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In this competitive market scenario, the automotive ancillary manufactures

one of the objective is to manufacture zero defect products. The manufacturers
follow various principles and techniques like lean manufacturing, Kaizen, Six
sigma, SMED, to achieve zero defects and continuous improvement of
manufacturing system productivity. In past two decades, the automotive ancillary
units using the above techniques improved their productivity by changing their
strategy of manufacturing from 1000ppm to 100ppm to 10ppm.

In this case study, an automotive ancillary unit is considered for study, to

perform the defective analysis in the production process and methods of
inspection level to reduce the number of defective components.


Royal Enfield, originally a British motorcycle company and is now its successor
an Indian motorcycle manufacturing brand with the tag of "the oldest global
motorcycle brand in continuous production" manufactured in factories
in Chennai in India. Licensed from Royal Enfield by the indigenous
Indian Madras Motors, it is now a subsidiary of Eicher Motors Limited, an
Indian automaker. The company makes the Royal Enfield Bullet, and
other single-cylinder motorcycles. Established in 1893, Royal Enfield is the
oldest motorcycle brand in the world still in production, with the Bullet model
enjoying the longest motorcycle production run of all time.

The automotive unit has the following functional units

1. Machine Shop
a. Crank case production line
b. Cylinder head production line
c. Cylinder barrel production line
d. Cover RH
e. Cover LH
2. Engine Assembly Shop
3. Paint Shop
4. Vehicle Main Assembly line
5. Fabrication Shop
6. Gear Assembly Shop
7. Platting Shop

In this project work, the problem taken into consideration was to analyze the root
cause for the rejection of cylinder head at the machine shop and engine assembly
shop and to reduce the rejection rate.

1.3 Study of the Cylinder Head Production Line

The cylinder head is machined in the cylinder head production line. There are 5
variants of cylinder head like Cylinder head for classic 350 model, 500cc, 650cc,
XXXcc and YYYcc. In this study the selected production line feasible to
manufacture three models of cylinder head. The difference between the model is
material type. The cylinder head production consists of 6 workstation, each
workstation has one machine and arranged in U-shaped line. Each workstation
allotted with individual worker. The detail of the process flow of cylinder head is
shown in figure 1.1 and table 1.1.

At the workstation 5, the cylinder head undergoes valve leak test. In this
workstation 5 the following factors and limits are considered to perform the leak
test. All valves are inspected and tested by the manufacturer to ensure that they
conform to the required valve leakage standards. In addition, optional testing can
be requested by the purchaser, and regular testing is critical for ongoing valve
maintenance and safety.

Cylinder head Machining Washing


Cylinder head Pressure and leak Plugging

assembly test

Figure 1.1 Production flow of Cylinder head

Workstation Description of Process Operation Time (Sec)

100 Bar coding 10

110 Milling 15

120 Height and Surface level 15

Inlet and Exhaust port

130 25

Spring seat and spark

140 20
plug boring

150 Key Milling 20

PAV Milling and Oil
160 15
hole opening

170 Deburring 20

180 Body Leak testing 35

190 Valve seat pressing 30

200 Valve finishing 20

210 Washing and Drying 35

Valve seat and Oil hole

220 40
leak testing

Table 1.1 Production Process of Cylinder head

In many cases it is recommended that valves are tested at an interval of no longer

than 12 months. However, the specific interval may vary based on the valve
condition, the service condition, and the desired level of performance.

Valve leakage is tested using either a hydrostatic test (i.e., the test medium is a
liquid, such as water or kerosene) or a pneumatic test (the test medium is a gas,
such as air or nitrogen). Zero leakage is rarely if ever possible, so the standards
define the maximum allowable leakage (MAL) for valves under the specified
testing conditions.

For both hydrostatic and pneumatic tests, the MAL is usually defined by valve
size a small amount of leakage through a valve with a small effective orifice poses
much more risk than would the same amount of leakage through a valve with a
large effective orifice. MAL may also be a function of the valve class and pressure

Principle of Leak Testing:

Leak Testing is the procedure of examining a system for any kind of defect. Leak
testing can be obtained using different leak detection techniques and is employed
to check for flaws, defects in products. It also makes sure the right functioning
and maintenance of industrial systems and pipelines, so that it affects greater
productivity level. The choice of the identification method is based on a technique
which is best applicable at that moment of time. When systems consist a metallic
containment, leaks might occur due to the enclosing material becoming rusted.
Accordingly, the leak testing might also result in the identification of a corrosion


The engine assembly line has 12 workstations, each workstations

assigned with one machines and arranged in U-shaped line. The process
flow chart of engine assembly line is given below in Table 1.2. In this
line 350cc and 500cc variant engine assembly is performed.

At the workstation 11, the engine undergoes the quality inspection. In

this station the following test like valve leak test, oil seal leak test,
XXX, XX and XX are conducted using a test rig.

Assembly of Engine

Unit construction is the design of larger motorcycles where

the engine and gearbox components share a single casing. This sometimes
includes the design of automobile engines and was often loosely applied to
motorcycles with rather different internal layouts such as the flat
twin BMW models.

