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The Legacy of Srinivasa Ramanujan In his well–known paper in Proc. London Math. Soc.,

Viceregal Lodge, University of Delhi 1915, Ramanujan defined and studied highly composite

numbers. A highly composite number is a positive integer m

December 17 - 22, 2012 with more divisors than any positive integer smaller than m.

This work was pursued in 1944 by L. Alaoglu and P. Erdős

(On highly composite and similar numbers, Trans. Amer.

From highly composite numbers Math. Soc.), who raised a question which is related with this

topic and which belongs to transcendental number theory.

to transcendental number theory A simple instance is the following open question : does

by there exist a real irrational number t such that 2t and 3t are

integers ?

Michel Waldschmidt We plan to survey the development of this problem.

http://www.math.jussieu.fr/⇠miw/

1 / 90 2 / 90

Srinivasa Ramanujan Proc. London Math. Soc. 1915 (2) 14, 347–409

On highly composite and similar numbers

Proc. London Math. Soc. 1915 (2) 14, 347–409

JFM 45.0286.02

3 / 90 4 / 90

HIGHLY COl\IPOSITE 347

HIGHLY COMPOSITE

By S. RA l\IANUJAN.

[Read June 11th , 1914.-Received November 1st , 1914.- by Jean-Louis Nicolas and Guy Robin. Ramanujan J. 1, No. 2,

Received , in revised form , March 10th, 1915.]

CONTENTS.

119-153 (1997).

I. 1. and of results.

II , 2-5. 1'esuUs concerning the order of d (N).

2. ’'r h e order of d (N) when the prime divisors of N are known.

3. The order of d (N) when the number of prime divisors is known.

4-5. The order of d (N) when nothing is known about N.

III. 6-3 1. The st l'uctw'e of “mbers.

n

6. Definition of a highly composite number.

7. A table of the first 102 highly composite numbers.

8. Pirst standard form of a highly composite number. The index of the largest

prime divisor.

n. Alternative standard form of a highly composite number.

10-24. The indices of the prime divisors in the fip standard form.

,;t

28. The ratio of two consecutive highly composite numbers.

29. The form of d (N) for highly composite values of N.

30. The order of dd (N) for highly composite values of N.

3 1. Some apparently paradoxical forms of d (N) in the table.

IV. 32-38. Superi01' composite nmnbers.

32. Definition of a superiol' highly composite number.

33. The exact form of a superior highly composite number.

34. The number of divisors of a superior highly composite number.

35. The maximum value of d for a given value of x.

36. Consecutive superior highly composite numbers.

37. The number of superior highly composite numbers less than a given numbor.

A table of the first 50 superior highly composite numbers.

38. Superior highly composite numbers and the maximum o l'der of d (N).

V. 39-45. to the oj’ the m'del' of d (N).

39. The maximum order of d (N) , assuming the prime number theorem.

40-43. The maximum order of d (N) , assuming the Riemann hy’ p o t h e s i s .

* I am indebted to Mr. Hardy for valuable suggestion:; and assistance in preparing this

paper.

5 / 90 6 / 90

Jean-Louis Nicolas and Guy Robin The sequence of highly composite numbers

Ramanujan, Srinivasa. Highly composite numbers. Annotated

by Jean-Louis Nicolas and Guy Robin. Ramanujan J. 1, No. 2,

1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 720, . . .

119-153 (1997).

In 1915, the London Mathematical Society published in its Number of divisors

Proceedings a paper of Ramanujan entitled “Highly composite

numbers” [Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (2) 14, 347–409 (1915 ; 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 24, 30, 32, . . .

JFM 45.0286.02)]. But it was not the whole work on the

subject, and in “The lost notebook and other unpublished http://oeis.org/A002182 http://oeis.org/A002183

papers”, one can find a manuscript, handwritten by

Ramanujan, which is the continuation of the paper published

by the London Mathematical Society.

This paper is the typed version of the above mentioned

manuscript with some notes, mainly explaining the link

between the work of Ramanujan and the works published after

1915 on the subject.

Neil J. A. Sloane

6 / 90 7 / 90

The divisor function d(n) The divisor function d(n)

P

The divisor function d(n) = d|n 1:

P

The divisor function d(n) = d|n 1:

n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d(n) = 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 3

n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d(n) = 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 3

Prime numbers : d(n) = 2 :

http://oeis.org/A000005 n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 2, 4, 3, 4, 2, 6, 2, 4, 4, 5, 2, 6, 2, 6, 4, 4, 2, 8, 3, 4, 4, 6, . . . d(n) = 2 2 2 2

http://oeis.org/A000040

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, . . .

