i, then:
a Re (zw) is equal to:
a Im (z) A −4 B 4 C 5 D 11 E 52
4 3 + 4i
b Im (w ) + Re (z ) is equal to:
2 2
A 76 B 39 C 105 D 56 E −32
0 3 Re (z) c 3z − 2w is equal to:
A 30 − 13i B 30 − 29i C 18 − 29i D 24 − 13i E 18
11 If z = 2 + i and w = 4 − 3i then represent each of the following on an Argand diagram.
a z2 b zw c z+w d w−z
e Im (z) e 3z + w f 2w − 4z g (z + w) 2
h (w − z)3 Im (z)
3 z, i4z, –i2z
12 If z = 3 + 2i, represent each of the following on the same Argand diagram. iz, i5z
2
0 10 Re (z) z, iz, i 2z, i 3z, i 4z, i 5z, −iz, −i 2z 1
–3 –2 –1–10 1 2 3 Re (z)
–2 i3z, –iz
i2z –3
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 87
Conjugates and division of
complex numbers
The conjugate of a complex number
The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary
component.
Conjugates are useful because the multiplication (or addition) of a complex number
and its conjugate results in a real number.
Multiplication: zz– = (x + yi)(x − yi)
= x2 + y2
where x, y ∈ R, and x − yi and x + yi are conjugates. You will use this result when
dividing complex numbers.
Note: Compare this expression with the formula for the difference of two squares
(a − b)(a + b) = a 2 − b 2
Addition: z + z– = x + yi + x − yi
= 2x
WORKED Example 12
Write the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.
a 8 + 5i b −2 − 3i c 4+i 5
THINK WRITE
a Change the sign of the imaginary component. a 8 − 5i
b Change the sign of the imaginary component. b −2 + 3i
c Change the sign of the imaginary component. c 4–i 5
88 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 13
If z = 5 − 2i and w = 7 − i, show that z + w = z + w .
THINK WRITE
WORKED Example 14
2+i
Express  in standard form.
2–i
THINK WRITE
+ i (2
2 + i) (2 + i)
1 Multiply both the numerator and =  × 
2–i (2 – i) (2 + i)
denominator by the conjugate of 2 − i
to make the denominator real.
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 89
THINK WRITE
4 + 4i + i 2
2 Expand the expressions obtained in the = 

numerator and denominator. 4 – i2
4 + 4i – 1
3 Substitute −1 for i 2 and simplify the = 
4+1
expression.
3 + 4i
= 
5
3 4i
=  + 
5 5
WORKED Example 15
If z = 3 + 4i, determine z−1.
THINK WRITE
1 1 1
1 Write z–1 as a rational expression: z –1 =  z−1 =  = 
z z 3 + 4i
1 (3 – 4i)
2 Multiply both the numerator and denominator =  × 
(3 + 4i) (3 – 4i)
by the conjugate of 3 + 4i.
3 – 4i
= 
25
Write the expression in the form x + yi. 3 4i
3 =  – 
25 25
a – bi
This example shows that if z = a + bi then z –1 = 
.
a2 + b2
Complex numbers can be used to generate fractal patterns such as the ‘Julia Set’ shown.
90 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 16
2
If z = 3 + i and w =  , determine Im (4z − w).
4–i
THINK WRITE
2
1 Substitute for z and w in 4z − w. 4z − w = 4 ( 3 + i ) – 
4–i
2 Express 4z − w with a common
4(3 + i)(4 – i) – 2
denominator. = 
4–i
4 ( 13 + i ) – 2
= 
4–i
50 + 4i
= 
4–i
3 Remove i from the denominator by (50 + 4i) (4 + i)
=  × 
multiplying the numerator and (4 – i) (4 + i)
denominator by the conjugate of 4 − i.
196 + 66i
= 
17
196 66i
4 Simplify the expression so that it is in =  + 
the form x + yi. 17 17
66
5 State the imaginary component of Im (4z − w) = 
17
4z − w.
WORKED Example 17
Prove that z1z2 = z–1z–2.
THINK WRITE
1 When asked to ‘Prove’ you should not Let z1 = a + bi
use actual values for the pronumerals. z–1 = a − bi
State the general values of z1, z2, Let z2 = c + di and z–2 = c − di
z–1 and z–2.
z = –1 – 3i
WORKED 1 Write down the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.
Example
12
a 7 + 10i 7 − 10i b 5 − 9i 5 + 9i c 3 + 12i 3 − 12i
d 7 – 3i 7 + 3i e 2i + 5 5 − 2i f −6 − i 11 – 6 + 11 i
2 Graph the following complex numbers and their conjugates on an Argand diagram.
a 3−i b −1 + 3i c −4 − 5i z = – 4 + 5i Im (z)
4 – 3i −
4
– 5i 43
+ 18 2 + i 3 2 5 – 6 2
2 + 15
d  14
 23
 i e   i f   + i
5 + 2i 29 29
2 – 7i 53 53
5–i 2 7 7
2 + i 9 – 2i 7 + i
9 Write  +  +  in the form x + yi. 17
 + 92 i
1+i 2–i 1–i 2
( 2 + 5i ) 2 ( 5i – 2 )
10 Simplify  . –29
3 ( 4 + 7i ) – 2 ( 5 + 8i )
11 Determine the conjugate of (5 − 6i)(3 − 8i). −33 + 58i
92 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
12 multiple choice
If z = 5 − 12i, w = −9 − i and u = 15 − 6i, then:
a Re (z−1) is:
12 5 12i
A 5 B 12 C  D  E 
169 169 169
b Im ( zw ) is equal to:
A −33 B 103 C 113 D 70 E 0
c The expression 2z – w + 3u is equal to:
A 26 − 7i B 64 + 41i C 46 − 29i D 34 − 41i E −64 − 19i
14 Use the result zw = z × w to prove that z n = ( z )n. Check with your teacher.
eBook plus
15 If z = 4 + i and w = 1 + 3i Check with your teacher.
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 2.2
a show that  = 
Complex numbers and
z z
their conjugates w w
b generalise the result by letting z = a + bi and w = c + di.
z–1
20 If z = x + yi, find the values of x and y such that  = z + 2 . x = −1, y = ± 2
z+1
z+i
21 Find values for a and b so that z = a + bi satisfies  = i . a = − 12 , b = 1

z+2 2
WORKED 23 If z = 2 − 3i and w = 1 − 2i
Example
xample
17 a find i zz– 13 ii ww– 5
b show that iii z + w = z + w
iii zw = z– × w
iii 
z 
z
= 
eBook plus w w
i  ii 
Digital doc: 1 1 – 4 + 7i
c find d z2 + w2 −8 + 16i e z + zw −2 + 10i f z–1w–1 
WorkSHEET 2.1 z w 65
2