Prior to unit construction, the engine and gearbox had their own separate casings
and were connected by a primary chain drive running in an oil bath chain case.
The new system used a similar chain drive and both had 3 separate oil reservoirs
for engine, gearbox and primary drive. Triumph and BSA were already using cast
alloy chain cases and started converting to unit construction in the 1950s. A
driving factor behind the BSA/Triumph change was that Lucas had declared an
intention to abandon production of motorcycle dynamos and magnetos, and
instead produce only alternators. By contrast, Velocette, Matchless/AJS and
Norton motorcycles continued to be pre-unit construction (the former machines
with pressed-steel primary cases) until the end of production in the 1960s and
1970s respectively. In reality, the casings were not really "unitary", as the
crankcase section was vertically divided in the middle and no oil was shared
between the three portions.

Figure 1.2 UCE

Modern horizontally-split four stroke engines invariably use single oil reservoir
(whether wet- or dry-sump; but while this simplifies matters, it is arguable that
the previous system of having different types of oil for engine and gearbox is

The BMC Mini was an early example of a car with the "gearbox-in-the-sump";
but this practice of using a single oil reservoir, which has become the norm for

motorbikes, is generally undesirable for cars and trucks. Two stroke "total-loss"
bikes always have separate oil for the gearbox, as engine oil is burned along with
the fuel.


The scope of this work is limited to defective analysis of leak in valve seat
and oil hole of the cylinder head at the cylinder head section and engine assembly


From the detailed study of the cylinder head production line, it is identified that
the root cause for the rejection of cylinder head is due to the valve leak and oil
hole leak at the cylinder head line and the main engine assembly line. The line is
operates for three shifts in a day. The rejection rate is about 20 to 25 numbers of
cylinder heads(350cc and 500cc) are rejected due to the valve leak and oil hole
leak at both cylinder head production line and engine assembly line. On an
average about 5% of the overall production in a year is rejected.


In this project work the objective is to

 Identify the root cause of rejection of cylinder head at the valve leak and
oil hole leak test.
 To develop the appropriate modified experimental test rig to perform valve
leak and oil ole test to reduce the rejection rate.


White paper [1]

They evaluated the condition of in-service valves that process fluids is difficult.
Diagnostic methods that require valve movement often cannot be utilized while
the plant is in operation and future maintenance is being planned. As a result,
maintenance either schedules what may be unnecessary valve work for upcoming
shutdowns or doesn’t schedule maintenance at all. Delaying valve maintenance
may eventually result in future, costly, unplanned maintenance while the plant is
in operation. Not only can unplanned maintenance be expensive but typically the
associated loss of production is far more expansive than the maintenance
operation itself.

Use of acoustic emissions equipment on closed, in-service valves can be used to

predict valve trim condition by detecting valve seat leakage. This information is
valuable in maintenance planning for future shutdowns. Being able to quantify
valve leakage can help a plant make an informed decision as to whether a valve
must be repaired immediately, at an upcoming plant shutdown, or deferred to a
future date.

During leakage, fluid loss is accompanied by acoustic energy loss. The method
of using the release of acoustic energy to detect leaks is called Acoustic Emission
(AE). When used with an experience base, the amount of measured AE can also
be related to the actual leakage rate. The necessary elements for carrying out an
on-site AE leak detection include a high-quality monitoring device, an experience
base on how the part produces AE when leaking, and an operator with the training
and knowledge to make a quality measurement and apply the valve-specific
experience base to the acoustic measurement.

Rohit.T.Londhe ,J.M.Kshirsagar [2]

By using CNG, LPG, and other gas fuels for combustion in vehicles’ engines,
stated a large degree of valve seat wear was observed and it was difficult to
provide the same wear resistance as that of petrol (gasoline) & Diesel fuel
engines. Therefore, valve seat wears in gas fuel engines need to examine. These
parts related to the engine valve timing. Now the most of the company in engine
manufacturing, found field related problem of valve and valve seat in gas engine.
So most observed problem is valve and valve seat wear. In R&D department,
durability is one of the ways to find the problem of valve and valve seat before
the field related problem will face. In durability, the engine is test at
approximately condition that of the vehicle, in engine test bed. So, this paper
gives material as per various parameters like Temperature.

Mach inability, weld ability, Cost, availability is studied for valve & valve seat
in gas fuel engine. In recent years, the measure difficulty facing by automotive
division is that, to maintain vehicle BSFC (Average), cost with lower harmful
Exhaust gases & for an increase in the use of alternative fuels in view of
atmospheric pollution. Compressed natural gas (CNG) & LPG (liquefied
petroleum gas) are appropriate fuel in meeting these demands. Comparing these
two gases i.e. CNG & LPG, LPG (C3H8) is highly inflammable & it is heavier
than air and on leakage will settle to ground and accumulate in low lying areas.

Also, the Releases CO2 which is a greenhouse gas but is cleaner when compared
to gasoline. CNG (CH4) is lighter than air and hence disperses quickly in the
event of spillage & Releases lesser greenhouse gas. Engine valve train
mechanism is combination of Camshaft, Roller tappet, Push rod, Rocker arm,
Valve & valve seat. This valve seat serves as seals for high temperature, high-
pressure exhaust gas & also does not adverse wear on valve, resulting in
compression pressure loss.