8 / 90 8 / 90

P

The divisor function d(n) = d|n 1:

n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 At Y

d(n) = 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 3 n = pa11 · · · pas s = pa(p) ,

p

0 (n)

• Highly composite numbers : A highly composite number is a

positive integer m with more divisors than any positive Y

d(n) = (a1 + 1) · · · (as + 1) = (a(p) + 1).

integer smaller than m.

p

n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d(n) = 1 2 3 4

8 / 90 9 / 90

Highly composite numbers The smallest highly composite numbers

n d(n)

• Highly composite numbers : A highly composite number is a 1 = 1 1

positive integer with more divisors than any smaller positive 2 = 2 2

integer. 4 = 22 3

Sequence of highly composite numbers 6 = 2·3 4

12 = 22 · 3 6

n = 1 2 4 6 12 24 36 48 60 . . . 24 = 23 · 3 8

d(n) = 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 12 . . . 36 = 22 · 32 9

48 = 24 · 3 10

http://oeis.org/A002182 60 = 22 · 3 · 5 12

1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 720, 840, . . . 120 = 23 · 3 · 5 16

This sequence is infinite : since 2n has more divisors than n, if 180 = 22 · 32 · 5 18

n is a highly composite number, then there is a highly 240 = 24 · 3 · 5 20

composite number larger than n and at most 2n. 360 = 23 · 32 · 5 24

720 = 24 · 32 · 5 30

840 = 23 · 3 · 5 · 7 32

10 / 90 11 / 90

• A B–smooth number is an integer which factors completely

into prime numbers B. (Used in cryptography).

Highly composite numbers are smooth numbers.

• An abundant number is a number for which the sum of its

proper divisors is greater than the number itself.

A highly composite number higher than 6 is also an

abundant number.

Let Q(x) be the number of highly composite numbers x. http://oeis.org/A005101

Pál Erdős (1944) : 12, 18, 20, 24, 30, 36, 40, 42, 48, 54, 56, 60, 66, 70, 72, 78, . . .

Q(x) (log x)a . • A practical number is a positive integer n such that all

smaller positive integers can be represented as sums of distinct

Jean-Louis Nicolas (1988) : divisors of n.

Every highly composite number is a practical number.

Q(x) (log x)b . http://oeis.org/A005153

1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30, 32, 36, 40, 42, 48, 54, . . .

12 / 90 13 / 90

Sum of divisors Superabundant numbers

• Superabundant number :

Sum of divisors :

X (n) (k)

> for k < n.

(n) = 1 (n) = d. n k

d|n

Sequence http://oeis.org/A004394 in OEIS:

http://oeis.org/A000203 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 720, 840, . . .

1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 12, 8, 15, 13, 18, 12, 28, 14, 24, 24, 31, 18, 39, . . . Leonidas Alaoglu and Pál Erdős (1944).

a(p) 1

For n= p , (n) = · Unknown to Alaoglu and Erdős, about 30 pages of

p p

p 1 Ramanujan’s 1915 paper ”Highly Composite Numbers” were

• Perfect number : (n) = 2n. suppressed. Those pages were finally published in The

• Abundant number : (n) > 2n. Ramanujan Journal 1 (1997), 119-153. In section 59 of that

paper, Ramanujan defines generalized highly composite

numbers, which include the superabundant numbers.

14 / 90 15 / 90

Ramanujan (1915) listed 102

highly composite numbers up

to 6 746 328 388 800, but

omitted 293 318 625 600.

On highly composite and

similar numbers, Trans. AMS

56 (3), 1944, 448–469.

super abundant numbers,

colossally abundant numbers.

16 / 90 17 / 90

Alaoglu and Erdős Colossally abundant numbers

• Colossally abundant number : a positive integer n for which

there exists " > 0 such that, for all k > 1,

. . .this makes q x rational. It is very likely that q x and px can (n) (k)

not be rational at the same time except if x is an integer. This ·

n1+" k 1+"

would show that the quotient of two consecutive colossally

abundant numbers is a prime. At present we can not show Sequence A004490 in OEIS:

this. Professor Siegel has communicated to us the result that 2, 6, 12, 60, 120, 360, 2520, 5040, 55440, 720720, 1441440, . . .

q x , rx and sx cannot be simultaneously rational except if x is Successive quotients : 3, 2, 5, 2, 3, 7, 2, 11, 13, 2, . . .

an integer. Hence the quotient of two consecutive colossally

abundant numbers is either a prime or the product of two 2 6 12 60 120

distinct primes. 3 2 5 2 3

7 2 11 13

18 / 90 19 / 90

2t may be algebraic and t not an integer Special case of the four exponentials Conjecture

log 1729

Example : For t = , we have 2t = 1729 2 Z, but

log 2

Conjecture [Special case of the four exponentials Conjecture]

t

3 = exp((log 3)(log 1729)/ log 2) = 135451.44 . . . Let p and q be two distinct prime numbers. If t is a real

number such that pt and q t are both algebraic, then t is a

is not an integer. rational number.