13
− 3

13
i 1 − 25 i
5
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 93
Graphics Calculator tip! Simple algebra of
complex numbers
Operations with complex numbers, finding the real and imaginary parts of a complex
number and finding the complex conjugate can be achieved with a graphics calculator.
You may not need to use a graphics calculator with simple complex numbers but it can
be useful in more complicated questions.
s
conjugate or F6 ( ) followed by F1 (ReP) for the
s
real part or F6 ( ) followed by F2 (ImP) for the
imaginary part as required. Type the complex
number within brackets and press EXE .
3. Alternatively, you can enter an expression, for
example (2 − 2i)(1 + 3i), and then press Æ
followed by ALPHA [A] to store the output as the
variable A. Press EXE .
4. To access the complex number options, first press
OPTN then F3 (CPLX). Remember that you can
move between the two rows of complex number
s
options by pressing F6 ( ).
(a) To find ( 2 – 2i ) ( 1 + 3i ) , press F4 (Conj). Key
in the variable assigned to the stored data (A in
this case) and press EXE .
(b) To find Re [ ( 2 – 2i ) ( 1 + 3i ) ], press F6 ( ) to access the second row of options
s
and then press F1 (ReP). Key in the variable assigned to the stored data and
press EXE .
(c) To find Im [ ( 2 – 2i ) ( 1 + 3i ) ], press F6 ( ) to access the second row of options
s
and then press F2 (ImP). Key in the variable assigned to the stored data and
press EXE .
Radian measure
A radian is the angle subtended by an arc the length of the radius of
a circle, as shown in the diagram on the right. r r
Because the circumference of a circle is given by c = 2π r, there are
2π radians in one complete circle. Taken in an anticlockwise θ
rotation from the positive end of the xaxis as shown, the common 1 radian r
angles have radian equivalents.
96 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
360° π
Therefore, if 2π radians = 360°, 1 radian =  g 57.3°. –
2
2π
So an arc of 2π r subtends an angle of 2π radians.
π
Coterminal angles π –
4 0
2π
Consider the angle 420°. This angle is made up of a full
revolution, 360° plus 60°. When using degrees as our unit
of angle measure, 420° and 60° are said to be coterminal
angles; that is, angles which differ by a multiple of 360°. π
3—
2
WORKED Example 18
Find the modulus of the complex number z = 8 − 6i.
THINK WRITE
Calculate the modulus by rule. z = 8 2 + ( –6 )2
Because it forms the hypotenuse of a right
= 100
angled triangle, the modulus is always
greater than or equal to Re (z) or Im (z). = 10
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 97
WORKED Example 19
If z = 4 + 2i and w = 7 + 6i, represent the position of w − z on an Argand diagram and
calculate w − z.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Im (z)
1 Calculate w − z. w − z = 7 + 6i − (4 + 2i) 6 w
= 3 + 4i 5 w–z
2 Represent it on an Argand 4 P
3
diagram as a directed line 2 z
segment OP. 1
O Re (z)
0 1234567
3 Use Pythagoras’ theorem to OP 2 = 3 2 + 4 2 = 25
determine the length of OP. OP = 5
So w – z = 5
WORKED Example 20
Represent z1 = 2 + 3i, z2 = 5 − 2i and z3 = −4 − 2i on the complex number plane and
calculate the area of the shape formed when the three points are connected by straight
line segments.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Show the connected points on the complex Im (z)
number plane. 4
3 z1
2
1
Re (z)
–4–3–2 –1 1 2 3 4 5
z3 –2 z2
–3
The argument of z
The argument of z, arg (z), is the angle measure Im (z)
ment anticlockwise of the positive Real axis.
In the figure at right, arg (z) = θ, where P(x, y)
y z = x + yi
y x y
sin θ =  and cos θ =  or tan θ = 
z z x
z
As seen in the previous section, for nonzero z
y
an infinite number of arguments of z exist since,
for a given z {θ :θ = ±2nπ, n ∈ N} also represents
θ
the position of point P in the figure at right x
0 Re (z)
because a clockwise or anticlockwise rotation x
consisting of multiples of 2π radians (or 360°)
merely moves P to its original position.
98 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Exact values
π 1 π 1 π
cos  =  , sin  =  , tan  = 1
4 2 4 2 4
π 1 π 3 π
cos  =  , sin  =  , tan  = 3
3 2 3 2 3
π 3 π 1 π 1
cos  =  , sin  =  , tan  = 
6 2 6 2 6 3
—
6
—
4
√2 1 2 √3
— —
4 3
1 1
WORKED Example 21
Find the Argument of z for each of the following in the interval (−π, π ].
a z = 4 + 4i b z=1− 3i
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Plot z. a Im (z)
2 Sketch the triangle that has sides in this
1:1 ratio. 4
π Re (z)
–
4 θ
4
√2 1
π
From the diagram
–
4 π
1 θ = 
4
π
∴ Arg (z) = 
4
3 This result can be verified using an Check:
y 4
inverse trigonometric ratio, θ = tan–1  . θ = tan–1 
x 4
π
θ = 
4
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 99
THINK WRITE/DRAW
b 1 Plot z. b Im (z)
2 Sketch the triangle that has sides in this
ratio. 1 Re (z)
θ
π
–
6
√3
2
√3
π
–
3 From the diagram
1 π
θ = 
3
π
∴ Arg (z) = − 
3
3 This result can be verified using an Check:
y – 3
inverse trigonometric ratio, θ = tan–1  . θ = tan–1 
x 1
π
θ = − 
3
WORKED Example 22
7π 5π
Convert each of the following into Arguments. a  b – 
4 2
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Sketch the angle. a Im (z)
π
7— Re (z)
4 – –4π
7π
2 Since the given angle is positive, Arg (z) =  – 2 π
subtract multiples of 2π until it lies in 4
π
the range (−π, π ]. = – 
4
b 1 Sketch the angle. b Im (z)
Re (z)
– –2π
– 5—2π
5π
2 Since the given angle is negative, add Arg (z) = –  + 2 π
multiples of 2π until it lies in the range 2
π
(−π, π ]. = – 
2
100 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 23
Find the modulus and Argument for each of the following complex numbers.
a 3+i b – 1 – 2i
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Plot z. a Im (z)
2 This triangle has sides 1
π
in the same ratio as –
6 θ Re (z)
2 √3
√3
π
– z = 2
π
3
1 Arg (z) = 
6
3 These results can be verified by Check:
2 2
calculating the modulus and Argument z = ( 3 ) + 1
by rule. = 4
=2
1 π
θ = tan–1  = 
3 6
b 1 Plot z. b Im (z)
1 Re (z)
α θ
√2
2 2
2 Find the modulus. z = ( –1 ) + ( – 2 )
z = 1+2
z = 3
y
3 The triangle in the third quadrant will α = tan–1 
x
be used to find α but the answer will be
finally expressed as θ and Arg (z). – 2
= tan–1 
–1
= 0.955
θ = −π + 0.955
4 Remember Arg (z) Arg (z) = −2.187
can be thought of as
the quickest way to
get to z. Arg (z)
z
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 101
Graphics Calculator tip! Modulus
Argument
and
Your graphics calculator is also able to calculate the modulus and Argument of a
complex number. Consider 3 + i and – 1 – 2i from Worked example 23.
Now that you are back in the calculator screen, press · to obtain the answer.
Note: You can convert degrees to radians by selecting Rad in the catalog.
▼
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 103
5. (a) The Argument of a stored complex number can
also be calculated. See the screen at right for the
Argument of the variable a where a is assigned to
( 2 – 2i ) ( 1 + 3i ) . The exact answer is shown.
(b) For the approximate answer, press / then ·.
The calculator is set to degrees for this example.
WORKED Example 24
Express each of the following in polar form, r cis q, where q = Arg (z).
a z=1+i b z=1− 3i
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Plot z. a Im (z)
1
Re (z)
1
π
4 The angle θ is in the range (−π, π ], which is θ = 
required. 4
π π
5 Substitute the values of r and θ in z= 2 cos  + 2 sin  i
z = r cos θ + r sin θ i = r cis θ. 4 4
π
z= 2 cis 
4
b 1 Sketch z. b Im (z)
1 Re (z)
θ
√3
THINK WRITE/DRAW
3 These results can be verified by rule: Check:
(a) Calculate the value of r. r= 1 + ( 3)2
r=2
3
(b) Determine the appropriate value of θ. tan θ = – 
1
=– 3
θ = – π
3
π π
z = 2 cos –  + 2 sin –  i
4 Substitute for r and θ in 3 3
z = r cos θ + r sin θ i and write in the form
r cis θ. π
= 2 cis – 
3
F6 ( ).
Argument.
For 1 + i, we can see that the modulus is
1.41421… (which is the decimal equivalent to
2 ) and the Argument is 45° (as the calculator is
set to degrees). For 1 – 3i , the modulus is 2 and
the Argument is −60°.
3
π– Re (z)
4
π π π π
2 Express 3 cis  in Cartesian form. 3 cis  = 3 cos  + 3 sin  i
4 4 4 4
3 Simplify using exact values from the 1 1
following triangle: = 3 ×  + 3 ×  i
2 2
π
–
=  +  i
4 3 3
√2 1 2 2
π 3
–
4 =  ( 1 + i )
1 2
s
of complex number options by pressing F6 ( ).
▼
show the complex number.
3. If the calculator is set to degrees with the Argument
entered as 45, the same result is obtained.
History of mathematics
ABRAHAM DE MOIVRE
(26 May 1667 – 27 November 1754)
–1 0 Re (z)
remember
remember
b i 1. The magnitude (or modulus or absolute value) of z = x + yi is the length of the
Im (z)
6 u+z
line segment from (0, 0) to z and is denoted by z, x + yi or mod z.
2. z = x 2 + y 2 and z z = z 2.
y y
0 1 Re (z) 3. arg (z) = θ where tan θ =  . ∴ θ = tan–1  .
x x
c i
Im (z) 4. z × i , n ∈ N produces an anticlockwise rotation of 90n degrees.
n
d z = −3 − 6i 3 5 e z= 3 + 2i 5 f z = (2 + i)
2
5
–7 z+w–u
WORKED 3 If z = 3 + i, w = 4 − 3i and u = −2 + 5i then: f i
Example
19 i represent each of the following on an Argand diagram Im (z)
z2
ii calculate the magnitude in each case. 6
a z − w ii 17 b u + z ii 37 c w − u ii 10
d w + z ii 53 e z + w − u ii 130 f z2 ii 10 0 8 Re (z)
WORKED 6 Find the Argument of z for each of the following in the interval (−π, π ]. (Give exact
Example
21
answers where possible.)
π π
5 a Im (z) a z = 3 + 2i 0.588 b z = 3 + i 6 c z = 5 − 5i – 4 d z = −4 + 8i 2.034
12 w
π
10
e z = −2 − 2 3i f z = 6 − 10i g z = 3i 2 h z= – 7 π
8
π
6 i z = −6i –  j z = 55 0
z
4 2
2
u π
– 2
–4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 Re (z) 3 −1.030
110 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED 8 Find the modulus and Argument of each of the following complex numbers.
Example
xample
23 a 3 − 3i 3 2, – π b −5 + 5i 5 2, 3π c −1 − 3i 2, – 2π d 4 3 + 4i 8, π
4 4 3 6
e −7 − 10i f 6i − 2 g ( 3 + i ) 2 4, π
3
149, – 2.182 2 10, 1.893 π
2 5 cis – 
WORKED 9 Express each of the following in the polar form, z = r cis θ, where θ = Arg (z). 3
Example
xample
24 a z = −1 + i b z = 6 + 2i c z = – 5 – 5i d z = 5 – 15i
3π
a 2 cis  3 1 1
4 e z = − 1 –  i f z = −  +  i
π π
2 π 2 2 4 4 2 3 π c 10 cis – 3
e cis –   cis  b 2 2 cis  4
 6
3 4 4
WORKED 10 Express each of the following complex numbers in Cartesian (or standard a + ib) form.
Example
xample
2π π 5π π
25 a 2 cis  b 3 cis  c 5 cis  d 4 cis − 
3 4 6 3
10
7π π a −1 + 3i
e 7 cis −  f 8 cis  g 3 cis π
4 2 3 2
b  (1 + i )
2
11 multiple choice 5
c  ( − 3 + i )
If z = 3 − 50i and w = 5 + 65i, the value of z + w is: 2
A 64 B 15 C 17 D 225 E 289 d 2–2 3 i
14
12 multiple choice e  (1 + i )
2
The perimeter of the triangle formed by the line segments connecting the points f 8i
2 − 4i, 14 − 4i and 2 + i is: g – 3
A 13 B 30 C 10 D 17 E 25
13 multiple choice
The Argument of 4 3 – 4i is:
π π 5π π π
A  B  C  D –  E – 
6 3 6 6 3
14 multiple choice
In polar form, 5i is:
π 5π π
A cis  B cis 5π C cis  D 5 cis 5π E 5 cis 
2 2 2
15 multiple choice
7π
The Cartesian form of 3 cis –  is:
6
1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 3 1
A  +  i B −  +  i C −  +  i D −  +  i E −  –  i
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 111
Basic operations on complex numbers
in polar form
Addition and subtraction
In general there is no simple way to add or subtract complex numbers given in the polar
form r cis θ. For addition or subtraction, the complex numbers need to be expressed in
Cartesian form first.
WORKED Example 26
π 5π
Express 5 cis  ¥ 2 cis  in the form r cis θ where θ ∈ (−π, π].
4 6
THINK WRITE/DRAW
π 5π π 5π
1 Simplify using the multiplication rule 5 cis  × 2 cis  = ( 5 × 2 ) cis  + 
4 6 4 6
zw = r1r2 cis (θ + φ) (see part 4 on
13 π
page 111). = 10 cis 
12
2 Sketch this number. Im (z)
—π
13
12 Re (z)
π
–11—
12
13 π 11 π
Subtract 2π from θ to express the 10 cis  = 10 cis – 
3 12 12
answer in the required form.
WORKED Example 27
5π π
Express z1z2 in Cartesian form if z 1 = 2 cis  and z 2 = 6 cis –  .
6 3
THINK WRITE
5π π
1 Use z1z2 = r1r2 cis (θ1 + θ2). z1z2 = 2 cis  × 6 cis – 
6 3
= ( π π
2 × 6 ) cis 5 – 
6 3
π
= 2 3 cis 
2
π π
2 Write the result in standard form. = 2 3 cos  + 2 3 sin  i
2 2
= 2 3 × 0 + 2 3 × 1i
= 2 3i
WORKED Example 28
If z = 5 3 + 5i and w = 3 + 3 3i , express the product zw in polar form.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Sketch z. Im (z)
5
θ Re (z)
5 √3
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 113
THINK WRITE/DRAW
2 Write z in polar form. Use the special Let z = r 1 cis θ1.
triangle below: r1 = 5 × 2 = 10
π
π
θ1 = 
–
6 6
2
√3
π
–
3
1
The ratio of sides in z is 5 times that of
the sides in this triangle.
3 Verify this by rule if you wish. Alternatively:
r1 = (5 3)2 + 52 = 10
5 π
θ = tan–1  , so θ 1 = 
5 3 6
π
Therefore z = 10 cis 
6
4 Sketch w. Im (z)
The ratio of sides in w is 3 times that of
the sides in the special triangle shown
in step 2.
3 √3
θ Re (z)
3
WORKED Example 29
π 5π
Express 10 cis –  ÷ 5 cis  in the form r cis θ where θ ∈ (−π, π ].
3 6
THINK WRITE/DRAW
π 5π π π
1 Simplify using the division rule. (See 10 cis –  ÷ 5 cis  = 2 cis –  – 5
3 6 3 6
part 4 on page 111.)
7π
= 2 cis – 
6
2 Sketch this number. Im (z)
2
π
–π
5—
6 6 Re (z)
– 7—6π
5π
3 State θ, the principal Argument. Arg (z) = 
6
5π
4 State the result in polar form. Arg ()z = 2 cis 
6
WORKED Example 30
Use Pascal’s Triangle to expand (2  3i)3.
THINK WRITE
1 Use the third row of Pascal’s Triangle (2 − 3i)3
to expand (1 3 3 1). = 1(23) + 3(2)2(−3i) + 3(2)(−3i)2 + (−3i)3
Use brackets to keep the negative sign of
the second term.
2 Simplify the expression. = 8 − 36i + 54i2 − 27i3
= 8 − 36i − 54 + 27i
= −46 − 9i
Negative powers of z
1 1
Your earlier studies have shown that z–1 =  . Similarly, z–3 = 3 .
z z
WORKED Example 31
Evaluate (3  i)4.
THINK WRITE
1 First find the expansion with a positive (3 − i)4
power. Use the fourth row of Pascal’s = 34 + 4(3)3(−i) + 6(3)2(−i)2 + 4(3)(−i)3 + (−i)4
Triangle to expand (1 4 6 4 1).
(Use brackets to keep the negative sign = 81 − 108i − 54 + 12i + 1
with the second term.)
Fractional powers of z
Fractional powers of complex numbers generally follow the same rules as with real
numbers.
p
 q p
zq = z 1
2
Our discussion here will deal only with the square root of z, where z = z .
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 117
WORKED Example 32
Express 3 + 4i in standard form.
THINK WRITE
1 Let 3 + 4i be a complex number such Let 3 + 4i = a + bi
as (a + bi), where a, b ∈ R.
History of mathematics
W I L L I A M R O WA N H A M I LT O N ( 1 8 0 5 – 1 8 6 5 )
During his life . . . In 1833 Hamilton further
Charles Darwin developed his theory developed his work on complex
of evolution. numbers and in 1843 he released
Charles Babbage developed the what he considered to be his
first automatic digital computer. greatest discovery — the algebra
of quaternions. With these
Gregor Mendel laid the
ordered sets of four numbers,
mathematical foundation for the
magnitude and direction in
science of genetics.
3dimensional space could be
Sometimes considered the second determined. The fact that
greatest mathematician of the English multiplication of quaternions is
speaking world, after Sir Isaac Newton, not commutative led to the
William Hamilton was born in Dublin, Ireland, development of the first ‘ring’ in which
on 3 August 1805. Even the fact that Hamilton the commutative property does not hold.
did not attend school before he entered college This inspiration came to him while he was
did not deter his thirst for knowledge. By the crossing the Brougham Bridge in Dublin and
age of three he was skilled at reading and he left the inscription i2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = −1
arithmetic, by the age of five he read and in a stone in the bridge. A stamp featuring
translated Latin, Hebrew and Greek, and by the these quaternions was issued in Ireland in
age of 14 he could speak 14 languages. 1983.
By the age of 21 he published a paper entitled His work also led to the development of the
‘A Theory of Systems of Rays’, introducing and concepts of vectors, scalars and tensors, which
developing concepts that created the field of you will encounter later in your studies.
mathematical optics. Propelled by the success of Plagued throughout his life with alcoholism,
this work, at 22 he was unanimously voted into he died in 1865.
the chair of the professor of astronomy at Trinity
College (Dublin), even though he was still an Research
undergraduate and had not applied for the 1. Find out more about quaternions.
position. 2. Research the notion of ‘rings’.
remember
remember
1. If z1 = r1 cis θ1 and z2 = r2 cis θ2, then:
z1 × z2 = r1r2 cis (θ1 + θ2)
z r
1 = 1 cis (θ1 − θ2).
z2 r2
2. A complex number zn = (a + bi)n can be expanded using Pascal’s Triangle to
generate the coefficients of each term.
1
3. Negative powers of z: z –n = n
z p