SM.Jafari,H Mehdigholi and M Behzad [3]

They proposed leakage in valves is important to troubleshoot performance of

internal combustion engines. Leakage can lead to a reduction in engine power
and an increase in emissions. The main objective of the present study is to
investigate relationship between valve leakage and the acoustic emission
generated from the steady flow in the cylinder head of the internal combustion
engine. The test rig is the cylinder head for a spark-ignited engine. The test rig
simulates the valve leakage due to valve clearance. The valve clearance fault was
artificially simulated by a very small lift in valve.

The acoustic emission method was used to measure acoustic emission signals
generated by valve flow. Characteristics of acoustic emission signals in the time
and frequency domains are presented and explained. The effects of air pressure
level, valve lift, and valve type on the acoustic emission signals are investigated.
It is shown that acoustic emission energy and valve leakage parameters have a
linear correlation. The results demonstrate the potential of the acoustic emission
source identification in the practical situation of detecting valve leakage using the
investigated relationship. Valves are critical components of internal combustion
(IC) engines. If they move improperly, valve leakage will occur that adversely
affects engine performance and exhaust emissions.

Valve leakage detection at an early stage can reduce maintenance costs. The
application of nonintrusive methods is especially desirable because they require
minimal installation and do not affect engine operation. The acoustic emission
(AE) method is a nonintrusive method that has been successfully developed to
detect leakage in instruments in processing plant equipment such as valves, steam
traps, pipelines, and tanks. AE has been applied to source localization in pipes
and tanks based on the estimation of wave arrival time at two or more sensors.

Plants require leakage rate knowledge prior to making decisions to repair or
change damaged valves however, it is difficult and inconvenient to obtain data
from the thousands of valves in a leakage detection system. Recently, the
theoretical relationship between AE and internal valve leakage rate has been
analysed to estimate the rate of the gas leakage through a valve. A literature
review on the application of AE to valve diagnosis in IC engines indicates that it
is a complicated task. One study surveyed source localization in complex
structures like diesel engines.
It revealed that AE energy-based source localization was effective for detecting
real multisource signals. Another study examined the condition of exhaust valves
in different diesel engines to discover if it is possible to derive information about
exhaust valve leakage. In another study, the effect of faulty exhaust valve
clearance on engine performance was observed from recorded AE signals.
Measured results showed that using only time and frequency domain analysis of
AE signals can give a superior measure of engine condition.
Unfortunately, few methods have been proposed to detect valve leakage in IC
engines using AE. There is no theoretical relationship between valve leakage in
IC engines and signals generated from the leakage. The main purpose of the
present study is to investigate a relationship between valve leakage and AE
features measured on the cylinder head from the steady flow.

American Petroleum Institute [4]

This proposed the standard valve inspection and testing, cover inspection,
examination, supplementary examinations, and pressure test requirements for
resilient-seated, non-metallic-seated (e.g., ceramic), and metal to-metal-seated
valves of the gate, globe, plug, ball, check, and butterfly types.

Resilient seats are considered to be:

1) Soft seats, both solid and semi-solid grease type (e.g., lubricated plug).
2) Combination soft and metal seats.
3) Any other type valve designed to meet resilient seat leakage rates.

API Std 598 supplements the API standards that reference it, but it may also be
applied to other types of valves by agreement between the purchaser and the valve
manufacturer. The inspection requirements pertain to examinations and testing
by the manufacturer and any supplementary examinations that the purchaser may
require at the valve manufacturer’s plant. The test requirements cover both
required and optional pressure tests at the valve manufacturer’s plant.

The following tests and examinations are specified in this standard:

a. Shell test. b. Backseat test. c. Low-pressure closure test. d. High-pressure
closure test. e. Visual examination of castings. f. High-pressure pneumatic shell

Ahmed M. Deif . Waguih ElMaraghy [5]

Responsiveness to dynamic market changes in a cost-effective manner is

becoming a key success factor for any manufacturing system in today’s global
economy. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) have been introduced
to react quickly and effectively to such competitive market demands through
modular and scalable design of the manufacturing system on the system level, as
well as on the machine components’ level. This paper investigates how RMSs
can manage their capacity scalability on the system level in a cost-effective

An approach for modelling capacity scalability is proposed, which, unlike earlier

approaches, does not assume that the capacity scalability is simply a function of
fixed increments of capacity units. Based on the model, a computer tool that
utilizes a genetic algorithm optimization technique is developed. The tool aids
the systems designers in deciding when to reconfigure the system in order to scale
the capacity and by how much to scale it in order to meet the market demand in
a cost-effective way.

The results showed that, in terms of cost, the optimal capacity scalability
schedules in an RMS are superior to both the exact demand capacity scalability
approach and the approach of supplying all required capacity at the beginning of
the planning period, which is adopted by flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs).
The results also suggest that the cost-effective implementation of an RMS can be
realized through decreasing the cost of reconfiguration of these new systems.

Terava Jorma and Kivimaki Harri [6] stated leakage in a fluid circulation system
can be serious if happens on critical circumstances. A modern Heavy Diesel
engine includes several pressurized systems like coolant, lubrication oil, fuel and
compressed air. Diesel engine parts with several cores and great variation of wall
thicknesses have risk for internal defects due to complicated cast iron structures.
For marine application Classification societies specify the scope of pressure
testing needs for key engine components.