Also 3t is an integer for some values of t not in Z – for

log 691

instance for t = · But then Theorem [Special case of the Six Exponentials Theorem]

log 3 If the three numbers pt , q t and rt are algebraic for three

2t = exp((log 2)(log 691)/ log 3) = 61.87 . . . distinct primes p, q, r, then t is a rational number.

Can these values of t be the same producing integer values for abundant numbers is either a prime or a product of two

both 2t and 3t ? distinct primes.

Let t be a real number such that 2t and 3t are integers. Does

it follow that t is a positive integer ?

20 / 90 21 / 90

1972 Putnam Prize Competition Carl Ludwig Siegel and Serge Lang

Using the calculus of finite di↵erences, show that, if t 2 R is

such that nt 2 Z for all n 1, then t 2 N.

First method H. Halberstam. – Transcendental numbers ;

The Mathematical Gazette 58 (1976), 276–284.

(1896 - 1981) (1927 - 2005)

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/

Second method R. Balasubramanian. cf. M. Waldschmidt. Mathematicians/Siegel.html

– Linear independence of logarithms of algebraic numbers.

The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Madras, IMSc Mathematicians/Lang.html

Report N 116, (1992), 168 pp.

22 / 90 23 / 90

transcendental numbers

[1968].– Contributions to the

theory of transcendental

numbers (I) ; Acta Arith., 14

(1968), 65–72 ; (II), id., 73–88.

http://matwbn.icm.edu.pl/tresc.php?wyd=6&tom=14

24 / 90 25 / 90

K. Ramachandra (1933–2011) Ramachandra’s house in Bangalore

in Bangalore in memory of K. Ramachandra.

26 / 90 27 / 90

Set 2t = a and 3t = b. Then the determinant

log 2 log 3

log a log b

vanishes.

Four exponentials Conjecture. Let

0 1

log ↵1 log ↵2

@ A

log 1 log 2

Atle Selberg

be a 2 ⇥ 2 matrix whose entries are logarithms of algebraic

1917 - 2007

numbers. Assume the two columns are Q -linearly independent

and the two rows are also Q -linearly independent. Then the

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Selberg.html

matrix is regular.

28 / 90 29 / 90

Four exponentials Conjecture and first problem of Introduction aux Nombres Transcendants

Schneider

Problem 1 :

Theodor Schneider

log ↵1 log ↵3

= Einführung in die

log ↵2 log ↵4

Transzendenten Zahlen

Problem 8 : One at least of Springer, 1957.

the two numbers

Traduction française par

e2

ee , e . Pierre Eymard

Gauthier-Villars, 1959

is transcendental.

30 / 90 31 / 90

if it can be written 0 1

x1 y1 x1 y2

@ A Set ↵ij = exi yj for i, j = 1, 2. Then the matrix

x2 y1 x2 y2 0 1 0 1

log ↵11 log ↵12 x1 y1 x1 y2

with x1 , x2 , y1 , y2 in C. @ A=@ A

log ↵21 log ↵22 x2 y1 x2 y2

For such a matrix, the two rows are linearly independent over

has rank 1.

Q if and only if x1 and x2 are linearly independent over Q

(means : x2 /x1 is irrational), while the two colums are linearly

independent over Q if and only if y1 and y2 are linearly

independent over Q (means : y2 /y1 is irrational).

32 / 90 33 / 90

Four exponentials Conjecture Six exponentials Theorem

Conjecture. Let x1 , x2 be Q–linearly independent complex Theorem (Siegel, Lang, Ramachandra). Let x1 , x2 be two

numbers and y1 , y2 be also Q–linearly independent complex Q–linearly independent complex numbers and y1 , y2 , y3 be also

numbers. Then one at least of the four numbers Q–linearly independent complex numbers. Then one at least

of the 6 numbers

ex1 y1 , ex1 y2 , ex2 y1 , ex2 y2

e xi yj , (i = 1, 2, j = 1, 2, 3)

is transcendental.

is transcendental.

34 / 90 35 / 90

Let d and ` be positive integers with d` > d + `. This means

d 2 and ` 3 or d 3 and ` 2.