q q p
4. Fractional powers of complex numbers: z = z
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 119
Basic operations on complex
2F numbers in polar form
WORKED 1 Express each of the following in the form r cis θ where θ ∈ (−π, π ].
Example
26 π π 3π
a 2 cis  × 3 cis  6 cis 
4 2 4
2π π π
b 5 cis  × 4 cis –  20 cis 
3 3 3
3π π
6 5 cis – 
c 6 cis  × 5 cis π 4
4
5π π 2π
d 3 cis –  × 2 cis –  6 cis 
6 2 3
7 π × 2 5π π
e 7 cis – 
 cis  2 7 cis – 
6
12 12
WORKED
Example 2 Express the resultant complex numbers in question 1 in standard form.
2 a –3 2+ 3 2 i
27
b 10 + 10 3 i
WORKED 3 Express the following products in polar form. c 3 10 – 3 10 i
Example
5π
28 a (2 + 2i)( 3 + i) 4 2 cis  3 2
d – 6 +  i
12 2 2
b ( 3 − 3i)(2 3 − 2i) 8 3 cis – π e 21 – 7 i
2
π
c (−4 + 4 3 i)(−1 − i) 8 2 cis – 
12
WORKED 4 Express each of the following in the form r cis θ where θ ∈ (−π, π ].
Example
5π π
29 a 12 cis  ÷ 4 cis  3 cis π
6 3 2
3π π 11 π
b 36 cis  ÷ 9 cis –  4 cis 
4 6 12
3 π
c 20 cis – π π
 ÷ 5 cis –  2 cis – 
10