A Finnish company Adwatec has developed an effect technology for pressure

testing and leak detection for components of a heavy diesel engine. Heavy Diesel
engines have an important role in power generation specially in back-up
generation for so called Green Energy sources like wind and solar. Almost all
non-military ships have diesel engines for propulsion and power generation
onboard. Since the 1910’s they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in
locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electric generating plants followed
later. In the 1930’s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the
1970’s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the
USA increased.

According to the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU

average for diesel cars account for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France
and 38% in the UK. The world's largest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-
Sulzer RTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel of about 84,420 kW @ 102 rpm
output. Development and innovation during last 100 years have done Diesel
engines very reliable in operation.

Classification societies like Lloyd’s Register provide quality assurance and

certification for ships and offshore structures. They inspect and approve
important components and accessories, including marine diesels. Pressure testing
of the key diesel components is always part of the Quality Assurance actions of

the component manufacturers and typically controlled by Classification
Societies. Reason for pressure testing is to guarantee that the components and
entire engines are 100 % quality and no internal or external leaks occur. Thus,
pressurized water testing is a reliable and economical way to control the tightness
of complicated mechanical components. System can be automated to get the
process time short and to service component mass production. Air removal from
the test fluid is essential to get full sensitivity. Test component and fluid should
be at same temperature due to difference of coefficient of heat expansion for
water and construction materials. A Finnish company Adwatec has developed
manual, semi-automatic and full automated testing systems for various power
generation and power electronic components.


Cause and effect diagrams or fishbone diagrams or Ishikawa diagrams or

Herringbone diagrams. In a production process, when there is a serious problem,
it's important to explore all the things that could cause it, before you start to think
about a solution. Cause and Effect Analysis, gives you a useful way of doing this.
This diagram based technique, which combines brainstorming with a type
of Mind Map , pushes you to consider all possible causes of a problem, rather
than just the ones that are most obvious. It was devised by professor Kaoru
Ishikawa, a pioneer of quality management, in the 1960s. The technique was then
published in his 1990 book, “Introduction to Quality Control”.

The diagrams that you create with are known as Ishikawa Diagrams or Fishbone
Diagrams (because a completed diagram can look like the skeleton of a fish).

Although it was originally developed as a quality control tool, you can use the
technique just as well in other ways. For instance, you can use it to:

Discover the root cause of a problem.

Uncover bottlenecks in your processes.

Identify where and why a process isn't working.

How to Use the Tool

Follow these steps to solve a problem with Cause and Effect Analysis:

Step 1: Identify the Problem

First, write down the exact problem you face. Where appropriate, identify who is
involved, what the problem is, and when and where it occurs.

Step 2: Work Out the Major Factors Involved

Next, identify the factors that may be part of the problem. These may be systems,
equipment, materials, external forces, people involved with the problem, and so

Try to draw out as many of these as possible. As a starting point, you can use
models such as the McKinsey 7S Framework (which offers you Strategy,
Structure, Systems, Shared values, Skills, Style and Staff as factors that you can
consider) or the 4Ps of Marketing (which offers Product, Place, Price, and
Promotion as possible factors).

Brainstorm any other factors that may affect the situation.

Then draw a line off the "spine" of the diagram for each factor and label each


The manager identifies the following factors, and adds these to his diagram:

 Site.
 Task.
 People.
 Equipment.
 Control.

Step 3: Identify Possible Causes

Now, for each of the factors you considered in step 2, brainstorm possible causes
of the problem that may be related to the factor.

Show these possible causes as shorter lines coming off the "bones" of the
diagram. Where a cause is large or complex, then it may be best to break it down
into sub-causes. Show these as lines coming off each cause line.

Step 4: Analyse Your Diagram

By this stage you should have a diagram showing all of the possible causes of the
problem that you can think of.

Depending on the complexity and importance of the problem, you can now
investigate the most likely causes further. This may involve setting up
investigations, carrying out surveys, and so on. These will be designed to test
which of these possible causes is actually contributing to the problem.




In this section, detailed experimental investigation is performed to find the root

cause for rejection of cylinder head and engine due to the failure in valve leak
test. To investigate this in-depth study of the cylinder head and the details of
experimental test rig.


In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated

to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the
top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by
a head gasket. In most engines, the head also provides space for the passages that
feed air and fuel to the cylinder, and that allow the exhaust to escape. The head
can also be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors.

Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air
mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, and for exhaust
gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold. In a water-
cooled engine, the cylinder head also contains integral ducts and passages for the
engines' coolant - usually a mixture of water and antifreeze - to facilitate the
transfer of excess heat away from the head, and therefore the engine in general.

In the overhead valve (OHV) design, the cylinder head contains the poppet
valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or 'ports' for the inlet and exhaust
gases. The operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, which is
sited within the cylinder block, and its moment of operation is transmitted to the
valves' pushrods, and then arms mounted on a rocker shaft - the rocker arms and

shaft also being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft (OHC)
design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts
just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now also contained within the
cylinder head.

The camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and
exhaust valves, and still also utilizing rocker arms (but without any pushrods), or
the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms
and utilizing 'bucket' tappets.