Theorem. Let x1 , . . . , xd be Q–linearly independent complex

Theorem (Siegel, Lang, Ramachandra). Let numbers and y1 , . . . , y` be also Q–linearly independent

0 1 complex numbers. Then one at least of the d` numbers

log ↵1 log ↵2 log ↵3

@ A

e xi y j , (1 i d, 1 j `)

log 1 log 2 log 3

is transcendental.

be a 2 ⇥ 3 matrix whose entries are logarithms of algebraic Equivalently :

numbers. Assume the three columns are linearly independent If the entries of a d ⇥ ` matrix

over Q and the two rows are also linearly independent over Q.

Then the matrix has rank 2. log ↵ij 1id, 1j`

-linearly independent and the ` columns are also Q -linearly

independent, then the matrix has rank 2.

36 / 90 37 / 90

2 3 k

Transcendence of 2t, 2t , 2t Transcendence of 2t

With

In the six exponentials Theorem, select x1 = 1, x2 = t a

x1 = 1, x2 = t and

y1 = log 2, y2 = tb log 2, y3 = tc log 2

and where t is a transcendental number and a, c > b are positive

y1 = log 2, y2 = t log 2, y3 = t2 log 2 integers, one deduce the transcendence of one at least of the

where t is an irrational number. The numbers exi yj are 2, 2t , numbers

a b c a+b a+c

2 3 2 3

2t , 2t , hence one at least of the three numbers 2t , 2t , 2t is 2t , 2t , 2t , 2t 2t .

transcendental. For instance with c = a + b it follows that for a and b positive

integers, one at least of the numbers

In case t is algebraic, these three numbers are transcendental a b a+b 2a+b

(Gel’fond–Schneider’s Theorem). 2t , 2t , 2t 2t .

is transcendental.

38 / 90 39 / 90

k

Is 2⇡ transcendental ? Algebraic approximations to 2⇡ (T.N. Shorey)

n

One conjectures that all numbers 2⇡ (n 1) are When ↵1 , ↵2 , ↵3 are algebraic

transcendental. numbers, T.N. Shorey (1974)

gave a lower bound for

2 3

|2⇡ ↵1 | + |2⇡ ↵2 | + |2⇡ ↵3 |

A special case of the four exponentials Conjecture is that one in terms of the heights and

2

at least of the two numbers 2⇡ , 2⇡ is transcendental. degrees of ↵1 , ↵2 , ↵3 .

[T.N. Shorey, 1974].– On the sum 3k=1 |2⇡

k

2 3 ↵k |, ↵k algebraic

three numbers 2⇡ , 2⇡ , 2⇡ is transcendental.

numbers, J. Number Theory 6 (1974), 248-260.

40 / 90 41 / 90

k k

Algebraic approximations to 2⇡ (S. Srinivasan) Algebraic numbers among 2⇡

k

number of algebraic numbers among the numbers 2⇡ , Number of algebraic numbers among the numbers 2⇡ ,

k

(1 k N ). : p (1 k N ) :

O N . p

(2 + ✏) N

k

.

[Srinivasan, 1974].– On algebraic approximations to 2⇡

(k = 1, 2, 3, . . .) ; Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 5 (1974), [K. Ramachandra and S. Srinivasan, 1983].– A note to a paper by

513–523. Ramachandra on transcendental numbers ; Hardy-Ramanujan

Journal, 6 (1983), 37–44.

k

[Srinivasan, 1979].– On algebraic approximations to 2⇡

(k = 1, 2, 3, . . .), (II) ; J. Indian Math. Soc., 43 (1979), 53–60.

42 / 90 43 / 90

k

Algebraic numbers among 2⇡ The five exponentials Theorem (1985)

k

Number of algebraic numbers among the numbers 2⇡ ,

(1 k N ) : p p

( 2 + ✏) N

. Theorem Let x1 , x2 be two Q–linearly independent complex

numbers and y1 , y2 be also two Q–linearly independent

complex numbers. Then one at least of the 5 numbers

is transcendental.

Transcendental numbers and a lemma in combinatorics ; Proc.

Sem. Combinatorics and Applications, Indian Stat. Inst.,

(1982), 57–59.

44 / 90 45 / 90

The five exponentials Theorem (matrix form) The field Q, the Q–space L and the Q–space Le

Theorem (1985). Let M be a 2 ⇥ 3 matrix whose entries are We denote by Q the field of algebraic numbers.

either algebraic numbers or logarithms of algebraic numbers.