2 5
π 3 6 3 6
5 a i 3 3 cis  ii  +  i
4π 11 π 3 π
2 2 cis – 
d 4 3 cis  ÷ 6 cis  14
4 2 2
7 14 b i 16 cis π ii −16
c i 9 cis π ii −9
7 π 5π 7 π
3 5 cis – 
3 2
e  ÷ 2 10 cis   cis  3π
12 6 4 12 d i 32 cis  ii – 16 2 + 16 2i
4
3π π
WORKED 5 If z = 3 cis  and w = 2 cis –  then express each of the following in:
Example 4 4
30 i polar form ii standard form.
3
a z b w4 c z4 d w5
WORKED 6 If z = 1 − i and w = – 3 + i , write the following in standard form.
Example
a z−4 − 4 b w−3 − 8 i z−3 − 4 + 4 i
1 1 1 1
31 c
3 1
d w−5  –  i z3 f z2w3 16
64 64
e 4 0.171 – 0.046i
w
120 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
( 3 – i )6
8 Write 3 in the form x + yi. 1
( 2 – 2 3i )
9 multiple choice
π π
a 5 cis –  × 8 cis –  is equal to:
3 6
A 6 2i B – 2 10i C –6 3 D −6i E 6 6
b If z = ( 6 + 2 ) + ( 6 – 2 ) i then 2z –3 is:
A 1+i B 2i C 1
 (1 − i) D 2+i E –1 – 2i
64
w4
c If z = –1 – 3i and w = 2 + 2i then 3 is equal to:
z
A −4 + 4i B 2 3 C 2 D −4i E −8
3π π z6 8 π
, – 
10 If z = 2 cis  and w = 3 cis  , find the modulus and the argument of 4 . 9 6
4 6 w
11 If z = 4 + i and w = −3 − 2i, determine (z + w)9. 16 − 16i
π 3π π
13 If z 1 = 5 cis – 2 , z 2 = 2 cis  and z 3 = 10 cis  , find the modulus and
5 8 12
z 12 × z 23 2, – 
π
the argument of 
4
. 5 120
z3
eBook plus
WORKED 14 Express each of the following in standard form:
Example
xample
32 a 5 + 12i ±(3 + 2i) b 5 – 12i ±(3 − 2i) Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 2.2
c 2 + 2i ±( 1 + 2 + – 1 + 2 i ) d 3 – 4i ±(2 − i)
0 z1
–2
—– π
Re (z)
3 As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter the equation z2 = 1 has two
solutions, z = ±1, whereas the equation z = 1 has only one solution, z = 1. The
3
z3
z1 = 1 = cis 0 2π 2π
equation z3 = 1 has 3 solutions, z = 1, cis  and cis −  .
2π 3 3
z2 = −1 + 3 i = cis 
3
Graph these solutions on an Argand diagram. Express all solutions in both
2π
z3 = −1 − 3 i = cis –  rectangular and mod–arg form.
3
2 2
4 Let z = x + yi. Therefore  z  = x + y , and  z 2 = x2 + y2, where this is the
general equation of a circle, of radius  z , about the origin. Graph this circle and
fully label the path of the rotating z as it moves about the origin. Therefore,
what is the meaning of the statement  z  < x + yi? Sketch  z  < 4 and  z  > 1.
5 Research the life of William Rowan Hamilton and his contribution to the study
of complex numbers.
6 Research the area of mathematics called fractals. You will investigate this
fascinating area in more detail later in your studies.
summary
Introduction to complex numbers
• We define the ‘imaginary number’ i as having the property that i 2 = −1.
• A complex number z = x + yi with x, y ∈ R and C = {z: z = x + yi, x, y ∈ R} defines
the set of complex numbers.
• The real part of z is x and is written as Re (z).
• The imaginary part of z is y and is written as Im (z).
Basic operations using complex numbers
• If z and w are two complex numbers such that z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c,
d ∈ R then:
1. z = w if and only if (i.e. iff) a = c and b = d
2. z + w = (a + c) + (b + d)i
3. z − w = (a − c) + (b − d)i
4. kz = ka + kbi, for k ∈ R
5. z × w = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i.
Conjugates and division of complex numbers
• If z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c, d ∈ R then:
1. The conjugate z of z is z = a − bi.
2. z. z = a2 + b2.
z ac + bd (
bc – ad )i
3.  = 
2 2
+ 2 2
w c +d c +d
Radians and coterminal angles
• A radian is the angle subtended by an arc of the radius of a circle. That is, an arc of
2πr subtends an angle of 2π radians.
• 2π radians = 360°. 1 radian ≈ 57.3°.
• Coterminal angles differ by a multiple of 360°.
The polar form of complex numbers
• The magnitude (modulus or absolute value) of z = x + yi is the length of the line
segment from (0, 0) to z. It is denoted by z, x + yi or mod z.
• z = x 2 + y 2 and z z = z 2 .
• The argument of z, arg (z), is the angle measurement anticlockwise of the positive
y
Real axis and arg (z) = θ where θ = tan–1 x .
• z = x + yi can be expressed in polar form as z = r cos θ + r sin θi = r cis θ.
• Arg (z) is the angle θ in the range −π < θ ≤ π and is called the principal argument.
Basic operations on complex numbers in polar form
• If z1 = r1 cis θ1 and z2 = r2 cis θ2, then:
1. z1 × z2 = r1r2 cis(θ1 + θ2)
z r
2. 1 = 1 cis(θ1 − θ2)
z2 r2
• A complex number zn = (a + bi)n can be expanded using Pascal’s Triangle to
generate the coefficient of each term.
1
• z−n = n
z
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 123
CHAPTER
review
Questions 1 and 2 refer to the complex number z = 2 5 – 4i .
1 multiple choice
2A
The real and imaginary parts of z respectively are:
A 2 5 and 4 B 2 5 and −4 C 4 and 2 5 D −4 and 2 5 E 2 5 and −4i
2 multiple choice
2A
The Argand diagram which correctly represents z is:
A Im (z) B Im (z) C Re (z)
4 z
–4 z –4 z
D Re (z) E Im (z)
4 z z
2 5
0 0
2 5 Im (z) –4 Re (z)
3 Simplify i 6 − i 3 (i 2 − 1). −1 − 2i
2A
Questions 4 and 5 refer to the complex numbers u = 5 − i and v = 4 + 3i.
4 multiple choice
2B
The expression 2u − v is equal to:
A 1 − 4i B −3 − 7i C 6 − 5i D 5 + 8i E 14 + i
5 multiple choice
2B
The expression uv is equal to:
A 9 + 2i B 20 − 3i C 20 + 3i D 15 − 4i E 23 + 11i
6 multiple choice
2B
If z = 5 − 12i, decide which statement is true concerning −iz.
A −iz = 13
B −iz = 12 − 5i
C The point z is rotated 90° clockwise.
D Re (−iz) = 0
E Im (−iz) = −i
124 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
9 multiple choice
2C
Im  is equal to:
1 + 2i
1–i
A 2 B − 1 C 3
 D 2
 E −2
2 2 3
10 multiple choice
2C
If z = 3i and w = 4 − i then z w is equal to:
A 12 + 3i B 12 − i C 7 + 3i D 12 − 3i E z = 4 − 2i
11 multiple choice
2C
2i 3
The expresion  –  simplifies to:
1+i 2–i
1 2 1 3
A –  + i B 3 + 7i C  –  i D 4 − 2i E 3−i
5 5 4 4
z 1
 ( 12 – 14i )
12 If z = 6 − 2i and w = 5 + 3i, express  in the form a + bi, a, b ∈ R. 
2C w 17
15 multiple choice
2D Of the following pairs of angles, the pair that is coterminal is:
π 9π 3π 5π
A 40°, 220° B  ,  C 135°, 435° D  ,  E 180°, 360°
4 4 2 2
16 multiple choice
2E Arg (2 − 2i) is equal to:
π 3π π
A π B  C  D –  E 2π
4 4 4
17 multiple choice
2E The polar form of −3 + 3i is:
π 3π 3π π 5π
A 3 2 cis  B 3 2 cis  C 3 cis  D 3 cis –  E 3 2 cis 
4 4 4 4 4
3 π
18 If z = −7 − 7i, express z in polar form. 7 2 cis – 

2E 4
Chapter 2 Number systems: complex numbers 125
19 multiple choice
2E
How many degrees apart are two consecutive roots of z8 = 1 on the unit circle?
A 180 B 90 C 135 D 225 E 45
20 multiple choice
π π
2F
If z1 = 10 cis  and z2 = 5 cis –  then z1z2 in polar form is:
4 6
π 5π π π E 2 cis – 
D 15 cis – 
5 π
A 50 cis  B 15 cis  C 2 cis  12 12

12 12 12
21 multiple choice
3π π 2F
In standard form, 12 2 cis  ÷ 3 cis –  is equal to:
4 2
A 4 + 4i B −4 − 4i C 4 − 4i D −4 + 4i E 36 − 36i
2 Let u = 1 – i.
a i Find u u . 2
ii Find Arg u + Arg(2 u ). 0
b Let z = x + yi, x, y ∈ R, and z – u  = z – 2u.
Find the value of x when y = 0. x = 3
126 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3
syllabus reference
Core topic:
Matrices and applications
In this chapter
3A Operations with matrices
3B Multiplying matrices
3C Powers of a matrix
3D Multiplicative inverse and
solving matrix equations
3E The transpose of a matrix
3F Applications of matrices
3G Dominance matrices
128 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction to matrices
• definition of a matrix as Four towns are connected by roads as shown in the figure. There is one road connecting
data storage and as a
mathematical tool A and B, two roads connecting A and C and so on. This information may be rep
• dimension of a matrix resented as shown in the table.
• matrix operations — addition
and subtraction, transpose, To
multiplication by a scalar,
multiplication by a matrix
• inverse of a matrix B A B C D
• solution of simple matrix
equations
• definition and properties of A A 0 1 2 0
the identity matrix
• singular and nonsingular D B 1 0 0 1
matrices From
• applications of matrices in
both liferelated and purely C
C 2 0 0 3
mathematical situations
D 0 1 3 0
If the headings at the top and side of this display are removed, an array of numbers
only is left:
0 1 2 0
1 0 0 1
2 0 0 3
0 1 3 0
The matrix above is a 4 × 4 matrix as it has 4 rows and 4 columns. We say the order
of the matrix is 4 by 4.
2 0
The matrix 1 – 4 is a 3 × 2 matrix because it has 3 rows and 2 columns. Note the
–1 2
square brackets used to enclose the array.
A matrix with m rows and n columns is called an m × n matrix. We say the order
of the matrix is m × n. The dimensions of a matrix are always given as the number
of rows multiplied by the number of columns.
The elements of the matrix are referred to by the row and then by the column pos
ition. In the 3 × 2 matrix above, the row 1, column 1 element is 2, the row 3, column 1
element is −1 and the row 1, column 2 element is 0.
Chapter 3 Matrices 129
We often use capital letters as symbols for matrices. Thus we may write
2 0
A= 1 –4
–1 2
a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 … a 1n
a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 … a 2n
That is, A = a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 … a 3n , depending on the order of the matrix
. . . . ... .
. . . . ... .
. . . . ... .
a m1 a m2 a m3 a m4 … a mn
where A is an m × n matrix.
The row 1, column 1 element is a11.
The row 3, column 1 element is a31 and so on.
WORKED Example 1
For each of the following give the order of the matrix, if it exists, and where possible write
down the elements in row 2, column 1 and row 1, column 3.
2 5 –1
A= 3 6 B= 1 2 3 C = –2 D= 5 0 2
–1 –2 –3 6
4 7 –3
THINK WRITE
1 A has 3 rows of numbers and 2 columns A is a 3 × 2 matrix.
of numbers.
2 B has 2 rows and 3 columns. B is a 2 × 3 matrix.
3 C has 3 rows and 1 column. C is a 3 × 1 matrix.
4 D is not a rectangular array of numbers D is not a matrix.
as it does not have all positions filled.
5 The row 2, column 1 element is the
number in the second row and the first Row 2, Row 1,
column. column 1 column 3
Matrix element element
6 The row 1, column 3 element is the
number in the first row and the third A 3 —
column.
7 In A and C there is no row 1, column 3 B –1 3
element since there is no third column
C –2 —
in either matrix.
130 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
To find the total number of first, second and third places for each house, the swimming,
athletics and sports results may be added. The elements in corresponding positions are
added to give the total number of first, second and third places for each house:
60 63 51
Adding the elements for each event results in the following matrix: 71 64 74
64 69 71
69 72 68
Addition of matrices is performed by adding corresponding elements.
Chapter 3 Matrices 131
Subtraction
The subtraction of matrices is also performed by the usual rules of arithmetic on
corresponding elements of the matrices. It follows that:
WORKED Example 2
If A= 1 2 B= 1 4 C= 2 2 0
34 23 220
find, if possible:
a A+B b A−B c B − C.
THINK WRITE
= 26
57
= 0 –2
1 1
Multiplication by a scalar
Consider the matrix B = 1 4
23
To find 3B we could use repeated addition: 3B = B + B + B
= 14 + 14 + 14
23 23 23
= 3 12
6 9
3B could have been calculated more efficiently by multiplying each element of B by 3.
132 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Thus 3B = 3 1 4 = 3 × 1 3 × 4 = 3 12
23 3×2 3×3 6 9
The number 3 in the term 3B is called a scalar because it is a real number. Terms
such as 3B refer to scalar multiplication of matrices.
When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is multiplied
by the scalar.
WORKED Example 3
If A = 2 – 3 and B = 3 3 find:
4 1 –3 –2
a 2A b 5B c 2A + 5B d 4(A + B) e 2(B − A).
THINK WRITE
= 4 –6
8 2
= 15 15
– 15 – 10
= 19 9
–7 –8
d 1 Add A and B inside the brackets. d 4(Α + Β) = 4 2 – 3 + 3 3
4 1 –3 –2
=4 5 0
1 –1
=2 1 6
–7 –3
Equality of matrices
This leads to an important principle about the equality of matrices.
Two matrices are equal if they are of the same order and all corresponding
WORKED Example 4
Solve the following matrix equations.
a 5A = 50 35 b P+ 3 2 = 6 9 c 2B – 1 2 – 3 = 3 4 7
– 15 20 15 –2 4 20 1 –2 6 –5
THINK WRITE
Α= 1