Cars with inline (straight) engines have single cylinder head and automobiles with
V engines have two-cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank. In some vehicles,
where cylinder banks are very close to the V engine, one cylinder is all that is
needed. Large industrial vehicles may have one head per cylinder. This makes
replacing a cylinder head much more affordable.

Figure 3.1 Cylinder Head


An overhead valve engine (OHV engine) is an engine in which the valves are
placed in the cylinder head. This was an improvement over the older flathead
engine, where the valves were placed in the cylinder block next to the

piston. Overhead camshaft (OHC) engines, while still overhead valve by
definition, are usually categorized apart from other OHV engines. The type of
valve typically used is Poppet valves.

In a piston engine configuration where the valves are overhead but the camshaft
is not, informally called pushrod engine or I-head engine, the camshaft is placed
within the cylinder block (usually beside and slightly above the crankshaft in
a straight engine or directly above the crankshaft in the V of a V engine), and uses
pushrods or rods to actuate rocker arms above the cylinder head to actuate
the valves. Lifters or tappets are located in the engine block between the camshaft
and pushrods. By contrast, overhead camshaft design avoids the use of pushrods
by putting the camshaft directly above the valves in the cylinder head, thus
simplifying the valve train.


Engine valves are located in the cylinder head. The main function of the engine
valves is to let air in and out of the cylinders. That air is used to help ignite
the fuel which will drive the pistons up and down. There are two types of engine
valves; intake and exhaust valves.

Figure 3.2 Engine valves

The intake valves of course let air in, and the exhaust valves let exhaust air out.
The more air you can move air in and out of the engine the more efficient, and

there for power the engine will have. This is why the engine valve plays a pretty
critical role in an engine performance.

Pistons travel up and down inside cylinders. At the top of the pistons journey are
the valves. There are a varying number of valves depending on the manufacturer.
As the piston is at the bottom of the cylinder, the intake valve opens to let air in,
it then closes so the cylinder is air tight to build compression. Once the piston
goes through the compression and firing stroke, the exhaust valve will open and
let the exhaust out. It then closes immediately after. But you may ask how do the
valves open and close? There is a shaft that pushes on the all the valves called a
cam shaft. Be sure to check out the cam shaft link for more information on the

Valve Spring Retainers

Valve springs are mounted between sup-ports. These supports, commonly

referred to as spring seats, are located at the ends of the spring. The lower spring
seat may be simply a recess in the top of the cylinder head, or a steel washer that
rests on top of the cylinder head and is shaped to fit the bottom coil of the spring.
The upper spring seat, called the spring retainer, is a steel washer that is shaped
to fit the top of the spring. The upper spring seat is attached to the top of the valve
stem by removable fastenings commonly known as valve keepers.

Figure 3.3 Spring retainers


The valve seat leak test is performed in cylinder head production line and the
engine assembly line. The purpose of this is test to ensure that the component is
free from valve leak.

3.4.1 Valve leak test in cylinder head production line

In the cylinder head production line at the workstation 13(220), valve leak test is
performed. The following parameters are considered while performing the test.
In this test rig, compressed air is used to check for leaks.

The parameters considered during leak test in cylinder head production line are,

1. Sensor hole

2. LH hole

3. RH hole

4. Oil hole

5. Valve seat leak limits (-10ml/min to 20ml/min)

3.4.2 Valve leak test in Engine assembly line

In engine assembly line, the valve seating is checked in three stages. The
cylinder head is checked for valve leak test at the cylinder head production line
and then after assembly of cylinder head with the engine, it is checked for valve
leak test. In engine assembly line where the rubber padding is installed and then
the valves are assembled and finally spark plug is fixed and the valve seal is

The parameters considered during leak test in engine assembly line are,

1. Compression test

2. Inlet valve test

3. Exhaust valve test


Purpose of testing valve seal as the valves lose their ability to seal the
Combustion chamber properly, the engine can lose performance and start to burn
oil, leaking from the top of the cylinder head into the intake and exhaust
manifolds. Modern engines are fitted with valve stem oil seals which can be
replaced if oil leakage occurs.

3.5.1 Analysis of Valve Leak Using Cause and Effect at cylinder head
production line

Oil seal check operator


Sensor hole, LH hole, RH hole, Oil hole, Valve seal,


-10ml/min to 20ml/min

Oil seal check machine


Dust accumulation etc.


Oil used, Valve

Figure 3.4 Cause and effect machine shop

3.5.2 Analysis of Valve Leak Using Cause and Effect at Engine assembly

Cylinder head valve train operator.

Spark plug assembly operator.

Oil seal check operator.


Compression, Inlet, Exhaust


Compression: -10ml/min to 20ml/min

Inlet: -12ml/min to 20ml/min

Exhaust: -12ml/min to 15ml/min


Cylinder head valve train

Spark plug tightening

Oil seal check machine


Dust accumulation etc.


Oil used, Valve, Spring, Gasket, Retainers

Figure 3.5 Cause and effect engine assembly


Initially we had to find out where the problem was either in the machine shop or
in the engine assembly.

In machine shop

3 set of valves were taken and tests were done:

1. A set of valves were used to determine whether the plunger and the block
of the machine touches the centre of the valves or not!
2. In order to that a blue ink was applied on the plunger to check whether it
sits or not.