Assume the three columns are linearly independent over Q and Denote by L the Q-vector subspace of C of logarithms of

the two rows are also linearly independent over Q. Then M algebraic numbers : it consists of the complex numbers for

has rank 2. which e is algebraic (say = log ↵).

Assume exi yj = ↵ij are algebraic for i, j = 1, 2 and that also Further denote by Le the Q-vector space spanned by 1 and L :

ex2 /x1 = is algebraic. Then the 2 ⇥ 3 matrix hence Le is the set of linear combinations with algebraic

0 1 0 1 coefficients of logarithms of algebraic numbers :

log ↵11 log ↵12 1 x1 y1 x1 y2 1

@ A=@ A Le = {⇤ = 0 + 1 1 + ··· + n n ; n 0, i 2 Q, i 2 L}.

log ↵21 log ↵22 log x2 y1 x2 y1 x2 /x1

46 / 90 47 / 90

The Strong Six Exponentials Theorem The Strong Four Exponentials Conjecture

Theorem (D.Roy, 1992). If x1 , x2 are Q–linearly independent Conjecture. If x1 , x2 are Q–linearly independent complex

complex numbers and y1 , y2 , y3 are Q–linearly independent numbers and y1 , y2 are Q–linearly independent complex

complex numbers, then one at least of the six numbers numbers, then one at least of the four numbers

x1 y1 , x 1 y2 , x 1 y3 , x 2 y1 , x 2 y2 , x 2 y3 x1 y1 , x 1 y2 , x 2 y1 , x 2 y2

e

is not in L. e

is not in L.

48 / 90 49 / 90

Lower bound for the rank of matrices The strong Six Exponentials Theorem

References :

I Rank of matrices. An alternative form of the strong Six

Exponentials Theorem (resp. the strong four exponentials

Conjecture) is the fact that a 2 ⇥ 3 (resp. 2 ⇥ 2) matrix D. Roy – ⌧ Matrices whose coefficients are linear forms

with entries in Le in logarithms , J. Number Theory 41 (1992), no. 1,

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ p. 22–47.

⇤11 ⇤12 ⇤13 ⇤11 ⇤12

(resp. ),

⇤21 ⇤22 ⇤23 ⇤21 ⇤22

M. Waldschmidt – Diophantine approximation on

the rows of which are linearly independent over Q and the linear algebraic groups, Grundlehren der Mathematischen

columns of which are also linearly independent over Q, Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical

has maximal rank 2. Sciences], vol. 326, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000.

50 / 90 51 / 90

The six exponentials Theorem has been generalized in 1980 to

lower bounds for the rank of matrices of any size.

In 1992, D. Roy extended this result to matrices with entries Le

Under suitable assumptions, the rank r of a d ⇥ ` matrix with (linear combinations of 1 and logarithms of algebraic

entries in L (logarithms of algebraic numbers) satisfies numbers).

d`

r ,

d+`

More precisely, D. Roy defines the structural rank rstr (M ) of a

which is half of what is expected. matrix M with entries in Le and proves that the rank r of M

Hence, when d = `, satisfies :

d 1

r · r rstr (M ).

2 2

(cf lecture by C. Khare).

52 / 90 53 / 90

Schanuel’s Conjecture Dale Brownawell and Stephen Schanuel

Then at least n of the 2n numbers x1 , . . . , xn , ex1 , . . . , exn are

algebraically independent.

measure) the transcendence degree is 2n.

54 / 90 55 / 90

Course given by Serge Lang algebraically independent :

(1927–2005) at Columbia in

the 60’s

2 e 2 ⇡

e + ⇡, e⇡, ⇡ e , ee , ee , . . . , ee , . . . , ⇡ ⇡ , ⇡ ⇡ , . . . ⇡ ⇡ . . .

log ⇡, log(log 2), ⇡ log 2, (log 2)(log 3), 2log 2 , (log 2)log 3 . . .

S. Lang – Introduction to transcendental numbers,

Addison-Wesley 1966.

56 / 90 57 / 90

Further consequences of Schanuel’s Conjecture Ubiquity of Schanuel’s Conjecture

Other contexts : p–adic numbers, Leopoldt’s Conjecture on

Ram Murty Kumar Murty N. Saradha the p–adic rank of the units of an algebraic number field

Non-vanishing of Regulators

Non–degenerescence of heights

Conjecture of B. Mazur on rational points

Diophantine approximation on tori

values, of log Gamma values, . . .

Joint works of R. Murty with S. Gun and P. Rath (2008,

2009).