50 35
5
– 15 20
THINK WRITE
Matrix operations can also be performed using a graphics calculator. However, tips on
how to do this appear later in the chapter and in Chapter 5, as you should have first
practised performing these operations manually.
remember
remember
1. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.
2. An m × n matrix has m rows and n columns.
3. The numbers in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix.
4. Elements are referred to by the row and column position. For example, ai j
refers to the ‘ith’ row and the ‘jth’ column of matrix A.
5. Addition of matrices is performed by adding corresponding elements.
6. Subtraction of matrices is performed by subtracting corresponding elements.
7. Addition and subtraction of matrices can be performed only if the matrices are
of the same order.
8. When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is
multiplied by that scalar.
9. Two matrices are equal if they are of the same order and all corresponding
elements are equal.
Chapter 3 Matrices 135
1
1
E
D
C
B
A
Matrix
6 5 02
A = – 5 2 , B = 5 , C = 1 8 10 20 , D = 4 4 4 , E = 1 1 8
84 444
3 –6
2 If A = – 2 3 , B = 5 0 and C = 1 – 3 , calculate:
2, 1
WORKED
—
1
4
5
8
Example
47 –4 2 2 6 –2 –1
33 2 –7 3 6 –3
09 a A+B b A−B c B+C d C−A
85 –2 8
1, 3
10
—
—
2
4
WORKED 3 Using the matrices A, B and C from question 2 find:
Example
–4 6 3 a 2A b 2A − B c 2A + 3B d 3(A + B) e 2A + 3B − 4C
8 14 –9 6 11 6 9 9 7 18
4 multiple choice
12 12 – 4 20 0 27 – 12 – 4
eBook plus
1 23
Digital doc: Use A = –2 –1 4 , B = 5 –4 , C = –4 3 , D = 2 34 1 and
SkillSHEET 3.1 1 3 27 0 –2 7 5
Operations 6 30
with matrices
0 5 –1
E = 2 3 9 to answer questions a to e.
6 4 –2
a The order of D is:
A 3×2 B 4×2 C 2×4 D 3×3 E 2×2
5 a
2 0 14
b Which one of the following cannot be calculated?
40 0 A A+E B B+C C 4D D A+B E 6(E − A)
6 0 18 c 2A + 3E is equal to:
b 3 16 7 17 2 4 15 – 2 2 16 3 2 19 3
0 8 0
0 10 16 A – 2 3 30 B 0 2 13 C 6 3 8 D – 2 7 35 E 2 7 35
0 12 0 30 17 – 6 12 7 – 2 9 7 2 30 18 – 6 30 18 – 6
c
2 8 14 d 3C − 4B is equal to:
4 10 16
A – 32 25 B 8 –7 C – 31 0 D 10 E – 32 – 7
6 12 18
2 9 10 33 5 19 01 5 9
d
3 4 21 e The element e3 2 is equal to:
65 8
A 9 B 4 C 3 D 7 E −1
9 6 27
e
4 0 28 147 1 –4 7
80 0 5 If C = 2 5 8 and D = 2 – 5 – 8 , calculate:
12 0 36
369 3 –6 9
f
–1 4 –7 a C+D b C−D c 2C d 2C + D e 2(C + D) f −D
–2 5 8
–3 6 –9
136 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2 –2 0 4 2 –6
c 3M – – 2 0 3 = – 1 0 0 –1 0 1 d
6 –6 – N = 7 6 – 1 – 12
4 6 –1 2 3 –2 2 3 –1
3 –3 5 –2 –2 –1
7 Explain why the following matrix equation has no solution. Different orders
2A + 48 = 513
–4 0 –2 5 2
8 Write down the matrix representing the following maps in the form:
Number of
routes to
Number
of routes
from
82 54 9 A mathematically inclined student has decided to keep a record of her test results in
75 68 matrix form. Her results so far are Maths B tests: 82%, 75% and 91%; Maths C tests:
91 82 54%, 68% and 82%.
Write these results in a 3 × 2 matrix.
12 Write down any 2 × 2 matrices called A, B and C. Check if the following are true.
a A + B = B + A True
b (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) True
c A − B = B − A False
d 2A + 2C = 2(A + C) True
Chapter 3 Matrices 137
Multiplying matrices
The sports results at Mathglen State High School were:
5
To calculate the total points for each house, this matrix is multiplied by 3 since 5
points are awarded for first, 3 for second and 1 for third.
1
60 63 51 540
5
We can also write A × B = C, where A = 71 64 74 , B =
3 and C =
621
64 69 71 598
1
69 72 68 629
a 11 a 12 a 13 b 11 b 12 b 13
If A = a 21 a 22 a 23 and B = b 21 b 22 b 23
a 31 a 32 a 33 b 31 b 32 b 33
then
138 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
a 11 × b 11 + a 12 × b 21 + a 13 × b 31 a 11 × b 12 + a 12 × b 22 + a 13 × b 32 a 11 × b 13 + a 12 × b 23 + a 13 × b 33
AB = a 21 × b 11 + a 22 × b 21 + a 23 × b 31 a 21 × b 12 + a 22 × b 22 + a 23 × b 32 a 21 × b 13 + a 22 × b 23 + a 23 × b 33
a 31 × b 11 + a 32 × b 21 + a 33 × b 31 a 31 × b 12 + a 32 × b 22 + a 33 × b 32 a 31 × b 13 + a 32 × b 23 + a 33 × b 33
The rows of the first matrix are multiplied by the columns of the second matrix.
The sum of the products of the elements of row 1 multiplied by column 1 results in the
row 1, column 1 element.
The sum of the products of the elements of row 3 multiplied by column 2 results in the
row 3, column 2 element.
WORKED Example 5
2 –1
A = 123 , B = 0 4
456
5 3
a Write down the order of the two matrices.
b Which of these products exist? i AB ii BA
c Write down the order for the products which exist.
d Calculate the products which exist.
THINK WRITE
a 1Matrix A has 2 rows and 3 a A is a 2 × 3 matrix.
columns.
2 Matrix B has 3 rows and 2 B is a 3 × 2 matrix.
columns.
b i AB is the product of a 2 × 3 b i AB exists since a 2 × 3 matrix multiplied by a
and a 3 × 2 matrix so it exists. 3 × 2 matrix results in a 2 × 2 matrix.
A and B are conformable.
ii BA is the product of a 3 × 2 ii BA exists since a 3 × 2 matrix multiplied by a
and a 2 × 3 matrix so it also 2 × 3 matrix results in a 3 × 3 matrix.
exists.
c i The product of AB is a 2 × 2 c i AB is a 2 × 2 matrix.
matrix.
ii The product of BA is a 3 × 3 ii BA is a 3 × 3 matrix.
matrix.
2 –1
d i 1 Multiply the rows of matrix d i AB = 1 2 3 0 4
A by the columns of matrix 456
5 3
B.
1×2 + 2×0 + 3×5 1 × –1 + 2 × 4 + 3 × 3
AB =
4×2 + 5×0 + 6×5 4 × –1 + 5 × 4 + 6 × 3
2 Simplify AB. AB = 17 16
38 34
Chapter 3 Matrices 139
THINK WRITE
2 –1
ii 1 Multiply the rows of B by the ii BA = 0 4 1 2 3
columns of A. 456
5 3
2 × 1 + –1 × 4 2 × 2 + – 1 × 5 2 × 3 + – 1 × 6
ii BA = 0×1+4×4 0×2+4×5 0×3+4×6
5×1+3×4 5×2+3×5 5×3+3×6
–2 –1 0
2 Simplify BA. ii BA = 16 20 24
17 25 33
WORKED Example 6
If A = 2 – 3 and I = 1 0 , calculate AI and IA.
–5 4 01
THINK WRITE
1 A and I are both 2 × 2 matrices so both A 2 × 2 matrix multiplied by a 2 × 2 matrix
the products AI and IA exist and are of results in a 2 × 2 matrix.
order 2 × 2.
= 2 –3
–5 4
= 2 –3
–5 4
This example demonstrates the only case in which matrix multiplication is always com
mutative — that is, when AI = IA = A. Here, I is called the multiplicative identity matrix.
140 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The multiplicative identity matrix, I, acts in a similar fashion to the number 1 when
numbers are multiplied, where I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
An identity matrix can be defined only for square matrices; that is, for matrices of
order 1 × 1, 2 × 2, 3 × 3. The other feature of an identity matrix is that it has the
number 1 for all elements on the leading diagonal and 0 for all other elements.
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
Leading diagonal
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
AI = IA = A where A is a square matrix and I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
If A is not square (say it is 3 × 2), then A × I = A means I would have to be a 2 × 2
matrix because a 3 × 2 matrix multiplied by a 2 × 2 matrix results in a 3 × 2 matrix.
But I × A = A means that I would be a 3 × 3 matrix because a 3 × 3 matrix multiplied
by a 3 × 2 matrix results in a 3 × 2 matrix. However, I cannot be a 2 × 2 and a 3 × 3
matrix at the same time. Therefore I can be defined only for square matrices.
remember
remember
1. In general, if A is of order m × n and B is of order n × p then A × B exists and
its order is m × p; that is, A and B are conformable.
2. In general, for two matrices A and B, AB ≠ BA.
3. AI = IA = A where A is a square matrix and I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
3B Multiplying matrices
24
WORKED 1 A = 2 –3 , B = 1 1 , C = 6 8 , D = –2 4 , E = –2 3 –1 , I = 1 0
Example
4 5 10 0 –4 2 01
5 01
a Write down the order of the six matrices. A (2 × 2), B (2 × 2), C (3 × 2), D (1 × 2), E (2 × 3), I (2 × 2)
– 4 18 – 8 2 – 3
–8 –8 6 4 5
2 – 3 1 1 – 8 – 21 14 15
4 5 1 0 28 13 – 24 – 30
b Which of the following products exist? CA, DB, AE, AI, IA, IB, A2, EC
i AC ii CA iii DB iv BD v AE vi AI
2 2
vii IA viii IB ix EB x E xi A xii EC
c Write down the order of the products which exist. (3 × 2), (1 × 2), (2 × 3), (2 × 2),
(2 × 2), (2 × 2), (2 × 2), (2 × 2)
d Calculate those products which exist.
44 22 2 – 2
4 5
– 5 10 – 4 12
–1 3 04
b Is matrix multiplication commutative? That is, does MN = NM? No
d
WORKED 3 A = 2 – 1 , B = 2 0 , C = 5 – 2 , D = 3 2 , I = 1 0 and O = 0 0
Example
0 3 0 –3 8 3 –8 5 01 00
6
Calculate the following products.
a AB b AC c DO d DI e IB f BC g CD h CA i OI j ID
4 3 2 –7 00 32 2 0 10 – 4 31 0 10 – 11 00 32
0 –9 24 9 00 –8 5 0 –3 – 24 – 9 0 31 16 1 00 –8 5