The results are

1. In cell 1 A2: The plunger rests both on the inlet (centre) and exhaust (left
end) valve. Moreover, the bock is slightly tilted towards the left. The
plunger and the block do not float correctly.
2. In cell 2 A3: The plunger of the exhaust valve rests but the plunger of the
inlet valve does not rest. Here the block displaces slightly towards the right
once it touches the surface of the cylinder head.
3. In cell 3 B2: The plunger touches the vales correctly but the block has a
slight displacement once it touches the working surface.

Figure 3.6 Black valves

Figure 3.7 Silver valves

In these both valves blue test was carried out

In machine shop

Figure 3.8 Cylinder head cut section

A 350cc cylinder head was cut to examine the seating of the block and button
plunger in the valve. This is done based on the following theory. The overall force
in the machine shop should be equal to the overall force in the engine assembly
shop then the testing methods are valid or correct. If the force used is less in the

engine assembly shop, then the testing methods of machine shop should be

In order to determine the force, the cut cylinder head was tested in all the three
cells, surprisingly the button plunger exerted uneven force on the surface of the
valve seat. This resulted in damaging the component. In order to check whether
the block moved up and down a test was carried out. During the test blue dye ink
was applied on the surface of the block and the test was carried out, the blue ink
had some vertical stripes as a pattern. This shows that there is some shear between
the block and the machine head. From this we can conclude that there is some
vertical motion in the block.

Figure 3.9 Testing block

The vertical stripes indicate that the block has a vertical motion. But there is no
float between the blocks outer surface and the machines inner surface. This exerts
a greater force on the cylinder head during testing which damages the valve seat
area. Thus, to rectify this error we should alter the current design of the testing

block. Further, in order to prove our assumption a set of cylinder heads were
tagged and analysed.

During that process those 10-cylinder heads were tested for leak manually:

Step 1: Quality testing was done with the help of baker’s quality station.

Step 2: Tested all the components in machine shop and noted the results.

Step 3: The values and the present values were noted down.

Step 4: Then all the components were tested manually using water.

After all these steps the components were sent to the engine assembly. But there
were two components that got rejected in the engine assembly shop due to
compression leak. Again, these two components were tested manually but had
different results. Thus, from this we can say that during leak test in the machine
shop the valves were slightly damaged due to excess pressure applied by the test
block. But there are three cells in the machine shop and other tests were conducted
to check which cell had most of the rejected components and then it was analysed.

Inlet Exhaust
Component Old New Blue Manual Manual
No. Valve Valve Leak Leak Test Inlet Exhaust

B231028 0.0713 0.0073 0.82 NOT OK (I) 0 sec OK

B231063 0.1291 0.0182 0.8 NOT OK (I+E) 0sec 5sec

B152044 0.0234 0.0448 0.26 OK(4.36) (I+E) 5sec 5sec

B132042 0.1495 0.0141 2.6 NOT OK (I) 0sec OK

B022058 0.024 0.0153 0.172 OK(.364) (E) 30sec 5sec

L202022 0.0515 0.0337 NIL NOT OK (I) 0sec OK

B031014 0.0481 0.0081 0.165 NOT OK (I) 0sec 10sec

B131013 0.1337 0.0177 1.31 NOT OK (I) 0sec 20sec

A173023 0.0632 0.0433 1.27 NOT OK (I) 10sec 20sec

B031013 0.0641 0.0262 0.241 NOT OK (I+E) 0sec 0sec

Table 3.1 10 specific defect components selected and analysed



In this section based on the systematic analysis the fault in the test rig had been
found out and to rectify this the design of the testing block must be rectified.


Initially there was not a lot of float provided to the testing block, thus in this
design the float was increased and the outer diameter of the block and the central
locking nut was reduced. by doing as such the internal clearance of the test setup
was increased.

Figure 4.1 Existing design

This is the current design which is being used in the machine shop. In order to
increase the float, the spring stiffness must be reduced and the outer diameter of
the block must be altered.

Figure 4.2 Proposed design

The above is the proposed design of the block with and decrease in spring
stiffness and reduced outer diameter of the block.

Figure 4.3 spring Figure 4.4 central locking nut

This model had been created using solid works

Figure 4.5 Proposed model of block

Figure 4.6 proposed model of spring

Figure 4.7 proposed setup


After installing this design in the machine shop we witnessed that the overall
reduction percentage in the engine assembly shop has been significantly reduced
and also the production rate had been increased. The wastage has been minimised
and also production cost had been reduced.



Here in the industry there are two areas/floors where they test for valve seat area
leak and oil hole leak. The first one is done in the machine shop (a floor where
machining of components is done). Secondly, they test in the engine assembly
(floor where assembly of machined components are done).

Based on the initial survey period of 15 days, the cause of the valve seat area leak
was identified. It was found to be a design error in the testing block in machine
shop which was used to analyse leakage based on pressure decay test.

The spring stiffness was found to be too high and there was no float in the block,
i.e. the horizontal motion of the block was restricted. Hence to correct these
errors, new design of the block setup was proposed, which had lower spring
stiffness and some clearance between the test block and machine was introduced.

Royal Enfield has accepted this research and subsequent design proposal. They
will implement this design in coming months after internal testing.