58 / 90 59 / 90

For n = 1, Schanuel’s Conjecture is the Hermite–Lindemann (1822 – 1901) (1852 – 1939)

Theorem :

If x is a non–zero complex numbers, then one at

least of the 2 numbers x, ex is transcendental.

transcendental number.

Another equivalent statement is that if ↵ is a non–zero

algebraic number and log ↵ any non–zero logarithm of ↵, then

log ↵ is a transcendental number.

Consequence : transcendence of numbers like

Hermite (1873) : Lindemann (1882) :

p

e, ⇡, log 2, e . 2 Transcendance de e Transcendance de ⇡

e = 2, 718 281 . . . ⇡ = 3, 141 592 . . .

60 / 90 61 / 90

Schanuel’s Conjecture for n = 2 Lindemann Weierstraß

Lindemann–Weierstraß Theorem = case where x1 , . . . , xn are

For n = 2 Schanuel’s Conjecture is not yet known : algebraic.

? If x1 , x2 are Q–linearly independent complex

numbers, then among the 4 numbers x1 , x2 , ex1 , ex2 ,

at least 2 are algebraically independent.

A few consequences :

With x1 = 1, x2 = i⇡ : algebraic independence of e and ⇡.

With x1 = 1, x2 = e : algebraic independence of e and ee .

With x1 = log 2, x2 = (log 2)2 : algebraic independence of

log 2 and 2log 2 .

With x1 = log 2, x2 = log 3 : algebraic independence of log 2 Let 1 , . . . , n be algebraic numbers which are linearly

and log 3. independent over Q. Then the numbers e 1 , . . . , e n are

algebraically independent over Q.

62 / 90 63 / 90

numbers numbers

One of the main problems in transcendental number theory is

numbers which are algebraically independent.

to prove that Q –linearly independent logarithms of algebraic

numbers are algebraically independent. Such a result would

Even the non–existence of non–trivial quadratic relations solve the question of the rank of matrices having entries in the

among logarithms of algebraic numbers is not yet established. space of logarithms of algebraic numbers.

According to the four exponentials Conjecture, any quadratic Baker’s results provide a satisfactory answer for the linear

relation (log ↵1 )(log ↵4 ) = (log ↵2 )(log ↵3 ) is trivial : either independence of such numbers over the field of algebraic

log ↵1 and log ↵2 are linearly dependent, or else log ↵1 and numbers. But he says nothing about algebraic independence.

log ↵3 are linearly dependent.

64 / 90 65 / 90

Roy’s Theorem (1999) A result of Damien Roy

independence of logarithms is Let k be a field and P 2 k[X1 , . . . , Xn ] a polynomial in n

equivalent to the question of variables. Then there exists a square matrix M , whose entries

the rank of matrices with are linear polynomials in 1, X1 , . . . , Xn , such that P is the

entries logarithms of algebraic determinant of M .

numbers.

66 / 90 67 / 90

Ch. Hermite, F. Lindemann, C.L. Siegel, A.O. Gel’fond, Strategy suggested by D. Roy

Th. Schneider, A. Baker, S. Lang, W.D. Brownawell, in 1999, Journées

D.W. Masser, D. Bertrand, G.V. Chudnovsky, P. Philippon, Arithmétiques, Roma :

G. Wüstholz, Yu.V. Nesterenko, D. Roy.

Conjecture equivalent to

Schanuel’s Conjecture.

68 / 90 69 / 90

Transcendence of p–adic numbers – open Leopoldt’s Conjecture

problems

The p–adic analog of Lindemann–Weierstrass’s Theorem on

independence of the exponentials of algebraic numbers is not rank logp i (✏j ) =r

known.

r = r1 + r 2 1

p–adic analog of Dirichlet’s unit Theorem : p–adic rank of the Heinrich-Wolfgang Leopoldt

units of an algebraic number field, Leopoldt’s Conjecture, (August 22, 1927 – July 28,

p–adic regulator. 2011)

70 / 90 71 / 90

of a number field does not vanish. It was proved for the

abelian case in 1967 by Brumer, using Baker theory. If the

Date : Fri, 8 May 2009

Leopoldt conjecture is false for a galois field K, there is a

14 :52 :57 GMT (16kb)

phantom Zp - extension of K1 arising. We show that this is

strictly correlated to some infinite Hilbert class fields over K1 ,

Title : On Leopoldt’s which are generated at intermediate levels by roots from units

conjecture and some from the base fields. It turns out that the extensions of this

consequences type have bounded degree. This implies the Leopoldt

conjecture for arbitrary finite number fields.