Chapter 3 Matrices 141
4 a Calculate the following products.
i 4 3 4 –3 10 ii –2 –3 –8 3 10 iii –1 –2 –5 2 10
5 4 –5 4 01 –5 –8 5 –2 01 –2 –5 2 –1 01
b What do you notice about all of the answers? All are I
c What term could be given to these matrices? Multiplicative inverses
5 multiple choice
Use the matrices below to answer questions a to d.
2 5 12 3
A = 3 2 , B = 2 –2 4 , C = 1 –3 , D = –2 0 2 , E = 5 2 , F = 3 –2 4
01 1 36 –1 –3
0 4 4 1 –3
a Which one of the following products does not exist?
A AD B AB C BC D FC E CE
b The order of the matrix BD is:
A 2×2 B 3×3 C 2×3 D 5×3 E 4×3
c Which one of the following products gives a matrix of order 2 × 2?
A BF B AB C DC D BC E FD
d Which one of the following represents the matrix CE:
20 – 17 5 – 11
A –1 8 B C Does not D 5 8 –4 E 20 – 1 8
8 11
exist. – 11 11 – 12 – 17 8 – 12
8 – 12 – 4 – 12
6 The matrix below shows the number of wins, draws and losses for two soccer teams,
the Sharks and the Dolphins.
10 2 5
8 72
Thus the Sharks have 10 wins, 2 draws and 5 losses. If 3 points are awarded for a win,
3 1 for a draw and 0 for a loss:
1 a write down a 3 × 1 matrix for the points awarded Sharks have a total of
32
0 b use matrix multiplication to find the total points for the two teams. 32 points. Dolphins have
31 a total of 31 points.
7 In Australian Rules Football, 6 points are awarded for a goal and 1 point for a behind.
The scores in two games were:
Southport 18–12 defeated Broadbeach 14–15 and Lions 10–14 defeated Eagles 9–16.
142 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
18 12
The first number is for goals scored and the second is for behinds.
14 15
a Write the results in a 4 × 2 matrix. 6 Southport 120, Broadbeach 99,
10 14
b Write down the 2 × 1 matrix for the points. 1 Lions 74, Eagles 70
9 16
c Use matrix multiplication to find the total number of points scored by each team.
8 Two shops, A and B, are supplied with boxes of different brands of chocolates —
Yummy, Scrummy and Creamy — as shown in this table:
Yummy Scrummy Creamy
Shop A 20 20 10
Shop B 10 5 10
eBook plus
The cost of the boxes are Yummy $10, Scrummy $25 and Creamy $12. 10
Digital doc:
a Write down the costs in a 3 × 1 matrix. 25
WorkSHEET 3.1
b Use matrix multiplication to find the total cost for each shop. 12
Shop A = $820, Shop B = $345
History of mathematics
O L G A TA U S S K Y T O D D
( 3 0 Au g u s t 1 9 0 6 – 7 O c t o b e r 1 9 9 5 )
During her life … teaching position. In London she met and
Mt Everest is finally climbed. later married Jack Todd.
The Richter scale for measuring the strength of After the Second World War, the couple
earthquakes is devised. moved to America where Olga began work on
Morse code is used by the Titanic when it sinks. the design of computers. In 1943, she moved
Gandhi struggles to free India from British Rule. to the Ministry of Aircraft where she
conducted research into stability in matrices.
Olga TausskyTodd worked in the fields of This work encouraged her to look in more
matrix theory and number theory. detail at matrix theory.
She was born in Olmütz, now part of the Olga was awarded the Austrian Cross of
Czech Republic, but when she was three the Honour, which is Austria’s highest award; in
family moved to Vienna and later to Linz. 1964, she was named woman of the year by
Her father died early so it became difficult for the Los Angeles Times. In 1970 she was
her to continue her studies. Her father, an awarded the Ford Prize for her publication on
industrial chemist, had encouraged her ‘The Sums of Squares’. In 1971 she was
studies in mathematics. named Professor Emeritus at CalTech.
Olga went to the University of Vienna
where she studied mathematics and chemistry. Questions
She completed a doctorate in 1930 with 1. What ﬁeld of mathematics was Olga’s
research into algebraic number fields. After speciality? Matrix theory and number theory
completing her studies she was employed at 2. What did Olga work on when she
moved to America? Computer development
the university of Göttingen as an assistant and
3. What award did Olga receive from the
worked with Helmut Ulm by editing his book
Austrian Government? Cross of Honour
on number theory. By 1932 Olga had been
4. Where was Olga a professor? Caltech
promoted to the position of tutor.
In 1935 Olga moved to Cambridge where Research
she undertook a research fellowship before Find out about the uses of matrices,
moving to London in 1937 to take up a especially in dynamic programming.
Chapter 3 Matrices 143
Powers of a matrix
A logical extension of matrix multiplication is using the power of a matrix, where
A1 = A
A2 = AA
A3 = A2A, and so on.
In general form, An = An –1A, where n is a positive integer.
But what dimension can matrix A have?
Matrix powers
x y Investigate powers of matrices by completing the following steps. (Remember to
1 a A= use pronumerals for the elements of A, not constant values.)
z w
p q 1 a Let matrix A be any 3 × 2 matrix.
x y x y b Find A2.
b A = z w
2
z w c What do you notice? Cannot multiply A × A if A is a 3 × 2 matrix
p q p q 2 a Let matrix A be any 2 × 2 matrix. 3 a A= x y z
2 w p q
b Find A .
Not conformable
3 a Let matrix A be any 2 × 3 matrix. x y z x y z
b A2 =
b Find A2. w p q w p q
2 multiply A × A if A is a
a A= x y c What do you notice? 2Cannot × 3 matrix Not conformable
z w 4 a What general conclusion can you make concerning the order of a matrix
that is to be raised to a power? If a matrix is to be raised to a power it must be a square matrix.
b A2 = x y x y
b Justify your conclusion by referring to the dimensions of matrices involved
z w z w
in a product.
A2 = x + yz xy + yw From the above investigations we can conclude that A × A must be conformable;
2
zx + zw zy + w that is, the number of columns of the first factor in the product should be the same
2
WORKED Example 7
If A = 1 3 , find: a A2 b A3
–1 2
THINK WRITE
a Write the power as a product. a A2 = A × A
A2 = 1 3 1 3
–1 2 –1 2
A2 = – 2 9
–3 1
Continued over page
144 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
b Write the power as the product of lesser b A3 = A2A
powers.
A2 = – 2 9 1 3
–3 1 –1 2
A2 = – 11 12
–4 –7
remember
remember
1. The power, n, of matrix A, in general form, is An = An – 1A, where n is a positive
integer.
2. Powers of matrices are only defined for square matrices; that is, A has to be a
square matrix to obtain An.
3C Powers of a matrix
WORKED 1 If A = 2 – 1 , find:
Example
xample
0 0
7 8 –4 16 – 8
2
a A b A3 c A4
4 –2 0 0 0 0
0 0
1 0 0
2 If A = 0 1 0 , find:
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
2 3 n
0 1 0 a A b A 0 1 0 c A 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0
3 If A = 2 3 0 , find:
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 00
2
8 9 0 a A b A3 26 27 0
2 4 1 10 13 1
1 1 0
4 If A = – 2 – 2 – 1 :
–1 –1 –1 1 1 0
1 1 2 a find A2 b confirm that A2A = AA2
–1 –1 –1
Chapter 3 Matrices 145
Applications of matrices
1 A garden supplier provides live plants for displays
22
15
12
10
18
8
Indoor plant
Geranium
Palm
Fern
1
1
2
0
2
5
5
0
3
0
2
2
displays, number of plants required and profits, but in this form, the information is
Type and number:
difficult to handle.
1
0
3
2
2
0
0
3
matrices will help clarify the meaning of the elements): Patio Office Bank Hotel
iii the number of displays supplied to each type of venue Venue: V = [ 5 7 3 4 ]
Office
Hotel
Bank
Patio
35]
Buns
To reduce costs all materials are purchased from one supplier. The prices per unit
Pastries
65
are steel $660, timber $1140, glass $1020, paint $660 and labour is priced at $1128
per unit.
Cakes
150 45
a the amount of money the bank would receive per week from the repayments on
these homes $5018
Sugar rolls
b the total cost of raw materials for all the constructions. $1 661 420
[15
1.20
1.50
1.20
S2
1.20
1.20
S1
Milk
0.25 of shortening.
Milk
1
1
0
0.33
Two suppliers (Supplier 1 and Supplier 2) provide quotes for the ingredients, given
–
2
–
3
4
3
3
1
2
eggs (1, 1.20), flour (0.8, 1), sugar (1, 1.20), shortening (1.20, 1.50) and milk
Eggs
(1.20, 1.20).
1
0
4
1
0
Bread loaves
Pastries
Cakes
15 dozen sugar rolls, 150 loaves of bread, 45 cakes, 65 pastries and 35 dozen buns.
Buns
a Represent all the above information in matrix form taking into account
A=
= 60
06
So A−1 = 1 B
6
3
 – 16
= 6
4
4 Since A ( 16 B ) = I , the inverse of A is 1 B. – 66 
6
6
1
 – 16
= 2
2
–1 
3
Inverse of a matrix
Consider matrix A, a 2 × 2 matrix, such that A = a b . If a multiplicative inverse of A
exists, then A × A–1 = I. c d
LHS = a b x y
c d u v
LHS = ax + bu ay + bv
cx + du cy + dv
LHS = RHS
LHS = 1 0
0 1
148 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
d 
 –b 