[1] Ahmed M. Deif . Waguih ElMaraghy ,” Investigating optimal capacity

scalability scheduling in a reconfigurable manufacturing system”,
[2] American Petroleum Institute, “Valve inspection and testing “.
[3] Rohit.T.Londhe,J.M.Kshirsagar,” Experimental analysis of valve and
valve seat wear in gases fuelled engine”.

[4] SM Jafari, H Mehdigholi and M Behzad (2016), “Investigation of the

relationship between engine valve leakage and acoustic emission measured on
the cylinder head ignoring combustion effects”, J Process Mechanical
Engineering, Vol. 230(1), pp.3–9.

[5] Terävä Jorma and Kivimäki Harri,” An Effective Leak Detection

Technique for Heavy Marine Diesel Components”.
[6] White Paper(2013), “Using acoustic emission to determine in service valve
seat leakage”, White paper, Fisher Emerson Process management.


All the data’s noted and experimented

Defect Cylinder Head Analysis 350cc:

Serial number Defect

089Y240118C1 hole over size

004X190118C1 inlet

006Z250118C1 exhaust

VV12.1.18.C1A037 compression

VV8.11.17.114B MK operation missing

VV17.12.17.C2C21 oversize dowel hole

VV12.1.18.C1A029 compression

VV12.1.18.C1A029 inlet

VV14.11.17.C1A87 compression

VV27.11.17.C1A038 inlet

VV23.1.18.C1B16 compression

VV23.1.18.C1B009 compression

2A138032185 inlet

ORG31.1.18.C1B11116 exhaust

ORG30.1.18.C1O10723 inlet

2A13A112074 inlet and exhaust

ORG22.1.18.C1B255 inlet

ORG3.2.18.C1B813 inlet

ORG2.2.18.C2C441 inlet

ORG3.2.17.C1B762 inlet

ORG30.1.18.C2B11032 inlet

ORG29.1.19.C2A10246 inlet

ORG2.2.18.C2B146 exhaust

ORG9.1.18.C2B2816 inlet

2A13L283019 compression

VV20.11.17.C1B150 inlet

ORG31.1.18C1C11364 inlet

ORG29.1.18.C2A10249 compression

2A13B053169 inlet

2A13B061034 exhaust

2A13A292113 compression

ORG3.2.18.C1C556 inlet

ORG24.1.18.H88C1 compression

VV18.1.18C1C116 exhaust

ORG29.1.18.C1B9966 surface damage

2A13A023083 inlet

ORG28.1.18.C1C9708 inlet

089X110118C1 inlet

ORG11.1.18.C13728 compression

056Y170118C1 surface damage

ORG3.2.18.C1B747 compression

ORG27.1.18.C2C9596 compression

VV14.12.17.C2B004 surface damage

ORG17.11.17.C1B7627 Exhaust

2A13M173032 inlet

ORG3.2.18.C1B796 inlet

ORG.30.1.18.C1A10388 inlet

ORG4.1.18.C2C1067 inlet

ORG6.1.18.C1C1879 surface damage

VV12.1.18.C1A052 surface damage

ORG31.1.18.C2C11667 inlet

ORG23.8.17.C1B9083 inlet

ORG11.1.18.C2C3770 exhaust

ORG6.1.18.C2A1569 inlet

005X130118C1 surface damage

VV15.12.17.C213017 compression

VV11.2.18.C1C133 surface damage

2A13M153079 surface damage

ORG17.11.17.C1B7627 Exhaust

Defect Cylinder Head Analysis 500cc:

Serial number Defect

2A64B032046 inlet

2A44B053025 inlet and exhaust

2A44B072047 inlet

2A64B033042 exhaust

2A64B032066 inlet

2A64M183007 compression

2A64A272064 compression

2A64A272080 compression

2AA4M083003 inlet

2A64A062017 exhaust

2AA4K282075 inlet

2A64A272070 machining gap

2A64A292048 inlet

2A64A261088 inlet

2A64A261078 inlet

2A44A281005 exhaust

2A44M192079 exhaust

2A44A273042 compression

2A44A273046 compression

2A44B031014 inlet and exhaust

2A64B011008 inlet

2A44B022058 exhaust

2A44B031013 inlet and exhaust

2A44A313006 inlet

2A44A243091 inlet

2A64A313027 inlet

2A44B022064 inlet

2A44A243058 exhaust

2A64M293049 inlet

2A44B031003 exhaust

2AA4B022032 inlet

2A64A282040 inlet

2A64A302006 inlet

2A64A282039 exhaust

2A64A216075 inlet

2A64A043018 inlet

2A64A022031 inlet

2A64A052001 inlet

2A64M122027 exhaust

2A94L282058 inlet

2A64A053048 exhaust

2A94L282053 inlet

2A64A043020 inlet

2A64A052064 inlet

2A64A022011 exhaust

2AA4L162023 inlet

2A64A312010 inlet

2A64A311098 inlet

2A64A062036 exhaust

2A64A272069 inlet

2A64M183031 inlet

2A64A043040 inlet

2A64A052041 inlet

2A64A272036 inlet

 Observed values of 500CC in assembly line:


1 4.1 0.3 4.3

2 4.3 1 4.6

3 4.6 4.3 5.1

4 4.5 7.1 4.7

5 6.2 3 4.8

6 5.3 2.6 4.8

7 0.3 0.4 9.1

8 0.5 1.2 7.6

9 0.5 1.3 3.7

10 2.1 3.3 9.6

11 1 1.6 2.1

12 0.1 0.1 2.1

13 0.4 1 0

14 1.4 2.8 9.2

15 2.5 3.5 1.5

16 0.5 1.4 7.9

17 0.4 0.5 0.5

18 6.1 6.4 6.2

19 0.9 1.6 0.6

20 1.2 3 9.7

21 1.7 3.1 6.9

22 0.5 1.6 6

 Observed values of 350CC in assembly line:


1 0.8 2.9 5.4

2 0.1 0.1 4.3

3 3.6 1.2 4.7

4 3.8 0.3 4.6

5 2.2 1.9 5.6

6 9.3 0.7 4.4

7 1.5 1.7 5

8 0 0.6 4.2

9 0 0 5.5

10 8.2 3.6 5.5

11 5.6 4.3 4.9

12 3.1 1.8 5.1

13 2.9 0.6 3.9

14 1.4 1.4 5.3

15 1.4 0.9 4.9

16 3.9 2.5 5.6

17 0.6 0.8 4.3

18 7 4.3 5.1

19 5.9 2.6 4.8

20 5.1 3.1 4.8

21 5.7 2.3 4.9

22 1.2 1 5.9

23 0.7 1.4 3.2

24 0.4 2.1 4.4

25 1.9 1.9 5.6

26 3.4 6.1 4.6

27 4.7 4 4.7

28 2.4 1.4 5

29 4.6 4.2 4.4

30 1.6 1.7 5

31 3.7 2 4.1

32 0.8 1.8 5.3

33 2.1 1.1 4.5

34 0.3 0.6 5.4

35 5.7 4.2 0.8

36 0.7 3.45 0

37 1.4 1.7 4.8

38 0.3 0.3 4.1

39 0.6 0.1 4.7

40 2.2 6 4.4

41 2.1 2.2 4.4

42 0.3 1.2 5

43 0.5 2.8 5.6

44 0.1 0.3 4.9

45 0.5 0.3 5.5

46 0.6 0.1 3.2

47 0.8 0.6 5

48 0.3 0.5 5.1

49 3.2 2.2 5.5

50 1.9 0.3 4.9

51 1.7 0.1 5.1

52 2.7 0.8 5.1

53 2.6 2.5 5.6

54 0 2.2 4.1

55 3.2 4 4.9

56 0 0 4.8

57 7.5 7.3 5.3

58 0.1 0.3 5.9

59 0.5 0.8 4.5

60 0.2 1 4.6

61 1.2 0.3 4.4

62 1.2 1.5 4.7


To provide a world class education in mechanical engineering through innovation,
excellence in teaching and research
To impart high quality technical education and develop Mechanical Engineers with all round
knowledge of multi-disciplinary branches of engineering and technology to foster skill sets required
to be a global professional in the areas of industry, research and technology management.
To provide students with sound foundation in the mathematical, scientific and engineering
fundamentals necessary to formulate, analyse and solve engineering problems and to prepare them
for graduate studies and for successful careers in industry.
To impart students with skills for design, improvement and installation of Mechanical and
allied integrated systems of men and material.
To educate the students on designing the modern mechanical systems and expose them to
industrial practices for better employability and adaptability.
To instil the values, skills, leadership and team spirit for comprehensive and wholesome
personality, to promote entrepreneurial interest among students and to create a fervour for use of
Engineering in addressing societal concerns.

Engineering Graduates will be able to:
1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering
fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering
2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyse complex
engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of
mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.
3. Design/development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and
design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate
consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental

4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research
methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of
the information to provide valid conclusions.
5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern
engineering and IT tools including prediction and modelling to complex engineering activities
with an understanding of the limitations.
6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess
societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant
to the professional engineering practice.
7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering
solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need
for sustainable development.
8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and
norms of the engineering practice.
9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader
in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the
engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write
effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and
receive clear instructions.
11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the
engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and
leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.
12. Life-long learning: Recognize the need for and have the preparation and ability to engage in
independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change.
1. To innovate a Mechanical System which meets the desired specifications and requirements
using CAE tools.
2. To explore alternate materials for automobile, manufacturing and process industries
3. To lead professional career in industries or an entrepreneur by applying Engineering and
Management principles and practices.

1. To relate the theoretical and experimental studies.
2. To solve new problem in design and manufacture of a device, a research investigation, a
computer or management project with a concern for society.
3. To apply engineering knowledge to solve real time problems in engineering industry.
4. To develop teamwork, lifelong learning, communication and project management capabilities.
5. To demonstrate the progress/ completion of the project in conferences.

1. Ability to relate the theoretical and experimental studies.
2. Ability to solve new problem in design and manufacture of a device, a research investigation,
a computer or management project with a concern for society.
3. Ability to apply engineering knowledge to solve real time problems in engineering industry.
4. Ability to develop teamwork, lifelong learning, communication and project management
5. Ability to demonstrate the progress/ completion of the project in conferences.