Author : Preda Mihăilescu

Preda Mihăilescu

72 / 90 73 / 90

http ://arxiv.org/abs/0905.1274v2 http ://arxiv.org/abs/0905.1274v3

Replaced with revised version Replaced with revised version

Date : Sat, 27 Jun 2009 17 :57 :24 GMT (33kb) Date : Tue, 15 Sep 2009 08 :01 :02 GMT (69kb)

Title : The T and T ⇤ components of ⇤ - modules and Title : The T and T ⇤ components of ⇤ - modules and

Leopoldt’s conjecture Leopoldt’s conjecture

Author : Preda Mihăilescu

Comments : Modified third version. Largely extended the build

Comments : Modified second version. Added many details of up and proofs and added an Appendix for the technical details.

proofs. The final argument is modified and the proof now Contains now the Kummer theory of class field radicals needed

extends also to the conjecture of Gross. for the proofs of the Leopoldt and Gross-Kuz’min Conjectures.

74 / 90 75 / 90

Date : Tue, 15 Sep 2009 08 :09 :10 GMT (11kb)

Cite as : arXiv :0905.1274v4

Title : Applications of Baker Theory to the Conjecture of

Date : Sat, 27 Jun 2009 17 :57 :24 GMT (33kb) Leopoldt

(Submitted on 8 May 2009 (v1), last revised 20 Sep 2010 (this Authors : Preda Mihăilescu

version, v4)) Comments : A proof variant for the Leopoldt conjecture, using

Diophantine approximation. The final step of the proof uses class

Title : The T and T ⇤ components of ⇤ - modules and field theory and for this we draw back on some results from the

Leopoldt’s conjecture third version of arXiv :0905.1274

In this paper we use Baker theory for giving an alternative proof of

Author : Preda Mihăilescu

Leopoldt’s Conjecture for totally real extensions K. This approach

Comments : In the fourth version there is a modification of uses a formulation of the Conjecture for relative extensions which

Proposition 5 which supports the final argument of proof of can be proved by Diophantine approximation and reduces the

Leopoldt’s conjecture. Please note also the new series problem to the fact that the module of classes containing products

“Seminar Notes on Open Questions in Iwasawa Theory” of p - units, is finite. The proof of this fact is elementary, but

(snoqit). requires class field theory. The methods used here are a sharpening

of the ones presented at the SANT meeting in Göttingen, 2008

76 / 90 and exposed in [M1] and [M2] 77 / 90

http ://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5989 Problem of K. Mahler et Yu Manin

conjecture of Gross - Kuz’min, for CM extensions of Q. The main

topic of the paper is the investigation of the growth of order and

ranks at finite levels of some Lambda modules (p-parts of ideal

class groups).

SNOQIT : Seminar Notes on Open Questions in Iwasawa Kurt Mahler Yuri Manin

Theory

78 / 90 79 / 90

Yu.V.Nesterenko (1996)

Algebraic independence of

A special case of a conjecture (1/4), ⇡ and e⇡ .

by Ramachandra generalizing Also : Algebraic

the four exponentials independence of p

conjecture to elliptic (1/3), ⇡ and e⇡ 3 .

functions : problem of Mahler

and Manin, solved by

K. Barré–Siriex, G. Diaz, Corollary : The numbers ⇡ = 3.141 592 653 5 . . . and

F. Gramain and G. Philibert e⇡ = 23.140 692 632 7 . . . are algebraically independent.

(1996).

Transcendence of values of Dirichlet’s L–functions :

Sanoli Gun, Ram Murty and Purusottam Rath (2009).

François Gramain

80 / 90 81 / 90

References on density questions related to the

Mazur’s problem four exponentials Conjecture and the six

exponentials Theorem

varieties transcendance , J. Number Theory 97 (2002), no. 2,

Special case of algebraic p. 204–221.

groups : generalization of the J.-L. Colliot-Thélène, A. N. Skorobogatov &

four exponentials conjecture. P. Swinnerton-Dyer – ⌧ Double fibres and double

covers : paucity of rational points , Acta Arith. 79

Periods of K3 surfaces (2003 (1997), no. 2, p. 113–135.

with H. Shiga)

H. Kisilevsky – ⌧ Ranks of elliptic curves in cubic

Barry Mazur extensions , manuscript, 2007.

82 / 90 82 / 90

Experiment. Math. 1 (1992), no. 1, p. 35–45. question in Diophantine approximation on tori , in

Contributions to automorphic forms, geometry, and

— , ⌧ Questions of decidability and undecidability in

number theory, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore,

number theory , J. Symbolic Logic 59 (1994), no. 2,

MD, 2004, p. 699–709.

p. 353–371.