Therefore A = ad –1 – bc ad – bc
–c 
 a 

ad – bc ad – bc
1
=  d – b where ad − bc ≠ 0
ad – bc – c a
If ad – bc = 0 then this scalar is undefined, therefore A–1 does not exist. That is, there is
no matrix that, when multiplied by A will yield I, the identity matrix. If A has no
inverse then it is said to be singular.
There is a relationship between A and A−1 which is outlined below. If A is the matrix
a b , proceed as follows.
c d
1. Swap the elements on the main diagonal of A and multiply the elements
1
The inverse of A = a b is A –1 =  d – b .
c d ad – bc – c a
The number (ad − bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written as
det A or A.
Chapter 3 Matrices 149
Note: Only square matrices have inverses.
We will be concerned only with the inverse of 2 × 2 matrices at this stage in this course.
WORKED Example 9
If C = 2 – 3 find C −1.
1 5
THINK WRITE
1
1 Write the general form of C and the C= a b C –1 =  d – b
general form of its inverse. c d ad – bc – c a
1
2 Swap the elements on the main C –1 =  5 3
( 2 × 5 ) – ( –3 × 1 ) –1 2
diagonal of C.
1
5 =  5 3
10 – ( – 3 ) – 1 2
2
Multiply the elements on the other
diagonal of C by −1.
3
–1
1
3 Write down the inverse of C. C –1 =  5 3
13 – 1 2
CC –1 = 1
 2 –3 5 3 C –1 C = 1
 5 3 2 –3
13 13
1 5 –1 2 –1 2 1 5
= 1
 13 0 = 1
 13 0
13 13
0 13 0 13
= I = I
Singular matrices
1
Matrices for which the determinant equals 0 do not have an inverse, since  is
0
undefined. Such matrices are called singular matrices.
If det A = 0 then A is singular and an inverse does not exist.
There are two special types of singular matrices: nilpotent and idempotent.
A square matrix A is nilpotent if A2 = O where O is the zero matrix. The zero
matrix is a square matrix with all elements equal to zero. For example, the 2 × 2
00
zero matrix is .
00
150 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
WORKED Example 10
Show that
a 6 – 3 is nilpotent
12 – 6
b 5 2 is idempotent.
– 10 – 4
THINK WRITE
= 00
00
2 State your conclusion. A2 = 0; therefore A is nilpotent.
= 5 2
– 10 – 4
2 State your conclusion. A2 = A; therefore A is idempotent.
1. If AX = B, then X = A−1B.
2. If XA = B, then X = BA−1.
Chapter 3 Matrices 151
Note: A–1 cannot be ‘inserted’ between 2 matrices. It can either pre or postmultiply A
on one side of a matrix equation.
WORKED Example 11
A = 1 2 and B = 2 5
03 –2 1
Find X if:
a AX = B
b XA = B.
THINK WRITE
= 1
 10 13
3
–2 1
= 1
 61
3
–6 5
In part a of Worked example 11 both sides of the equation were premultiplied by A−1;
in part b both sides were postmultiplied by A−1. Remember that the matrix and its
inverse must be next to each other so that AA−1 = I.
Fractional scalars should be left outside the matrix unless they give whole numbers
when multiplied by each element.
152 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
remember
remember
1. If AA−1 = A−1A = I, then A−1 is called the multiplicative inverse of A.
1
2. The inverse of A = a b is A−1 =  d – b
c d ad – bc – c a
The number (ad − bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written
as det A or  A .
3. If det A = 0 then A is singular and an inverse does not exist.
4. (a) If AX = B, then X = A−1B.
(b) If XA = B, then X = BA−1.
eBook plus
2 If M = 2 6 and N = – 1 – 6 , find MN. Hence write down M −1 and N −1.
Digital doc: 0 –1 0 2
SkillSHEET 3.2
Inverse of a
3 Calculate the determinants of the following matrices. 2 MN = – 2 1 0 ,
2 × 2 matrix
01
a A = 2 3 5 b B = –2 –3 12 c C = 2 6 –1 1
−2 M = –  N ,
5 10 4 0 0 –1 2
–1 1
N = –  M
d D = 43 −8 e E = –2 –1 7 f F = 2 –1 14 2
41 –3 –5 6 4
1
WORKED 4 Write down the inverses of each matrix in question 3. 4 a  10 – 3
Example 5 –5 2
9
5 multiple choice 1
b  0 3
12 – 4 – 2
Using the matrices below, select the correct answer in questions a to d.
1
c  1 6
P = 4 3 , Q = 2 – 3 and R = 8 6 2 0 –2
2 –1 –1 0 –4 2
1
a Det P is equal to: d  – 1 3
8 4 –4
A 10 B 2 C −10 D −2 E 8
−1
b R is equal to: 1
e  – 5 1
7 3 –2
A − 1 2 –6 B 1

8 6 C 1

86
8 8 40
4 8 –4 2 –4 2 1
f  4 1
14 – 6 2
D − 
1 2 –6 E 1

2 –6
40 40
4 8 4 8
Chapter 3 Matrices 153
c Det (PQ) is equal to:
A −30 B 10 C −10 D 30 E −20
d If QX = R, then X is equal to:
A − 1 – 12 6 B 1

12 6 C − 1 12 6
3 3 3
0 10 0 – 10 0 – 10
1
7 a  1 6 D 1

6 28 E − 1 6 28
2 0 –2 3 3
2 8 2 8
1 12
b 4 6 Write down a 2 × 2 matrix which is singular. Answers will vary.
–2 0
c 12 2
7 C = 2 6 , D = 0 –2
–2 –1 0 –1 2 1
1
d  1 2 Find:
8 – 2 – 12 a C −1 b D−1 c CD d (CD)−1 e C −1D−1 f D−1C −1
1
e  – 11 2 8 Explain why these matrices do not have an inverse.
8 40
1 14
f  1 2
8 – 2 – 12 a D = 21 D − det = 0 b E = –2 –4 c F = 25 F − Not a square matrix
42 5 10
E − det = 0 36 9
matrices where the matrix, A, is
A 2 = O, (O is the zero matrix).
nilpotent if it has the property
0 8 1
a b  – 2 – 8
SLE 13: Research nilpotent
9 If A = 4 0 and B = 0 2 , find: –1 –2 8 1 0
–1 1 –1 0
−1 12
a AB b (AB)
1
Check with a  – 31 – 22
WORKED 10 Show that the following matrices are nilpotent. your teacher. 2 24 18
Example
10a 4 2 – 10 20 6 –9
a b c 1
b  – 5 5
–8 –4 – 5 10 4 –6 2 14 – 8
matrices where the matrix, A, is
idempotent if it has the property
SLE 14: Research idempotent
Check with
WORKED 11 Show that the following matrices are idempotent. your teacher.
1
c  – 6 2
Example 6 –6 4
10b 6 –3 –4 4 10
a b c
1
10 – 5 –5 5 50 d  18 23
2 – 12 – 16
WORKED
Example e  78 103
45 –2 1 6 6 30 – 24 – 34
11
a AX = B b XA = B c XC = A d AX = C
10
e ABX = C f CX = C g XB = I h A−1BX = C f
01
13 A = 3 4 , B = 6 1 and X = x . 1
g  1 – 5
–1 2 21 y 15 2 5
a 34 x = –2 x = −2, y = 1 b 2 3 x = 8 x = 1, y = 2
–1 5 y 7 4 –1 y 2
c –4 2 x = 14 x = −2, y = 3 d –1 3 x = 5 x = 7, y = 4
3 –2 y – 12 2 –3 y 2
remember
remember
1. When required to prove a statement is true:
(a) do not assume it is true and use the statement in your proof
(b) work only one side of the statement at a time, not both together
(c) do not use actual constant values for the elements, use pronumerals only.
2. If you are asked to show a statement is true, you are expected to use actual
values as given.
a b x = u
c d y v
WORKED Example 12
Solve 3x − y = 16 and 2x + 5y = 5 by matrix methods.
THINK WRITE
THINK WRITE
1 5 1
4 Calculate A−1. A–1 = 
17 –2 3
1 5 1 16
5 Multiply A–1 by B. X = 
17 –2 3 5
1 85
= 
17 – 17
x = 5
y –1
WORKED Example 13
In a large country town, there are three major supermarkets. Customers switch from one
to another due to advertising, better service, prices and for other reasons. A survey of 1000
customers has revealed the following information for the past month.
Best Buys started with 40% of the market; 90% of its customers remained loyal to Best
Buys but 5% changed to Great Groceries and 5% to Super Store.
Great Groceries started with a 36% market share; 85% remained loyal, 10%
transferred to Best Buys and 5% to Super Store.
Super Store started with 24% of the customers; it lost 15% to Best Buys and 5% to
great Groceries, but 80% remained.
Summarise the information in matrix form and calculate the new market shares.
Chapter 3 Matrices 159
THINK WRITE
1 The information may be
summarised in a 3 × 3 matrix with Retention rates and losses
the rows representing retention (%)
rates and gains and the columns
representing retention rates and Best Great Super
losses. This may be called a Buys Groceries Store
transition matrix.
(%)
customers and gains 15% of
Super Store’s customers. Great 5 85 5
Column 1 indicates that Best Groceries
Buys retains 90% of its
customers, loses 5% to Great Super 5 5 80
Groceries and loses 5% to Super Store
Store. Note that each column
totals 100%.
2 Write the initial market shares as
0.40
a 3 × 1 matrix. This information is
The initial market share matrix is 0.36
found as the market share at the
beginning of the month. 0.24
Note: The values total 1.
3 The new market share will be the
transition matrix, converted to 0.90 0.10 0.15 0.40 0.432
decimal numbers, multiplied by 0.05 0.85 0.05 0.36 = 0.338
the market share matrix. 0.05 0.05 0.80 0.24 0.230
4 Express the new market shares as The new market shares are Best Buys 43.2%, Great
percentages. Check the values add Groceries 33.8% and Super Store 23.0%.
up to 100%.
remember
remember
1. Matrices may be used to solve simultaneous equations:
ax + by = u
cx + dy = v
The pair of equations may be written in the form AX = B,
where A = a b , X = x and B = u .
c d y v
2. Matrices can also be used to summarise information which is in table form
and solve related problems; however, care must be taken in setting up the
matrices.
160 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3F Applications of matrices
In the following exercise solve all problems manually then use a graphics calculator wher
ever appropriate to check your solutions.
WORKED 1 Solve these simultaneous equations by matrix methods.
Example
12 a 2x − 3y = 13 and x + 2y = 3 (5, −1) b 3x + y = 9 and −2x + 5y = −6 (3, 0)
c −x + 4y = −2 and x − 5y = 0 (10, 2) d 6x + 7y = 0 and 4x − 3y = 0 (0, 0)
e 4x + y = 20 and x − y = 0 (4, 4) f 3x − 2y = 0 and x − y = 1 (−2, −3)
2 Consider these two pairs of simultaneous equations:
eBook plus
i 3x − 2y = 4 ii 3x − 2y = 6
Digital doc: 6x − 4y = 12 6x − 4y = 12
a and b Answers will vary.
SkillSHEET 3.3
Using matrices to a Show by algebraic means that the simultaneous equations in i have no solution.
solve linear equations
b Show that the simultaneous equations in ii have an infinite number of solutions.
d i y
c Write the equations in matrix form and explain how these facts are related to the
determinant of the matrix of the coefficients. det = 0
0 4– x d Draw, on two sets of axes, graphs of the two lines in each of i and ii.
3
2 3
–1 e Explain how the graphs are related to parts a and b. In i there are parallel lines;
in ii there is only one line.
–2
–3 3 multiple choice
Consider the simultaneous equations: 3x − 2y = 5
ii y Both lines y + 2x = 8
0 2 x
a The coefficient matrix is:
A 3 –2 B 5 C 32 D 31 E 3 –2
–3
1 2 8 –2 1 –2 2 2 1
4 multiple choice
In an alternative Australian Rules Football game, a team gains x points for a goal and y
points for a behind. In one game Cairns obtained 66 points by scoring 10 goals and 8
behinds and Townsville obtained 70 points from 12 goals and 5 behinds.
a This information is represented by which of the following matrix equations?
A 8 10 x = 66 B 10 12 x = 66 C 10 8 x = 66
5 12 y 70 8 5 y 70 12 5 y 70
D 8 5 x = 66 E 12 10 x = 70
10 12 y 70 5 8 y 66
b The value of x − y is:
A 5 B 4 C 6 D 3 E 2
Chapter 3 Matrices 161
5 The sum of two numbers is 20 and their difference is 12. Find the numbers by setting
up simultaneous equations and solving by matrix methods. 16, 4
6 In a factory, two types of components are processed on two separate machines. The
respective processing times on the first machine are 18 minutes and 21 minutes, while
for the second machine the times are 4 minutes and 42 minutes. How many of each
type of component, per machine, should be processed in an 8hour shift so that both
machines are fully occupied and the output of each machine is the same? 15, 10
WORKED 7 In a swimming competition, 5 points are awarded for first place, 3 for second, 2 for
Example
13
third and 1 point for an unplaced result. The top competitors’ results were:
Rania 6 2 — 2
Patricia 4 4 — —
Anh 5 3 2 —
Mayssa 6 1 3 2
Rachel 6 2 3 —
Place the results and points in suitable matrices and use matrix multiplication to find
the highest points scorer. Anh
8 Cyril’s circus arrived in town last week and
during the week the number of adults, children
and pensioners attending the circus was
recorded for the first five shows (see table
below).
Matrix multiplication
using a graphics calculator
Worked example 13 may be solved using a graphics calculator as follows.
▼
editing screen.
(b) Set the dimensions of A to 3 × 3 and press
EXE .
(c) Enter the values of A.
2. Press EXIT .
3. Enter the 3 × 1 market share matrix as matrix B.
(a) Scroll down to Mat B and press EXE .
(b) Set the dimensions to 3 × 1 and press
EXE .
(c) Enter the values of B.
4. Exit the Matrix input screen by pressing EXIT .
Press EXIT again to return to the MAT screen.
5. Multiply the matrices A and B (and store as
matrix C).
(a) Press OPTN then F2 (MAT) to bring up
the matrix menu.
(b) Press F1 (Mat) then ALPHA [A] to specify
matrix A. Press F1 (Mat) then ALPHA [B]
to specify matrix B. Press EXE to obtain the
answer screen. Alternatively, press SHIFT
[{], then Æ then F1 (Mat) and ALPHA [C]
SHIFT [}] to store as matrix C.
6. Press EXE to obtain the answer screen. (Press
EXIT to leave.)
Questions
Use a graphics calculator to find A × B for each of the following:
133 9 30
1 A= 5 0 2, B= 2 AB = 55
628 5 98
2 3 0 –2 7 –3 8 74 67
0 1 –1 4 –7 5 11 – 66 –4
3 A= 5 –3 9 –2 6, B= 4 –7 AB = 62 – 40
–5 1 1 9 6 –1 –2 69 – 42
56 48
4 4 4 4 4 9 2
B C
The information from the digraph can be converted into matrix form (a dominance
matrix) as below:
defeats A B C D
A 0 1 0 1
M= B 0 0 1 0
C 1 0 0 1
D 0 1 0 0
where 1s are used to indicate ‘defeats’ and 0s to indicate otherwise. Obviously A
can’t defeat A so a ‘0’ is used along the leading diagonal.
Notice also that:
(1) there are as many 1s as there are paths
(2) corresponding elements occur on either side of the leading diagonal. That is, if
A defeats B (1), then a 0 will be stored in the B defeats A element on the
opposite side of the leading diagonal.
When the elements of each of the rows are added they yield a dominance vector,
showing how many players each has defeated.
A 2
V= B 1
C 2
D 1
This result can be readily checked from the original digraph by counting the
number of arrows out of each node.
Note, from now on the row/column labels will be omitted.
It can be seen from this information that A and C are ranked equally, and B and D
are ranked equally; this can be written as
A B
C D
166 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
M2 = 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
M2 = 1 0 0 1
0 2 0 1
0 0 1 0
Notice that the leading diagonal is still 0. It is impossible for a player to have
secondorder influence over themselves. Row 1 represents the secondorder
influence of player A over the other players. The element 2 in row 3 occurs because
C defeats 2 players (A and D) who defeat B.
2
We can find the secondorder dominance vector, V2 = 2 , but how much
importance should it be given? 3
1
If we assign equal importance, we calculate
0 1 0 1 01 1 0
M + M2 = 0 0 1 0 + 10 0 1
1 0 0 1 02 0 1
0 1 0 0 00 1 0
0 2 1 1
= 1 0 1 1
1 2 0 2
0 1 1 0
4
This gives a dominance vector 3 = V1 + V2 and allows us to rank the competitors
in the order C, A, B, D. 5
2
Chapter 3 Matrices 167
If we wanted to investigate thirdorder influence, we could calculate M 3 (= M 2M).
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 10 1 1 3
M M= 1
2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 = 02 0 1 giving V3 = 3
0 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 01 2 0 3
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 1 2
At this stage, notice that the leading diagonal is no longer 0. If there were
more players in the tournament, we could continue finding powers of M, but with
4 players, we stop at M 3. In general, if there are m players, we stop at M m – 1.
In most scenarios, it is probably unfair to assign equal importance to first,
second and thirdorder influence. We can allocate arbitrary constants to weight the
influence; that is, M + xM 2 + yM 3. The resulting dominance vector can be found by
calculating V1 + xV 2 + yV3.
If we choose x = 0.5 and y = 0.25, the dominance vector would be
2 2 3 3.75
V1 + 0.5V2 + 0.25V3 = 1 + 0.5 2 + 0.25 3 = 2.75
2 3 3 4.25
1 1 2 2
remember
remember
1. Dominance matrices are often used to determine player rankings in roundrobin
situations.
2. Information from a digraph that indicates the win–loss outcome of matches
played in a tournament (for example, A defeats B, D defeats C, and so on) can
be converted into matrix form. This matrix is called a dominance matrix.
3. A dominance vector shows how many players each has defeated. It is obtained
by adding the elements of each of the rows of the dominance matrix. This
allows you to rank the players.
4. For a dominance matrix, M, we can calculate the secondorder influence of
players by calculating M 2 (thirdorder influence by calculating M 3 and so on)
and finding the resulting dominance vector, V2 (V3 and so on).
5. Arbitrary constants can also be allocated to weight the influence; for example,
when considering four players, we calculate M + xM 2 + yM 3 where x and y
are constants. The resulting dominance vector can be found by calculating
V 1 + xV 2 + yV 3. This refines the ranking process.
Chapter 3 Matrices 169
3G Dominance matrices
1 We want to seed 4 chess players, Breanna, Kayley, Teagan and Cameron. In past
matches, Cameron defeated Breanna and Teagan, both Breanna and Teagan defeated
Kayley, Kayley defeated Cameron, and Breanna defeated Teagan.
C
T K a Draw a digraph to represent this information.
B b By giving equal importance to first and secondorder influence, use dominance
matrices to rank the players. Cameron, Breanna, Kayley, Teagan
2 Three friends have noticed that when they played chess, Mair defeated Ann and Janine,
and Ann defeated Janine. Use dominance matrices to rank these players. Mair, Ann, Janine
3 A roundrobin netball match was arranged for house competitions where Barnes lost to
all but Cunningham, Cunningham lost to Leslie but defeated Hamilton. No teams went
undefeated.
a If it is decided to give equal importance to first and secondorder influence, use
dominance matrices to rank the students’ houses. Hamilton, Leslie, Cunningham, Barnes
b If house points are allocated as 20, 15, 10, 5 for the overall ranking, how many
points did each house receive? 20 points to Hamilton, 15 to Leslie, 10 to Cunningham, 5 to Barnes
4 Five schools are debating in a roundrobin tournament — the following table shows the
results.
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