G. Prasad & A. S. Rapinchuk – ⌧ Zariski-dense

— , ⌧ Speculations about the topology of rational points :

subgroups and transcendental number theory , Math.

an update , Astérisque (1995), no. 228, p. 4, 165–182,

Res. Lett. 12 (2005), no. 2-3, p. 239–249.

Columbia University Number Theory Seminar (New York,

1992).

— , ⌧ Open problems regarding rational points on curves

and varieties , in Galois representations in arithmetic

algebraic geometry (Durham, 1996), London Math. Soc.

Lecture Note Ser., vol. 254, Cambridge Univ. Press,

Cambridge, 1998, p. 239–265.

82 / 90 82 / 90

Density of an additive subgroup of R

D. Roy – ⌧ Simultaneous approximation in number Kronecker : The additive group

fields , Invent. Math. 109 (1992), no. 3, p. 547–556.

Z + Z✓ = a + b✓ ; (a, b) 2 Z2

M. Waldschmidt – ⌧ Densité des points rationnels sur is dense in R if and only if ✓ is irrational (means : 1 and ✓ are

un groupe algébrique , Experiment. Math. 3 (1994), Q linearly independent).

no. 4, p. 329–352.

— , ⌧ On Ramachandra’s contributions to transcendental Example : Z + Ze and Z + Z⇡ are dense in R.

number theory , Ramanujan Mathematical Society

Lecture Notes Series 2 (2006), p. 175–179. Also Z + Ze⇡ + Z(e + ⇡) is dense in R. Hence there exists a

subgroup of rank 2 which is also dense. But no one knows how

to produce one explicitly.

82 / 90 83 / 90

Kronecker : Let ✓1 , . . . , ✓n be real numbers. Then the subgroup

Zn + Z(✓1 , . . . , ✓n )

linearly independent over Q. is the set of tuples

Footnote : According to his own taste, the reader will find a (a1 + a0 ✓1 , . . . , an + a0 ✓n )

reference either in

N. Bourbaki, Eléments de Mathématique, Topologie Générale, with (a0 , a1 , . . . , an ) 2 Zn+1 .

Herman 1974, Chap. VII, § 1, N 1, Prop. 2 ;

or else in

G.H. Hardy and A.M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory

of Numbers, Oxford Sci. Publ., 1938, Chap. XXIII.

84 / 90 85 / 90

Multiplicative groups of (R⇥

+)

n

Density of a multiplicative subgroup of R⇥

+

The multiplicative subgroup of rank 1 of R⇥

+ generated by 2 :

⇢

Multiplicative analog : for positive real numbers ↵ij , 1 1 1 1

(1 i n, 1 j n + 1) consider the set of tuples . . . , , , , , 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .

16 8 4 2

a1 a

↵i,1 n+1

· · · ↵i,n+1 2 (R⇥

+)

n

is not dense in R⇥

1in +,

with (a1 , a2 , . . . , an+1 ) 2 Zn+1 . but the subgroup of rank 2 generated by 2, 3, namely

2a 3b ; (a, b) 2 Z2

Additive vs multiplicative groups : is dense in R⇥

+.

Take exponential or logarithm and change basis.

Explanation : the number (log 2)/(log 3) is irrational.

86 / 90 87 / 90

+)

2

A question from transcendental number theory

Let ↵i and i be positive real numbers. The multiplicative

Equivalent :

subgroup generated by (↵1 , 1 ), (↵2 , 2 ), (↵3 , 3 ) in (R⇥ 2

+) ,

the matrix

namely the set of

✓ ◆

s3 log ↵1 s1 log ↵3 s3 log ↵2 s2 log ↵3

↵1a1 ↵2a2 ↵3a3 , a1 a2 a3

1 2 3 s3 log 1 s1 log 3 s3 log 2 s2 log 3

for (a1 , a2 , a3 ) 2 Z2 , is dense in (R⇥ 2

+ ) if and only if, for any has maximal rank 2.

3

(s1 , s2 , s3 ) 2 Z \ {0}, the 3 ⇥ 3 matrix

0 1

log ↵1 log ↵2 log ↵3 A fundamental problem is to study the rank of matrices with

@ log 1 log 2 log 3 A entries which are logarithms of algebraic numbers.

s1 s2 s3

88 / 90 89 / 90

Example of an open question

p p p

For ↵ = a + b 2 2 Q( 2), write ↵ = a b 2.

Define

p p p

↵1 := 2 2 1, ↵2 := 3 2 1, ↵2 := 4 2 1,

with (a1 , a2 , a3 ) 2 Z3 .

90 / 90

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